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Ahern, J.A. (1993). Exaggerated hyperglycemia after a pizza meal in well-controlled diabetics. Diabetes Care, 16, 578-80.

Chipkin, S., Hugh, S., Chasan-Taber, L. (2001). Exercise and diabetes. Cardiol. Clin., 19, 489-505.

Curtis, S., et al. (1995). Pregnancy effects of non-proteinuric gestational hypertension. SPO Abstracts. Am. J. Obst. Gynecol, 418, 376.

Dye, T.D., Knox, K.L., Artal, R., et al. (1997). Physical activity, obesity, and diabetes in pregnancy. Am. J. Epidemiol., 146(11): 961-5.

Foster-Powell, K., Holt, S.H., Brand-Miller, J.C. (2002). International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 76(1), 5-56.

Gabbe, S.G., Gregory, R.P., Power, M.L., et al. (2004). Management of diabetes mellitus by obstetrician-gynecologists. Obstet. Gynecol., 103(6), 1229-34.

Hellmuth, E., Damm, P., & Moldted-Pederson, L. (2000). Oral hypoglycaemic agents in 118 diabetic pregnancies. Diabetes Med., 17(7), 507-11.

Jarrett, R.J. (1993). Gestational diabetes: a non-entity? BMJ, 306, 37-38.

Jensen, D.M., Sorensen, B., Feilberg-Jorgensen, N., et al. (2000). Maternal and perinatal outcomes in 143 Danish women with gestational diabetes mellitus and 143 controls with a similar risk profile. Diabet. Med., 77(4), 281-6.

Jovanovic, L., Ilic, S., Pettitt, D., et al. (1999). Metabolic and immunologic effects of insulin lispro in gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care, 22, 1422-7.

Kilpatrick, S. (1995). Unlike pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension is not associated with increased neonatal and maternal morbidity except abruptio. SPO abstracts. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 419, 376.

Kim, C., Newton, R., & Knopp, R. (2002). Gestational diabetes and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Diabetes Care, 25, 1862-8.

Langer, O., Conway, D., Berkus, M., et al. (2000). A comparison of glyburide and insulin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. N. Engl. J. Med., 343, 1134-8.

Lao, T.T., & Ho, L.F. (2000). Impaired glucose tolerance and pregnancy outcome in Chinese women with high body mass index. Hum. Reprod., 15(8), 1826-9.

Nachum, Z., Ben-Shlomo, I., Weiner, E., et al. (1999). Twice daily versus four times daily insulin regimens for diabetes in pregnancy: randomized controlled trial. BMJ, 319, 1223-7.

Naeye, E.M. (1981). Maternal blood pressure and fetal growth. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 141, 780-87.

Odent, M. (1994). The Nocebo effect in prenatal care. Primal Heath Research Newsletter, 2, 2-6.

Odent, M. (1995). Back to the Nocebo effect. Primal Heath Research Newsletter, 5(4).

Odent, M.R., McMillan, L., Kimmel, T. (1996). Prenatal care and sea fish. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Biol. Reprod., 68, 49-51.

Odent, M. (2000). Antenatal scare. Primal Heath Research Newsletter, 7(4).

Odent, M. (2002). The rise of preconceptional counselling vs. the decline of medicalized care in pregnancy. Primal Health Research Newsletter, 10(3).

Pettitt, D., Ospina, P., Kolaczynski, J., et al. (2003). Comparison of an insulin analog, insulin aspart, and regular human insulin with no insulin in gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 26(1), 183-6.

Ramtoola, S., Home, P., Damry, H., et al. (2001). Gestational impaired glucose tolerance does not increase perinatal mortality in a developing country: cohort study. BMJ, 322, 1025-6.

Roberts, R.N., Moohan, J.M., Foo, R.L., et al. (1993). Fetal outcomes in mothers with impaired glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Diabet. Med., 10(5), 438-43.

Romon, M., Nuttens, M.C., Vambergue, A., et al. (2001). Higher carbohydrate intake is associated with decreased incidence of newborn macrosomia in women with gestational diabetes. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 101(8), 897-902.

Symonds, E.M. (1980). Aetiology of pre-eclampsia: a review. J. R. Soc. Med, 73, 871-75.

Tan, Y., & Yeo, G.S. (1996). Impaired glucose tolerance in pregnancy-is it of consequence? Aust. NZ J. Obstet. Gynaecol., 36(3), 248-55.

Vambergue, A., Valat, A.S., Dufour, P., et al. (2002). Pathophysiologie du diabete gestationnel. J. Gynecol. Obstet. Biol. Reprod. (Paris), 31(6 Suppl), 4S3-4S10.

Wen, S.W., Liu, S., Kramer, M.S., et al. (2000). Impact of prenatal glucose screening on the diagnosis of gestational diabetes and on pregnancy outcomes. Am. J. Epidemiol., 152(11), 1009-14.

Wojtaszewski, J.P., Nielsen, J.N., & Richter, E.A. (2002). Invited review: effect of acute exercise on insulin signaling and action in humans. J. Appl. Physiol., 93(1), 384-92. La banque de donnees du Primal Health Research Centre est specialisee dans les etudes explorant les consequences a long terme de ce qui se passe au debut de la vie.

Michel Odent, MD

Editor's note: These essays are reprinted with permission of Michel Odent, MD, Director, Primal Health Research Centre in London and the newsletter Primal Health Research, published in North and South America by Birth Works, Inc., Medford, NJ. APPPAH is pleased to support increased circulation by reprinting Dr. Odent's essays as a feature in the pages of this journal. Contact information: or (609) 953-9380. Free access to the Primal Health Research Data Bank is provided at: Email for Dr. Odent is:

JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.

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