The relationship between negative events from conception to birth, and suicide, is explored. From extensive experiential work with clients, based on the work of the British psychiatrist Dr. Frank Lake, the author stresses that something else is going on in every death by suicide, that is not visible. Hidden factors relating to suicide have their roots in the pre- and perinatal period, from as far back as conception to the birth itself. Case studies are included and types of suicide correlated to various pre- and perinatal trauma are discussed.
KEY WORDS: Prenatal and perinatal psychology, suicide, primal roots, pain, cellular memory
Adzema, M.D. (1996). The scenery of healing. Commentary on De Mause's "Restaging of Fetal Trauma in War and Social Violence". Pre- and Perinatal Journal, 10(4), 261-272.
Campbell, Professor Stuart. (2004) Watch Me Grow! A unique 3-Dimensional, week by week look at baby's behaviour and development inside the womb. Carroll and Brown Publishers Ltd. London.
Chamberlain, D. (1998). The mind of your newborn baby. North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, California.
De Mause, L. (1996). Restaging of fetal traumas in war and social violence. Pre-and Perinatal Journal, 10(4), 229-260.
Dryden, R. (1978). Before birth. Heinemann.
Durkheim, E. (1951/1966). Suicide. A study in sociology. Free Press, Macmillan Company.
Eliot, L. (1999). What's going on in there? How the brain and mind develop hi the first five years of life. Bantam Books.
Feher, L. (1980). The psychology of birth. The foundation of human personality. London: Pd Souvenir Press.
Feldmar, A. (1979). The embryology of consciousness. What is a normal pregnancy? In D. Mall & W. Watts (Eds.), The Psychological Aspects of Abortion. Washington, DC: University Publications of America.
Fodor, N. (1949). The search for the beloved: A clinical investigation of the trauma of birth and prenatal conditioning. University Books. N.Y.
Foster-Ryan, S. & Monahan, L. (2001). Echoes of suicide. Dublin: Veritas.
Gilliland, A.L. & Vemy, T.R. (1999). The effects of domestic abuse on the unborn child. Pre and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 73(3-4), 235-246.
Grof, S. (1975). Realms of the human unconsciousness. A Condor Book: Souvenir Press Ltd.
Grof, S. (1985). Beyond the brain death and transcendence in psychotherapy. State University of New York Press.
Grof, S. & Bennet, H.Z. (1992). The holotropic mind. The three levels of human consciousness and how they shape our lives. San Francisco: Harper.
Houston, J. (1996). A mythic life: Learning to live our greater story. Harper/Collins.
Jacobsen, B. (1988). Perinatal origin of eventual self destructive behaviour. Pre and Perinatal Psychology Journal, (2) 4, 227-241.
Jacobsen, B. & Bygdeman, M. (2000). Obstetric care and proneness of offspring to suicide as adults: A case control study. Pre and Perinatal Psychology Journal, (15)7, 63-74.
Janov, A. & Holden, M.E. (1975). Primal man: The new consciousness. London: Pd Abacus, Sphere Books.
Lake, F. (1981). Tight corners in counselling. London: D.L.T.
Lake, F. (1982). With respect: A doctor's response to a healing pope. London: DLT.
Lake, F. (1982). Mutual caring. Unpublished text. Edited and published privately by David Wasdell (1998), entitled The First Trimester. Urchin, London.
Lipton, B.H. (1998). Nature, nurture and the power of love. Pre and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 13(1), 3-10.
Mott, F.J. (1965). The universal design of creation. Mark Beech.
Noble, E. (1993). Primal Connections. How our experiences from conception to birth influence our emotions, behaviour and health. Simon Schuster, Fireside Books.
O'Donohue, J. (2003). Divine beauty: The invisible embrace. Bantam Press.
Pert, C.B. (1997/2003). Molecules of emotion: Why you feel the way you feel. New York: Scribner.
Roedding, J. (1991). Birth trauma and suicide. A study of the relationship between near death experience and later suicidal behaviour. Pre and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 6(2), 145-170.
Salk, L. (1966). Thoughts on the concept of imprinting and its place in early human development. Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, 11.
Verny, T.R., with Kelly, J. (1981). The secret life of the unborn child. A remarkable and controversial look at life before birth. London: Sphere Books.
Verny, T.R. (1994). Working with pre and perinatal material in psychotherapy. Pre and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 8(3), 161-187.
Ward, S.A. (1999). Birth trauma in infants and children. Pre and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 13(3-4), 201-212.
Lipton, B.H. (2000). The biology of belief: How your thoughts affect your genes.
Lipton. B.H. (2000). Nature, nurture and the power of love: The biology of conscious parenting. Website: www.brucelipton.com.
Pert, C. (2000). Your body is your subconscious mind. Your brain is not in charge. Sounds True, Colorado, www.soundstrue.com
Shirley A. Ward, MEd. DipEd.
Shirley Ward is a Co-Director of Amethyst Resource for Human Development in Killaloe, County Clare, Ireland, where she works as a psychotherapist, lecturer and educator. She is an International Advisor for APPPAH and Vice Chair of the Irish Association for Humanistic and Integrative Psychotherapy. Correspondence may be sent to Shirley Ward, 'Amethyst', Ballybroghan, Killaloe, Co Clare, Ireland or firstname.lastname@example.org. Visit the Amethyst website at: www.holistic.ie/amethyst/