An Anthropological Perspective on the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: The Neurological and Structural Bases of Speech Breathing and Why SIDS Appears to Be a Species-Specific Malady, Part II

Issue: 
Publication Date: 
03/1988
Page Count: 
30
Starting Page: 
149
Price: $10.00
Abstract: 

This paper extends the evolutionary-based arguments proposed in a previous paper (see McKenna 1987, Part I) but concentrates on why the sudden infant death syndrome is not found among other animal species, and cannot be experimentally replicated, and thus why it appears to be a species-specific, unique human infant malady. Data from studies of the breathing and vocalizing difficulties of normal-hearing and hearing-impaired persons are used to argue that, to a degree unparalleled in other species, certain breathing behaviors are cortically controlled and learned by way of both internal and external auditory processes. While the neurophysiological and neurostructural voluntary-involuntary nerve conduit upon which this system depends is a prerequisite for human language, or more specifically, for speech breathing, it makes human infants more vulnerable to any number of breathing control errors, one of which may be SIDS. Hence, this perspective attempts to explain why SIDS is so circumscribed by age since speech breathing begins to occur as the infant begins to assert increasingly voluntary control over its crying behavior at two to four months when SIDS rates peak. By seven months, well before the infant utters its first words, it has mastered the voluntary pulmonic manipulations required for speech. While making no suggestions about the primary causes of SIDS, this paper like the previous one provides a heuristic model and rationale for new data-based research questions on a malady that has resisted our attempts to understand it for over 20 years.

Finally, for some but not all infants, it is suggested that the evolutionary old microenvironment of sustained and continuous parent-infant contact, including cosleeping, provides the safest context within which such a system could evolve.

References: 

Altmann, J. (1980). Baboon mothers and infants. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Anders, T.F. (1978). Home recorded sleep in two- and nine-month-old infants. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 17, 421-432.

Anders, T.F. (1979). Night-waking in infants during the first year of life. Pediatrics, 63, 860.

Anders, T.F., Keener, M.A., Bowe, T.R., & Shoaff, B.A. (1983). A longitudinal study of nighttime sleep-wake patterns in infants from birth to one year. In J. Call, E. Galens, & R. Tyson, (Eds.), Frontiers of infant psychiatry (pp. 150-177). New York: Basic Books.

Anderson, J.R. (1984). Ethology and ecology of sleep in monkeys and apes. In J.S. Rosenblatt, Colin Beer, M.C. Busnel, & P.J. Slater, (Eds.), Advances in the study of behavior Vol. 14: pp. 166-229). Orlando: Academic Press.

Ariagno, R.L., Nagel, L., & Guilleminault, C. (1980). Waking and ventilatory responses during sleep in infants with near miss for sudden infant death syndrome. Sleep 3, 351-359.

Arnon, S.S. (1983). Breast-feeding and toxigenic intestinal infections: Missing links in SIDS. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome, (pp. 15-28). 539-556. New York: Academic Press.

Aynsley-Green, A., Polak, J.M., Keeling, J., Gough, M.H., & Baum, J.D. (1978). Averted sudden neonatal death due to pancreatic nesidioblastosis. Lancet 1(8068), 550-551.

Baba, N, Quattrochi, J., Reiner, C., Adrion, W., McBride, P.T., & Yates, A.J. (1983). Possible role of the brain stem in sudden infant death syndrome. Journal of the American Medical Association, 249, 2789-2791.

Bagg, A.R., Haddad, G.G., Walsh, G.M., & Mellins, R.B. (1981). Respiratory pauses in aborted SIDS infants during sleep. American Review of Respiratory Disorders, 123, 157.

Baker, T.L., & McGinty, D.J. (1977). Reversal of cardiopulmonary failure during active sleep in hypoxic kittens: Implications for sudden infant death. Science, 198, 419-425.

Barker, J.N., Jordan, F., Hillwar, D.E., & Barlow, O. (1982). Phrenic thiamin and neuropathy in sudden infant death. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 378, 449-452.

Barnard, K.E. (1972). The effect of stimulation on the duration and amount of sleep and wakefulness in the premature infant. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Washington.

Barnard, K.E. (1981). A program of temporally patterned movement and sound stimulation for premature infants. In V.L. Smeriglio, (Ed.), Newborns and parents: Parent-infant contact and newborn sensory stimulation (pp. 31-56). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Barnett, H. (1980). Sudden infant death syndrome. Child Health and Human Development U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Bulletin.

Barry, H., III, & Paxson, L. (1971). Infancy and early childhood: Cross-cultural codes. 2. Ethnology, 10, 466-508.

Bass, M., Kravath, R.E., and Glass, L. (1986). Death scene investigation in sudden infant death. New England Journal of Medicine, 325 (2), 100-105.

Beal, S.M. (1983). Some epidemiological factors about sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in South Australia. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 15-28). New York: Academic Press.

Becker, L.E. (1983). Neuropathological bases for respiratory dysfunction in sudden infant death syndrome. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 99-114). New York: Academic Press.

Becker, P.T., & Thoman, E.B. (1983). Organization of sleeping and waking states in infants: Consistency across contexts. Physiology and Behavior, 31, 405-410.

Beckwith, J.B. (1973). The sudden infant death syndrome. Current Problems of Pediatrics, 3(8), 1.

Beckwith, J.B. (1983). Chronic hypoxemia in the sudden infant death syndrome: A critical review of the data base. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 145-160). New York: Academic Press.

Beckwith, L. (1979). Prediction of emotional and social behavior. In J.D. Osofsky, (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (pp. 671-706). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bench, J. (1968). Sound transmission to the human foetus through the maternal abdominal wall. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 113, 85-87.

Bergman, A.B., Beckwith, J.B., & Ray, C.G., (Eds.), (1970). Sudden infant death syndrome. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Causes of Sudden Death in Infants, 1969. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Bergman, A.B., Ray, C.G., Pomeroy, M.A., Wahl, P.W., & Beckwith, J.B. (1972). Studies of the sudden infant death syndrome in King County, Washington. III. Epidemiology. Pediatrics, 49(6), 860.

Birnholz, J., & Benacerraf, B. (1983). The development of human fetal hearing. Science, 222, 516-518.

Blurton-Jones, N.G. (1972). Comparative aspects of mother-child contact. In N.G. Blur ton-Jones (Ed.). Ethological studies of child behavior (pp. 305-329). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Blurton-Jones, N.G. (1983). Two investigations of human behavior guided by evolutionary theory. In G.C.L. Davey, (Ed.), Animal models of human behavior (pp. 179-204), New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bowes, G., Woolf, G., Sullivan, C.E., & Phillipson, E.E. (1980). Effect of sleep fragmentation on ventilatory and arousal responses of sleeping dogs to respiratory stimuli, American Review of Respiratory Diseases, 122, 899-908.

Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss. Attachment. Vol. 1. London: Hogarth Press.

Brackbill, Y. (1973). Continuous stimulation reduces arousal level: Stability of the effect over time. Child Development, 44, 43-46.

Brackbill, Y. (1975). Continuous stimulation and arousal level in infancy: Effects of stimulus intensity and stress. Child Development, 46, 364-369.

Bradford, L.J. (1975). Respiratory audiometry. In L.J. Bradford, (Ed.). Physiological measure of the audio-vestibular system (pp. 160-192). New York: Academic Press.

Brazelton, B. (1962). Crying in infancy. Pediatrics, 29, 579-

Brazelton, T.B., Koslowski, B., & Main, M. (1974). The origins of reciprocity: The early mother-infant interaction. In M. Lewis & L.A. Rosenblum, (Eds.), The effect of the infant on its caregiver. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Brim, O., Jr., & Kagan, J. (1980). Constancy and change: A view of the issues. In O. Brim & J. Kagan, (Eds.), Constancy and change in human development Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Bryan, A.C. (1984). Development of the carotid body. 17th Annual Intra-Science Symposium. International Symposium on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Santa Monica, California, February 22-24.

Bunn, J.C., & Mead, J. (1971). Control of ventilation during speech. Journal of Speech Physiology, 31, 870-872.

Burns, B., & Lipsitt, L.P. (1986). Toward an understanding of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) as a developmental consequence of initial physiological deficits and subsequent learning disabilities. (Submitted for publication).

Butler, S.R., Suskind, M.R., & Schanberg, S.M. (1978). Maternal behavior as a regulator of polymine biosynthesis in brain and heart of the developing rat pup. Science, 199, 445-447.

Bystrzycka, E., Nail, B.S., & Purves, M.J. (1975). Central and peripheral neural respiratory activity in the mature sheep foetus and newborn lamb. Respiratory Physiology, 25, 199-215.

Carey, W.B. (1975). Breastfeeding and night-waking. Journal of Pediatrics, 87, 327.

Carpenter, R.G. (1983). The search for practical predictors of risk. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome, (p. 33). New York: Academic Press.

Carpenter R.G. & Emery, J.L. (1977). Final results of a study of infants at risk of sudden infant death. Nature, 268, 274.

Caudill, W., & Plath, D. (1966). Who sleeps by whom? Parent-child involvement in urban Japanese families. In Robert Levine, (Ed.), Culture and personality (pp. 125-154). Chicago: Aldine Press.

Chernick, V., Havlicek, V., Pagtakhan, R.D., & Sklenovsky, A. (1973a). Respiratory response to electrical stimulation of the brain stem of fetal and neonatal sheep. Pediatric Research, 7, 20-27.

Chernick, V., Havlicek, V., Pagtakhan, R.D., & Sklenovsky, A. (1973b). The fetal and neonatal respiratory center: Focal stimulation and influence of anesthesia. Acta Neurobwlogical Experiments, 33, 311-317.

Chisholm, J. (1983). Navajo infancy: An ethological study of child development New York: Aldine Press.

Chisholm, J., & Heath, G. (In press) Evolution and pregnancy: A biosocial view of prenatal influences. In C. Super & S. Harkness, (Eds.), The role of culture in developmental disorders. New York: Academic Press.

Chiswick, M.L. (1985). Book review of Sudden infant death, by Jean Golding, S. Limerick, & Aiden Macfarlane. Lancet (May 25), 1193.

Chugani, H.T. & Phelps, M.E. (1986). Maturational changes in cerebral function in infants determined by 18 FDG position emission tomography. Science, 213, 840.

Church, S.C., Morgan, B.C., Oliver, T.K., & Goutheroth, W.G. (1967). Cardiac Arrhythmias in premature infants: An indication of autonomic immaturity. Journal of Pediatrics, 71, 542.

Cleary, J.T. (1984). Cot deaths CO2 Deaths? Obtainable from Cleary/SIDS Data, Box 1, Builth Wells, Powys.

Coe, C.L., & Levine, S. (1981). Normal responses to mother-infant separation in nonhuman primates. In D.F. Klein & J.G. Rabkin, (Eds.), Anxiety: New research and changing concepts (pp. 155-177). New York: Raven.

Coe, C.L., Mendoza, S.P., Smotherman, W.P., & Levine, S. (1978). Mother-infant attachment in the squirrel monkey: Adrenal response to separation. Behavioral Biology, 22, 256-263.

Coe, C.L., Wiener, S.G., Rosenburg, L.T., & Levine, S. (1985). Endocrine and immune responses to separation and maternal loss in nonhuman primates. In M. Reite & T. Field, (Eds.), The psychobiohgy of attachment and separation, (pp. 163-196). Orlando: Academic Press.

Cole, S., Lindenberg, L.B., & Galioto, F. (1979). Ultrastructural abnormalities of the carotid bodies in sudden infant death. Pediatrics, 63, 13-17.

Colton, R.H., & Steinschneider, A. (1980). Acoustic relationships of infant cries to the sudden infant death syndrome. In T. Murry & J. Murry, (Eds.), Infant communication: Cry and early speech, (pp. 183-209). Houston: College-Hill Press.

Coombs, R.R.A., & McLaughlin, P. (1983). The modified anaphylactic hypothesis for SIDS. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome, (pp. 531-538). New York: Academic Press.

Cornblath, M., & Schwartz, R. (1976). Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in infancy. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.

Cornwall, A.C. (1979). Sudden infant death syndrome: A testable hypothesis and mechanism. International Journal of Neuroscience, 10, 31.

Crelin, E.S. (1976). Development of the upper respiratory system. Ciba Clinical Symposia, 28, 206-219.

Cunningham, A.S. (1976). Infant feeding and SIDS. Pediatrics, 58, 467.

Darwish, H.Z., & McMillan, D.D. (1983). Apnea in the newborn. Topics in neonatal neurology. Orlando: Grune & Stratton.

Davies, D.P. (1985). Cot death in Hong Kong: A Rare Problem? Lancet 2 (December), 1346-1349.

Davies, D.P. (1986). Cot death in Hong Kong. Lancet 1, 1089 (Letter).

Davis, D.H., & Thoman, E.B. (In press) Behavioral states of premature infants: Implications for neural and behavioral development. Developmental Psychology (forthcoming).

Davis, R.E., Icke, G.C., & Hilton, J.M. (1983). Sudden infant death and abnormal thiamin metabolism. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 201-210). New York: Academic Press.

Davison, A.N., & Dobbing, J. (1966). Myelination as a vulnerable period in brain development. British Medical Bulletin, 22, (1), 1-66.

de Grolier, E. (Ed.) (1983). Glossogenetics: The origin and evolution of language. Paris: Harwood Academic Publishers.

Denenberg, V.H. (1981). Hemispheric laterality in animals and the effects of early experience. The Behavioral Brain Sciences, 4, 1-49.

Devore, I., & Konner, M.J. (1974). Infancy in hunter-gatherer life: An etiological perspective. In N.F. White, (Ed.), Ethology and psychiatry (pp. 113-141). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Dinsdale, F., Emery, J.C., & Gadson, D.R. (1977). The carotid body-A quantitative reassessment in children. Histopathology, 1, 179-187.

Dittrichova, J. & Lapackova, V. (1964). Development of the waking state in young infants. Child Development, 35, 365.

Dobbing, J. (1974). Human brain development and its vulnerability. Mead Johnson Symposium on Perinatal and Development Medicine: Biologic and Clinical Aspects of Brain Development. No. 6.

Dobbing, J., & Sands, J. (1973). Quantitative growth and development of the human brain. Archives of Disease in Children, 48, 757-767.

Donnelly, D. (1984). Neuronal control of the upper airway. 17th Annual Intra-Science Symposium. International Symposium on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Santa Monica, California, February 22-24.

Dorfman, A. (1985). Speech and crib death. Science Digest, (Vol. 12) (August), 55.

Dreyfus-Brisac, C. (1974). Organization of sleep in prematures: Implications for caretaking. In M. Lewis & L.A. Rosenblum, (Eds.), The effect of the infant on its caregiver. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Ehret, G. (1983). The development of hearing and response to behavior and sound stimuli: Behavioral studies. In R. Romand, (Ed.), Development of auditory and vestibular systems, (pp. 211-225). New York: Academic Press.

Eisenberg, R. (1976). Auditory competence in early life: The roots of communicative behavior. Baltimore: University Park Press.

Eisenberg, R. (1983). Development of hearing in children. In R. Romand, (Ed.), Development of auditory and vestibular systems (pp. 239-308). New York: Academic Press.

Elias, M.F. (n.d.) Sleep/wake patterns of breastfed infants in the first two years. Unpublished paper from the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University.

Elias, M.F., Nicolson, N.A. & Konner, M. (1987). Two subcultures of maternal care in the United States. In D. Taub & F. King, (Eds.), Current perspectives in primate social dynamics (pp. 31-36). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Emde, R., Harmon, R., Metcalf, D., Koenig, J., & Wagonfeld, S. (1971). Stress and neonatal sleep. Psychosomatic Medicine, 33, 491-497.

Emde, R., & Walker, S. (1976). Longitudinal study of infant sleep: Results of 14 subjects studied at monthly intervals. Psychophysiology, 13, 456-461.

Emery, J., & Dinsdale, F. (1978). Structure of periadrenal brown fat in childhood in both expected and cot deaths. Archives of Diseases in Children, 53, 154.

Emery, J.L. (1983). A way of looking at the causes of crib death. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 123-132). New York: Academic Press.

Emery, J.L. (1984). Carbon monoxide and cot death. Lancet (November), 1101.

Fardig, J.A. (1980). A comparison of skin to skin contact and radiant heaters in promoting neonatal thermoregulation. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, 25, 19-28.

Field, T. (1982). Gaze behavior of normal and high risk infants during early interaction. In T. Field & A. Fogel, (Eds.), Emotion and early interaction (pp. 415-450). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Field, T. (1985). Attachment as a psychobiological attunement. In M. Reite & T. Field, (Eds.), The psychobiology of attachment and separation, (pp. 415-454). New York: Academic Press.

Fink, B.R., & Beckwith, J.B. (1980). Laryngeal mucous gland excess in victims of sudden infant death. American Journal of Diseases in Children, 134, 144-146.

Fleming, P. (1984). Development of respiratory patterns: Implications for control. 17th Annual Intra-Science Symposium. International Symposium on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Santa Monica, California, February 22-24.

Fobes, J. & King, J. (1982). Auditory and chemoreceptive sensitivity in primates. In J. Fobes & J. King, (Eds.), Primate behavior (pp. 245-267). New York: Academic Press.

Forner, L., & Hixon, T. (1977). Respiratory kinematics in profoundly hearing impaired speakers. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 20, 358-372.

Friedman, S.L., & Sigman, M. (1981). Preterm birth and psychological development New York: Academic Press.

Froggatt, P. (1983). The epidemiology of SIDS: Problems, Progress, and Prospects. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 85-88). New York: Academic Press.

Froggatt, P., & James, T.N. (1973). Sudden unexpected death in infants: Evidence on a lethal cardiac arrhythmia. Ulster Medical Journal, 42, 136-152.

Fulcomer, M.C., Pellegrini, S.G., & Lefebvre, L.C. (1981). Demographic and health related predictors of the incidence of sudden infant death. Evaluation and program planning 7.

Gadson, D.R., & Emery, J.L. (1976). Fatty change in the brain in perinatal and unexpected death. Archives of Diseases in Children, 51, 42-48.

Galef, B.G., Jr. (1981). The ecology of weaning: Parisitism and the achievement of independence by altricial mammals. In D.J. Gubernick & P.H. Klopfer, (Eds.), Parent care in mammals, (pp. 211-241). New York: Plenum.

Gould, J.B. (1983). SIDS-A sleep hypothesis. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 443-452). New York: Academic Press.

Gregg, C.L., Haffner, M.E., & Korner, A.F. (1976). The relative efficacy of vestibularproprioceptive stimulation and the upright posture in enhancing visual pursuit in neonates. Child Development, 47, 309-314.

Guilleminault, C. (1980). Sleep apnea syndromes: Impact of sleep and sleep states. Sleep, 3, 227-234.

Guilleminault, C. (1984). Reply to Harpey and Renault. Pediatrics 74, 319.

Guilleminault, C, Ariagno, R.L., Forno, L.S., Nagel, L., Baldwin, R., & Owen, M. (1979a). Obstructive sleep apnea and near-miss for SIDS: 1. Report of an infant with sudden death. Pediatrics, 63, 837-843.

Guilleminault, C, Ariagno, R.L., Korobkin, R., Nagel, L., Baldwin, R., Coons, S., & Owen, M. (1979b). Obstructive sleep apnea and near-miss for sudden infant death syndrome: 2. Comparison of near miss and normal control infants by age. Pediatrics, 64, 882-891.

Guilleminault, C, & Coons, S. (1983). Sleep states and maturation of sleep: A comparative study between full-term normal controls and near miss SIDS infants. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 401-411. New York: Academic Press.

Guilleminault, C, Heldt, G., Powell, N., & Riley, R. (1986). Small upper airway in nearmiss sudden infant death syndrome infants and their families.. Lancet (February), 402-407.

Guilleminault, C, Peraita, M., Souquet, M., & Dement, W.C. (1975). Apneas during sleep in infants: Possible relationship with sudden infant death syndrome. Science, 190, 6.

Guilleminault, C, Souquet, M., Ariagno, R., & Dement, W.C. (1976a). Abnormal polygraphic findings in near miss and sudden infant death. Lancet, 1, 1326-1327.

Guilleminault, C, Tilkian, A., & Dement, W.C. (1976b). The sleep apnea syndrome. Annual Review of Medicine, 27, 465-484.

Guntheroth, W.G. (1977). Sudden infant death syndrome (Crib death). American Heart Journal, 93:784.

Guntheroth W.G. (1982). Crib death: The sudden infant death syndrome. New York: Futura Publishing Company.

Guntheroth, W.G. (1983a). Arrhythmia, apnea, or arousal? In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 268-270). New York: Academic Press.

Guntheroth, W.G. (1983b). The pathology of petechiae. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 271-278). New York: Academic Press.

Gupta, P.R., Guilleminault, C. & Dorfman, L.J. (1981). Brain stem auditory evoked potentials in near miss sudden infant death syndrome. Journal of Pediatrics, 98, 791-794.

Guz, A. (1977). Does carbon dioxide excite ventilation by stimulating receptors within the lungs of mammals? American Review of Respiratory Diseases, 115, 239-243.

Haddad, G.G., Epstein, R.A., Epstein, M.A.F., Leistner, M.L., Marino, P.A., & Mellins, R.B. (1979). Maturation of ventilation and ventilatory pattern in normal sleeping infants. Journal of Applied Physiology, 46, 998-1002.

Haddad, G.G., Leistner, H.L., Epstein, R.A., Epstein, M.A.F., Grodin, W.K., & Mellins, R.B. (1980). CO2 induced changes in ventilation and ventilatory pattern in normal sleeping infants. Journal of Applied Physiology, 48, 684-688.

Haddad, G.G., Leistner, H.L., Lai, T.L., & Mellins, R.B. (1981). Ventilation and ventilatory patterns during sleep in aborted sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatric Research, 15, 879-883.

Haddad, G.G. & Mellins, R.B. (1983). Cardiorespiratory aspects of SIDS: An overview. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 357-374). New York: Academic Press.

Harper, R.M. (1984). Cardiorespiratory Interactions Relationship to State. 17th Annual Intra-Science Symposium. International Symposium on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Santa Monica, California, February 22-24.

Harper, R.M., Leake, B., Hoffman, H., Walter, D.O., Hoppenbrouwers, T., Hodgman, J., & Sterman, M.B. (1981). Periodicity of sleep states is altered in infants at risk for the SIDS. Science, 213, 1030-1032.

Harper, R.M., Leake, B., Hoppenbrouwers, T., Sterman, M.B., McGinty, D., & Hodgman, J. (1976). Polygraphic studies of normal infants and infants at risk for the sudden infant death syndrome: Heart rate and variability as a function of state. Pediatric Research, 12, 778.

Harper, R.M., Walter, D.O., Leake, B., Hoffman, H., Sieck, G., Sterman, M. Hoppenbrouwers, T., & Hodgman, J. (1978). Development of sinus arrhythmia during sleeping and waking states in infants. Sleep, 1, 33.

Harpey, J.P., & Renault F. (1984). The uvula and sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatrics, 74, 319.

Henderson-Smart, D.J., Pettigrew, A., & Campbell, D. (1983). Prenatal stress, brain stem neural maturation, and apnea in preterm infants. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 293-304). New York: Academic Press.

Henderson-Smart, D.J., & Read, D.J. (1978). Depression of intercostal and abdominal muscle activity and vulnerability to asphyxia during active sleep in the newborn. In C. Gilleminault & W. Dement, (Eds.), Sleep apnea syndrome. New York: Alan Liss, Inc.

Hillman, L. (1984). Maternal and newborn medical factors. 17th Annual Intra-Science Symposium. International Symposium on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Santa Monica, California, February 22-24.

Hillman, L.S., Erickson, M., & Haddad, G.G. (1980). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatrics, 65, 1137-1139.

Hilston, C.R. (1985). An informal sleep survey. Mothering, 35, 98-99.

Hixton, T. (1973). In F. Minifie, T. Hixton, & F. Williams, (Eds.), Normal aspects of speech, hearing and language (pp. 73-125). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Hodgman, J.E., & Hoppenbrouwers, T. (1983). Cardio-respiratory behavior in infants at increased epidemiological risk for SIDS. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome, (pp. 669.681). New York: Academic Press.

Hodgman, J.E., Hoppenbrouwers, T., Geidel, S., Hadeed, A., Sterman, M.B., Harper, R., & McGinty, D. (1982). Respiratory behavior in near-miss sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatrics, 69, 785.792.

Hofer, M.A. (1978). Hidden regulatory processes in early relationships. In P.P.G Bateson & P.H. Klopfer, (Eds.), Perspectives in ethology, Volume 3 (pp. 135.166). New York: Plenum.

Hofer, M.A. (1981). Parental contribution to the development of their offspring. In D.J. Gubernick & P.H. Klopfer, (Eds.), Parental care in mammals (pp. 77.115). New York: Plenum.

Hofer, M.A. (1983). The mother-infant interaction as a regulator of infant physiology and behavior. In L. Rosenblum & H. Moltz, (Eds.), Symbiosis in parent-offspring interactions (pp. 61.75). New York: Plenum.

Hoffman, H. (1984). Adverse reproductive factors. 17th Annual Intra-Science Symposium. International Symposium on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Santa Monica, California, February 22.24.

Hollien, H. (1980). Developmental Aspects of Neonatal Vocalizations. In T. Murry & J. Murry, (Eds.), Infant communication: Cry and early speech (pp. 20.25). Houston: College-Hill Press.

Holmes, D.L., Reich, J.N., & Pasternak, J.F. (1984). The development of infants born at risk. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hoppenbrouwers, T. (1983). Paper presented at the 4th International Congress of Sleep Research, Bologna, Italy.

Hoppenbrouwers, T. (1986). Sleep and infants. In C. Guilleminault, C. (Ed.), Sleep disorders in children. Raven Press (in press).

Hoppenbrouwers, T., Harper, R.M., Hodgman, J.E., Sterman, M.B., & McGinty, D.J. (1978). Polygraphic studies of normal infants during the first six months of life. II Respiratory rate and variability as a function of state. Pediatric Research, 12, 120.

Hoppenbrouwers, T., & Hodgman, J.E. (1982). Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): An integration of ontogenetic pathologic, physiologic and epidemiologic factors. Neuropediatrics, 13, 36.51.

Hoppenbrouwers, T. & Hodgman, J.E. (1983). Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Public Health Review, 11, 363.

Hoppenbrouwers, T. & Hodgman, J.E. (1986). Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), arousal and sleep. Transactions of the society IEEE/Engineering in medicine and biology (in press).

Hoppenbrouwers, T., Hodgman, J.E., Harper, R.M., & Sterman, M.B. (1979). Motility patterns as a function of age and time of night. Sleep Research 8, 124.

Hoppenbrouwers, T., Hodgman, J.E., Harper, R.M., & Sterman, M.B. (1982). Temporal distribution of sleep states, somatic activity and autonomic activity during the first half year of life. Sleep, 5, 131.

Hoppenbrouwers, T., Jensen, D., Hodgman, J.E., Harper, R.M., & Sterman, M.B. (1979). Respiration during the first six months of life in normal infants. III. The emergence of a circadian pattern. Neuropaediatrie, 10, 264.

Huang, S. (1983). Infectious diseases, immunology, and SIDS: An overview. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 593.606). New York: Academic Press.

Hunt, D., McCulloch, K, & Brovillette, R. (1981). Diminished hypoxia ventilatory responses in near-miss SIDS. Journal of Applied Physiology, 50, 1313.1317.

Illingworth, R.S. (1980). The development of communication in the first year and factors which affect it. In T. Murry & J. Murry, (Eds.), Infant communication: Cry and early speech, (pp. 4.19). Houston: College-Hill Press.

Issac, G.L. (1978). The food-sharing behavior of protohuman hominids. Scientific American, 138, 90-108.

Jansen, A.H., & Chernick, V. (1983). Development of respiratory control. Physiological Reviews, 63, 437-483.

Jelliffe, D.B., & Jelliffe, E.F.P. (1978). Human milk in the modern world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Johnson, P., Fewel, J.E., Fedako, L.M.; & Wollner, J.C. (1983). The vagal control of breathing in postnatal life: Implications for sleep-related respiratory failure. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 467-490). New York: Academic Press.

Jones, A.M., & Weston, J.T. (1976). The examination of the sudden infant death syndrome infant: Investigation and autopsy protocols. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 21, 833-841.

Junge, H.D. (1979). Behavioral states and state-related heart rate and motor activity patterns in the newborn infant and the fetus antepartum: A comparative study. I. Technique, illustration of recordings, and general results. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 7, 85-107.

Kagan, J. (1979). Overview: Perspectives on human infancy. In J. Osofsky, (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (pp. 1-25). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Kagan, J. (1984). The nature of the child New York: Basic Books.

Kahlia, M.P. (1981). Anatomical organization of central respiratory nerves. Annual Review of Physiology, 43, 105-120.

Kattwinkel, J. (1977). Neonatal apnea: Pathogenesis and therapy. Journal of Pediatrics, 90, 342.

Kelly, D.H. (1983). Incidence of severe apnea and death in infants identified as high risk for sudden infant death. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome, (pp. 607-614). New York: Academic Press.

Kelly, D.H., Walker, A.M., Cohen, L., & Shannon, D.C., (1980). Periodic breathing in siblings of sudden infant death syndrome victims. Pediatrics, 66, 515-520.

Kendeel, S.R., & Ferris, J.A.J. (1977). Apparent hypoxic changes in pulmonary arterioles and small arteries in infancy. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 30, 481.

Kinney, H. (1984). Brain stem morphology in SIDS. Paper delivered at the 17th Annual Intra-Science Symposium. International Symposium on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Santa Monica, California, February 22-24.

Konner, M.J. (1981). Evolution of human behavior development. In R. Monroe & B. Whiting, (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural human development (pp. 3-52). New York: Garland STPM Press.

Konner, M. J., & Super, CM. (in press). Sudden infant death: An anthropological hypothesis. In C.M. Super & S. Harkness, (Eds.), The role of culture in developmental disorder. New York: Academic Press.

Konner, M.J., & Worthman, C. (1980). Nursing frequency, gonadal function and birthspacing among Kung hunters and gatherers. Science, 207, 788-791.

Korner, A.F. (1979). Maternal rhythmic cued waterbeds: A form of intervention with premature infants. In E.B. Thomen, (Ed.), Origins of the infant's social expressiveness. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Korner, A.F., (1981). Intervention with preterm infants: Rationale, aims, means. In V.L. Smeriglio, (Ed.), Newborns and parents: Parent-infant contact and newborn sensory stimulation, Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Korner, A.F., Guilleminault, C, Van den Hoed, J., & Baldwin, R.B. (1978). Reduction of sleep apnea and bradycardia in pre-tern infants on oscillating waterbeds: A controlled polygraphic study. Pediatrics, 61, 528-533.

Korner, A.F., Kraemer, H.C., Haffher, M.E., & Coster, L.M. (1975). Effects of waterbed flotation on premature infants: A pilot study. Pediatrics, 56, 361-367.

Korner, A.F., & Thomen, E.B. (1972). The relative efficacy of contact and vestibular-proprioceptive stimulation on soothing neonates. Child Development, 43, 443-453.

Korner, A.F., Thomen, E.B. & Glick, J. (1974). A system for monitoring crying and noncrying, large, medium and small neonatal movements. Child Development, 45, 946-952.

Kraus, J.F. (1983). Methodological considerations in the search for risk factor unique to sudden infant death syndrome. In J. T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider. (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 43-58). New York: Academic Press.

Kraus, J.F., (1984). Demographic and socioeconomic factors NICHD cooperative epidemiological study of SIDS risk factors. 17th Annual Intra-Science Symposium. International Symposium on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Santa Monica, California, February 22-24.

Kraus, J.F., & Borhani, N.O. (1972). Post-neonatal sudden unexpected death in California: A cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 95, 497.

Kraus, J.F., Franti, C.E., & Borhani, N.O. (1972). Discriminatory risk factors in postneonatal sudden unexplained death. American Journal of Epidemiology, 96, 328-333

Kuhn, CM., Butler, S.R., & Schanberg, S.M. (1978). Selective depression of serum growth hormone during maternal deprivation in rat pups. Science, 201, 1034-1036

Kukolich, M.K., Telsey, A., Oh, J., & Motulsky, A.G., (1977). Sudden infant death syndrome: Normal QT interval on ECGs of relatives. Pediatrics, 60, 51.

Lahiri, S., & Dalaney, G. (1975). Stimulus interaction in the responses of carotid body chemoreceptor single afferent fibers. Respiratory Physiology, 24, 249-266.

Laitman, J. (1983). The evolution of the hominid upper respiratory system and implications for the origins of speech. In E. de Grolier, (Ed.), Glossogenetics: Origins and Evolution of Language. Paris: Harwood.

Laitman, J. (1984). The anatomy of human speech. Natural History, 93, 20-27.

Laitman, J. (1985). Evolution of the hominid upper respiratory tract. In P. Tobias, (Ed.), Hominid evolution: past, present and future (pp. 281-286). New York: Alan R. Liss.

Laitman, J.T., & Crelin, E.S. (1976). Postnatal development of the basicranium and vocal tract region in man. In J.F. Bosma, (Ed.), Symposium on development of the basicranium. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Laitman, J.T., & Crelin, E.S. (1980). Developmental change in the upper respiratory system of human infants. Perinatology/Neonatology, 4, 15.

Laitman, J.T., Crelin, E.S., & Conlogue, G.J. (1977). The function of the epiglottis in monkey and man. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 50, 43-49. 17th Annual Intra-Science Symposium. International Symposium on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Santa Monica, California, February 22-24.

Lancaster, J.B., & Lancaster, CS. (1982). Parental investment: The hominid adaptation. In D. Ortner, (Ed.), How humans adapt: A biocultural odyssey. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Langlais, P.J., Walsh, F.X., Bird, E.O. & Levy, H.L. (1985). Cerebralspinal fluid neurotransmitter metabolites in neurogically normal infants and children. Pediatrics, 75, 580.

Langlois, A., Balken, R.J., & Wilder, C.N. (1980). Prespeech respiratory behavior during the first year of life. In T. Murry & J. Murry, (Eds.), Infant communication: Cry and early speech, (pp. 56-84). Houston: College-Hill Press.

Laudenslager, ML., Reite, M., & Harbeck, R. (1982). Suppressed immune response in infant monkeys associated with maternal separation. Behavioral and Neural Biology, 36, 40-48.

Laufer, M.Z. (1980). Temporal regularity in prespeech. In T. Murry and J. Murry, (Eds.), Infant communication: Cry and early speech, (pp. 284-309). Houston: College-Hill Press.

Lawson, K., Davin, C, & Turkewitz, G. (1977). Environmental characteristics of a neonatal intensive care unit. Child Development, 48, 1633-1639.

Lieberman, P. (1967). Intonation, perception and language. Research Monograph 38. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Lieberman, P. (1984). The biology and evolution of language. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Lipsitt, L.P. (1978). Perinatal indicators and psychophysiological precursors of crib death. In F.D. Horowitz, (Ed.), American Association for the Advancement of Science (Westview Press).

Lipsitt, L.P. (1981). The importance of collaboration and developmental follow-up in the study of perinatal risk. In V.L. Smeriglio, (Ed.), Newborns and parents: Parent-infant contact and newborn sensory stimulation, (pp. 135-150). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Lipsitt, L.P. (1982). Infant learning. Review of human development (pp. 62-78). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Lipsitt, L.P. (1983). Stress in infancy: Toward understanding of the origins of coping behavior. In N. Garmezy & M. Rutter, (Eds.), Stress, coping, and development in children. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lozoff, B., & Breittenham, G. (1978). Infant care: Cache or carry. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Pediatric Research, New York.

Lozoff, B., Wolf, A.W., & Davis, N.S. (1984). Cosleeping in urban families with young children in the United States. Pediatrics, 74 (2), 171-182.

Maloney, J. (1983). Placental insufficiency and the development of the respiratory system "in utero." In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome, (pp. 305-318). New York: Academic Press.

Martin, R.J., Okken, A., Katona, P.G., & Klaus, M.H. (1978). Effect of lung volume on expiratory time in the newborn infant. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental, and Exercise Physiology, 45, 18-23.

Marx, J.L. (1978). Botulism in infants: A cause of sudden death. Science, 201, 799.

Masi, W. (1979). Supplemental stimulation of the premature infant. In T.M. Field, (Ed.), Infants at risk. New York: Scientific Publications.

Mason, J.M., Mason, L.H., Jackson, J., Bell, J.S., Francisco, J.T., & Jennings, B.R. (1975). Pulmonary vessels in SIDS. New England Journal of Medicine, 292, 479.

Maxwell, W., & Maxwell, M. (1979). 52 ways to raise the I. Q. of a child. Appendix to: The forces of achievement A systems approach to schooling and society.

McCulloch, K., Brouillette, R.T., Guzetta, A.J., & Hunt, CE. (1982). Arousal responses in near-miss sudden infant death syndrome and in normal infants. Journal of Pediatrics, 101, 911.

McDonald, A. (1967). Children of very low birth weight (pp. 1-21). MEIO Research Monograph no. 1.

McGinty, D.J. (1984). Reticular formation modulation of state physiology. 17th Annual Intra-Science Symposium. International Symposium on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Santa Monica, California, February 22-24.

McGinty, D.J., & Drucker-Colin, R. (1982). Sleep mechanisms: Biology and control of REM sleep. International Review of Neurobiology, 23, 391-436.

McGinty, D.J., & Harper, R.M. (1974). Sleep Physiology and SIDS. In R. R. Robinson, (Ed.), Proceedings of the Francis E. Camps International Symposium on SIDS. (pp. 201-203). Toronto: Canadian Foundation.

McGinty, D.J., & Hoppenbrouwers, T. (1983). The reticular formation, breathing disorders during sleep, and SIDS. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.). Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, (pp. 375-400). New York: Academic Press.

McGinty, D.J., Littner, M., Beahm, E., Ruiz-Prinio, E., Young, I., & Sowers, J. (1982). Sleep related breathing disorders in older men: A search for underlying mechanisms. Neurobiology and Behavior.

McGraw, W. (1943). The neuromuscular maturation of the human infant New York: Hifner.

McKenna, J.J. (1979). Aspects of infant socialization, attachment, and maternal caregiving patterns among primates: A cross-disciplinary review. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 22, 250-286.

McKenna, J.J. (1982). The evolution of primate societies, reproduction and parenting. In J. King & J. Fobes, (Eds.), Primate Behavior, (pp. 87-133). New York: Academic Press.

McKenna, James J. (1987). An Anthropological perspective on the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A testable hypothesis on the possible role of parental breathing cues in promoting breathing stability, Part 1. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology, 2(2).

Merritt, A.T., & Valdes-Dapena, M.A. (1984). SIDS research update. Pediatric annals, vol. 23, no. 3.

Michelsson, K., & Wasz-Hockert, 0. (1980). The value of cry analysis in neonatology and early infancy. In T. Murry & J. Murry, (Eds.), Infant communication: Cry and early speech, (pp. 152-182). Houston: College-Hill Press.

Mitchell, R.A., & Berger, A.J. (1981). Neural regulation of respiration. In T.F. Hornbein, (Ed.), Regulation of breathing (Part 1). (pp. 540-620). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Montague, A. (1978). Touching. New York: Harper & Row.

Morley, C.J., Hill, CM., Brown, B.O., Barson, A.J., Southall, D., & Davis, J. (1984). Surfectant and sudden infant death (SIDS). Pediatric Research, 18, 810 (Abstract).

Morse, P. & Cowan, N. (1982). Infant auditory and speech perception. In T. Field, A. Huston, H. Quay, L. Troll, & G. Finley, (Eds.), Review of human development pp. 32-61. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Munroe, R.H., Munroe, R.L., & Whiting, B., (Eds.) (1980). Handbook of cross-cultural human development New York: Garland STPM Press.

Murry, T., & Murry, J. (Eds.) (1980). Infant communication: Cry and early speech. Houston: College-Hill Press.

Naeye, R.L. (1973). Pulmonary arterial abnormalities in sudden infant death syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine, 289, 1167-1170.

Naeye, R.L. (1974). Hypoxia and the sudden infant death syndrome. Science, 186, 837-838.

Naeye, R.L. (1976). Brainstem and adrenal abnormalities in SIDS. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 66, 526-529.

Naeye, R.L. (1980). Sudden infant death. Scientific American No. 4, 242, 556-562.

Naeye, R.L. (1983a). Pathologist's role in SIDS research: The unfinished task. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome. (pp. 161-167). New York: Academic Press.

Naeye, R.L. (1983b). Origins of the sudden infant death syndrome. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 77-83). New York: Academic Press.

Naeye, R.L., Figher, R., Ryser, M., & Whalm, P. (1976a). Carotid body in the sudden infant death syndrome. Science, 191, 567-569.

Naeye, R.L., Ladis, B., & Drage, J.S. (1976b). Sudden infant death syndrome-A Prospective study. American Journal of Diseases in Children, 130, 1207-1210.

Naeye, R.L., Messner III, J., Specht, T., & Merritt, F. (1976c). Sudden infant death syndrome temperament before death. Journal of Pediatrics, 88, 511-515.

Nijuis, J.G., Prechtl, H., Martin, C.B., Jr., & Bots, R.S. (1982). Are there behavioral states in the human fetus? Early Human Development, 6, 177.

Norvenius, G. (1984). The contribution of SIDS to infant mortality trends in Sweden. 17th Annual Intra-Science Symposium. International Symposium on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Santa Monica, California, February 22-24.

Odent, M. (1986). Cot deaths in Hong Kong. Lancet, 1, 214 (Letter).

Ohlrich, E.S., Barnet, A.B., Weiss, LP., & Shanks, B.L. (1978). Auditory evoked potential development in early childhood: A longitudinal study. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 44, 411-423.

Orlowski, J.P., Nodar, R.H., & Lonsdale, D. (1979). Abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potentials in infants with threatened sudden infant death syndrome. Cleveland Clinic Quarterly, 46 (3), 77-81.

Ornitz, E.M. (1983). Normal and pathological maturation of vestibular function in the human child. In R. Romand, (Ed.), Development of auditory and vestibular systems. (pp. 479-536). New York: Academic Press.

Orr, W.C, Stahl, M.L., Duke, J., McLaffree, M.A., Torbas, P., Maltice, C, & Krauss, H. (1985). Effect of sleep state and position on the incidence of obstructive and central apnea in infants. Pediatrics, 75 (5), 832-835.

Paret, I. (1983). Night waking and its relation to mother-infant interaction in ninemonth-old infants. In J. Call, E. Galenson, & R. Tyson, (Eds.), Frontiers of infant psychiatry, (pp. 171-177). New York: Basic Books.

Parmelee, A.H., & Sigman, M. (1983). Perinatal brain development and behavior. In P.H. Mussen, (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, (pp. 95-154). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Parmelee, A.H., & Stern, D. (1972). Development of states in infants. In CB. Clement, D.P. Purpura, & F.E. Mayer, (Eds.), Sleep and the maturing nervous system, (p. 199). New York: Academic Press.

Parmelee, A.H., Wenner, W.H., & Schultz, H.R. (1964). Infant sleep patterns from birth to sixteen weeks of age. Journal of Pediatrics, 65, 576-582.

Patrick, J., Campbell, K., Carmichael, L., Natale, R., & Richardsen, B. (1980). Patterns of human fetal breathing during the last ten weeks of pregnancy. Obstetric Gynecology, 56, 24-30.

Patrick, J., Fetheuston, W., Vick, H., & Voegelain, R. (1978a). Human fetal breathing movement and gross fetal body movements at weeks 34-35 gestation. American Journal of Obstetric Gynecology, 130, 693-699.

Patrick, J., Natale, R., & Richardsen, B. (1978b). Patterns of human fetal breathing activity at 34 to 35 weeks of Gestational Age. American Journal of Obstetric Gynecology, 132, 507-513.

Patrick, J.R., & Patrick, S.T. (1982). Adrenal chromaffin tissue in sudden infant death syndrome. Lab Investigation, 46, 12p (Abstract).

Pearson, J., & Brandeis, L. (1983). Normal aspects of morphometry of brain stem astrocytes, carotid bodies, and ganglia in SIDS. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome.(pp. 115-122). New York: Academic Press.

Perrin, D.G., Becker, L.E., Madapallimatum, A., Cruz, E., Bryan, A.C, & Sole, M.J. (1984). Sudden infant death syndrome: Increased carotid body dopamine and noradrenaline content. Lancet (September), 535-537.

Peterson, D. (1983). Epidemiology of the sudden infant death syndrome: Problems, progress, prospects-A review. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome, (pp. 89-98). New York: Academic Press.

Peterson, D. (1984). A community based perspective of SIDS in the United States. 17th Annual Intra-Science Symposium. International Symposium on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Santa Monica, California, February 22-24.

Phillipson, E.A. (1978). Respiratory adaptation in sleep. Annual Review of Physiology, 40, 117-137.

Plum, F., & Leigh, J. (1981). Abnormalities of central mechanisms. In C. Lenfant, E. Semes, & T. Hornbein, (Eds.), Lung biology in health regulation of breathing, Part I. (pp. 987-1067). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Powell, G.F., Brasel, J.A., & Blizzard, R.M. (1967). Emotional deprivation and growth retardation to simulatory idiopathic hypopituitanism. New England Journal of Medicine, 276, 1271-1283.

Prechtl, H.F.R. (1984). Epilogue. In H.F.R. Prechtl, (Ed.), Continuity of neural functions from prenatal to postnatal life. (pp. 245-247).

Prescott, J.W. (1970a). Early somatosensory deprivation as an ontogenetic process in the abnormal development of the brain and behavior. Medical Primatology. Proceedings of the second Conference on Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates, (pp. 356-375). New York.

Prescott, J.W. (1970b). A developmental neural-behavioral theory of socialization. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association, Miami.

Prescott, R. (1980). Cry and maturation. In T. Murry & J. Murry, (Eds.), Infant communication: Cry and early speech, (pp. 234-250). Houston: College-Hill Press.

Purpura, D.B. (1974). Neuronal migration and dendritic differentiation: Normal and aberrant development of human cerebral cortex. Mead Johnson Symposium on Perinatal and Developmental Medicine. Number 6.

Purpura, D.P. (1975). Normal and aberrant development in the cerebral cortex of the human fetus and young infant. In N.A. Buchwald & M.A. Brazier, (Eds.), Brain mechanisms in mental retardation, (pp. 141-169). New York: Academic Press.

Quattrochi, J.J., Baba, N., Liss, L., & Adrion, W. (1980). Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): A preliminary study of reticular dendritic spines in infants with SIDS. Brain Research, 181, 245-249.

Raphael, D. (1976). Night waking: A normal response? Journal of Pediatrics, 88, 169.

Read, D. J.C (1971). The aetiology of the sudden infant death syndrome: Current ideas on breathing and sleep and possible links to deranged thiamin neurochemistry. Australia and New Zealand Medicine, 8, 322-336.

Read, D.J.C & Jeffery, H.E. (1983). Many paths to asphyxial death in SIDS-A search for underlying neurochemical defects. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 183-200). New York: Academic Press.

Reite, M., & Capitanio, J. (1985). On the nature of social separation and social attachment. In M. Reite & T. Field, (Eds.), The Psychobiology of Attachment and Separation. (pp. 223-258). New York: Academic Press.

Reite, M., & Field, T. (Eds.) (1985). The psychobiology of attachment and separation. New York: Academic Press.

Reite, M., Harbeck, R., & Hoffman, A. (1981). Altered cellular immune response following peer separation. Life Science, 29, 1133-1136.

Reite, M., Seiler, C, Crowley, T.J., Hydinger-Macdonald, M., & Short, R. (1982). Circadian rhythm changes following maternal separation. Chronobiologica, 9, 1-11.

Reite, M., Seiler, C, & Short, R. (1978a). Loss of your mother is more than loss of a mother. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 370-371.

Reite, M. & Short, R. (1978b). Nocturnal sleep in separated monkey infants. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 1247-1253.

Reite, M., Short, R., Kaufman, I.C., Stynes, A.J., & Pauley, J.D. (1978c). Heart rate and body temperature in separated monkey infants. Biological Psychiatry, 13, 91-105.

Reite, M., Short, R., Seiler, C, & Pauley, J.D. (1981). Attachment, loss, and depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 22, 141-169.

Reite, J., & Snyder, D. (1982). Physiology of maternal separation in a bonnet macaque infant. American Journal of Primatology, 2, 115-120.

Remmers, J.E. (1981). Control of breathing during sleep. In T. Hornbein, (Ed.), Lung biology in health and disease Volume 17. Regulation of breathing (Part I), (pp. 1197-1249. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Reppert, S.M., & Schwartz, W.J. (1983). Maternal coordination of the fetal biological clock in utero. Science, 27, 969-971.

Sachis, P.W., Armstrong, D.L., Becker, L.E., & Bryan, A.C. (1981). The vagus nerve and sudden infant death syndrome: A morphometric study. Journal of Pediatrics, 98, 278-280.

Saigal, S., Watts, J.L., & Campbell, D. (1986). No immediate or long-term benefits with the use of an oscillating air mattress (OAM) in preterm infants: A randomized clinical trial. Pediatric Research, 20, 384A.

Salk, L. (1960). The effects of the normal heartbeat sound on the behavior of the newborn: Implications for mental health. World Mental Health, 12, 168-175.

Salk, L. (1961). The importance of the heartbeat rhythm to human nature: Theoretical, clinical, and experimental observations. Proceedings of the Third World Congress of Psychiatry. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Salk, L. (1962). Mother's heartbeat as an imprinting stimulus. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences (series 2) 24, 753-763.

Salk, L., Grellong, B.A., & Dietrich, J. (1974). Sudden infant death: Normal cardiac habituation and poor autonomic control. New England Journal of Medicine, 241, 219.

Sameroff, A., & Chandler, J. (1975). Reproductive risk and the continuum of caretaking casualty. In F.D. Horowitz, E.M. Heatherington, S. Scarr-Salapatek, & G.M. Siegel, (Eds.), Review of child development research, vol. 4. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Sander, L.W., Stechler, G., Burns, P., & Julea, H. (1970). Early mother-infant interaction and 24-hour patterns of activity and sleep. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 9, 103-123.

Schmidt, K. (1975). The effect of continuous stimulation of the behavioral sleep of infants. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 21, 77-88.

Schmidt, K., Rose, S.A., & Bridger, W. (1980). Effect of heartbeat sound on the cardiac and behavioral responsiveness to tactual stimulation in sleeping preterm infants. Developmental Psychology, 16, 175-184.

Schwartz, G., & Rosenblum, L. (1985). Allometric influences on primate mothers and infants. In L. Rosenblum & H. Moltz, (Eds.), Symbiosis in parent-offspring interactions. (pp. 215-248). New York: Plenum.

Schwartz, P. J., (1981). The sudden infant death syndrome. Review of Perinatal Medicine, 4, 475.

no author (1983). Autonomic nervous system, ventricular fibrillation, and SIDS, In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome. (pp. 319-340). New York: Academic Press.

Sears, W. (1985). Nighttime parenting. Franklin Park, 111: La Leche League International.

Seiler, C, Cullen, J., Zimmerman, J., & Reite, M. (1979). Cardiac arrhythmias among infant pigtail macaques following maternal separation. Psychophysiology, 16, 130-135.

Short, R. (1984). Breast feeding. Scientific American, 250 (4), 35-41.

Short, R., Iwata, S., & Reite, M. (1977). EEG changes during the depressive reaction following maternal separation. Psychophysiology, 14, 120-136.

Silverstein, R., Nelson, D.L., Lin, C.C., & Rawitch, A.B. (1983). Enzyme stability and SIDS: Studies with phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome, (pp. 233-242). New York: Academic Press.

Singer, D. (1984). Pulmonary vasculature in SIDS. 17th Annual Intra-Science Symposium. International Symposium on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Santa Monica, California, February 22-24.

Slobodkin, L., & Rappoport, A. (1974). An optimal strategy of evolution. Quarterly Review of Biology, 49, 181-200.

Smeriglio, F.L. (1981). Newborns and parents: Parent-infant contact and newborn sensory stimulation. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Smialek, J.E., Smialek, P.Z. & Spitz, W.V. (1977). Accidental bed deaths in infants due to unsafe sleeping situations. Clinical Pediatrics, 16, 1031.

Smith, C.R., & Steinschneider, A. (1975). Differential effects of prenatal rhythmic stimulation on neonatal arousal states. Child Development, 46, 578-599.

Sonnabend, O.A., Sonnabend, W.F., Krech, U., Molz, G., & Sigrist, T. (1985). Continuous microbiological and pathological study of 70 sudden and unexpected infant deaths: Toxigenic inflection in nine cases of sudden infant death syndrome. Lancet (February), 237-242.

Southall, D.P., Richards, J.M., & Rhoden, K.J. (1982). Prolonged apnea and cardiac arrhythmias in infants discharged from neonatal care units: Failure to predict an increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatrics, 70, 844-851.

Southall, D.P., Talbert, D.G., Johnson, P. Morley, C.J., Salmons, S., Miller, J., & Helms, P.J. (1985). Prolonged expiratory apnea: A disorder resulting in episodes of severe arterial hypoxemia in infants and young children. Lancet (September), 571-577.

Spector, G, Pettit, W.J., Davis, G., & Strauss, M. (1978). Fetal respiratory disease causing CNS and inner ear hemorrhage. Laryngoscope, 88, 764-784.

Spock, B. (1976). Baby and child care New York: Simon and Schuster.

Standfast, S., Jereb, S., Aliferis, D., & Janerich, D. (1983). Epidemiology of SIDS in upstate New York. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome, (pp. 59-76). New York: Academic Press.

Stanton, A.N. (1984). Overheating and cot death. Lancet (November), 1199-1201.

Stark, R.E., & Nathanson, S. (1975). Unusual features of cry in an infant dying suddenly and unexpectedly. In J. Bosma & J. Showacre, (Eds.), Development of upper respiratory anatomy and function: Implications for sudden infant death syndrome, (pp. 233-249). Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare.

Statistical Abstracts of the United States. (1984). 104th Edition. Washington D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Steinschneider, A. (1972). Prolonged apnea and the sudden infant death syndrome: Clinical and laboratory observations. Pediatrics, 50, 646-654.

Steinschneider, A. (1975). Nasopharyngitis and Prolonged Apnea. Pediatrics 56:967.

Steinschneider, A. (1978). Sudden infant death syndrome and prolongation of the QT interval. American Journal of the Diseases of Children, 132, 688-691.

Sterman, M.B., Harper. R.M., Havens, B., Hoppenbrouwers, T., McGinty, D., & Hodgman, J. (1977). Quantitative analysis of infant EEG development during quiet sleep. Electroencephalography and Clinical Nuerophysiohgy, 43, 371.

Sterman, M.B., & Hoppenbrouwers, T. (1971). The development of sleep-waking and restactivity patterns from fetus to adult in man. In M.B. Sterman, D.J. McGinty, & A.M. Adinolphi, (Eds.), Brain development and behavior, (pp. 203-207). New York: Academic Press.

Stern, D.N. (1985). The interpersonal world of the infant New York: Basic Books.

Stockard, J.J. (1981). Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in adult and infant sleep apnea syndromes, including sudden infant death syndrome and near miss for sudden infant death. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences.

Strang, L.B. (1977). Neonatal respiration: Physiological and clinical studies. Oxford: Blackwells.

Sturner, W.Q., & Susa, J.B. (1983). Sudden infant death and liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase analysis. Forensic Science International, 16, 19.

Sullivan, C. (1984). Upper airway function in sleep apnea. 17th Annual Intra-Science Symposium. International Symposium on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Santa Monica, California, February 22-24.

Super, C.M. (1972). Long term memory in infants. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University.

Super, C.M., & Harkness, S. (in press). The infant's niche in rural Kenya and metropolitan America. In L.L. Adler, (Ed.), Issues in cross-cultural research. New York: Academic Press.

Svomi, S. (1982). Abnormal behavior and primate models of psychopathology. In J.L. Fobes & J.E. King, (Eds.), Primate behavior, (pp. 171-215). New York: Academic Press.

Swift, P.G., Worthy, E., & Emery, J.L. (1974). Biochemical state of the vitreous humor of infants at necropsy. Archives of Diseases in Children, 49, 680-685.

Takashima, S., Armstrong, D.L., & Becker, L.E. (1978a). Subcortical leukomalacia: Relationship to development of the cerebral sulcus and its vascular supply. Archives of Neurology, 35, 470-472.

Takashima, S., Armstrong, D.L., Becker, L.E., & Bryan, C. (1978b). Cerebral hypoperfusion in the sudden infant death syndrome? Brain stem gliosis and vasculature. Annals of Neurology, 4, 257-262.

Tanner, N. (1981). On becoming human. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Tenney, S.M., & Bartlett, Jr., D. (1981). Some comparative aspects of the control of breathing. In T. Hornbein, (Ed.), Regulation of breathing (Part I). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Tenney, S.M., Scotto, P., Ou, P., Bartlett, L.G, & Remmers, J. (1971). Suprapontine influences on hypoxic ventilatory control. In R. Porter & J. Knight (Eds.), High altitude physiology: Cardiac and respiratory aspects. London: Church Livingston.

Thach, B.T. (1983). The role of pharyngeal airway obstruction in prolonging infantile apnea spells. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 279-292). New York: Academic Press.

Thach, B.T. (1986). Sudden infant death syndrome: Old causes rediscovered. New England Journal of Medicine, 315, 126-128.

Thevenin, T. (1976). The family bed' An age old concept in childrearing. Minneapolis: T. Thevenin.

Thoman, E.B., Acebo, C., & Becker, P.T. (1983). Infant crying and stability in the mother-infant relationship: A systems analysis. Child Development, 54, 653-659.

Thoman, E.B., & Graham, S.E. (In press). Self-regulation of stimulation by premature infants. Pediatrics (In press).

Thurlbeck, W.M. (1975). Postnatal growth and development of the lung. Lung Disease. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 111, 803-844.

Tildon, J.T., & Roeder, L.M., (1983). Metabolic and endocrine aspects of SIDS: An overview. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome, (pp. 243-262). New York: Academic Press.

Tildon, J.T., Roeder, L.M., & Steinschneider, A. (Eds.). (1983). Sudden infant death syndrome. New York: Academic Press.

Tobias, P. (1985). Hominid evolution: Past, present and future. New York: Alan R. Liss.

Tobin, M.J., Cohn, M., & Sackner, M. (1983). Breathing abnormalities during sleep. Archives of Internal Medicine, 143, 1221-1228.

Tonkin, S. (1974). Airway occlusion as a possible cause of SIDS. In R.R. Robinson, (Ed.), SIDS 1974. (pp. 73-74). Canadian Foundation for the Study of Sudden Infant Death.

Tonkin, S. (1975). Sudden infant death: Hypothesis of causation. Pediatrics, 55, 650.

Tonkin, S. (1983). Pharyngeal airway obstruction-Physical signs and factors in its production. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 453-466). New York: Academic Press.

Tronick, E., Morelli, G., & Winn, S. (In press). Multiple caretaking of Efe (Pygmy) infants. American Anthropologist, forthcoming.

Tronick, E., Winn, S., & Morelli, G. (1985). Multiple caretaking in the context of human evolution. Why don't the Efe know the western prescription for child care? In M. Reite & T. Field, (Eds.), The psychobiology of attachment and separation, (pp. 293-319). New York: Academic Press.

Turkington, C. (1984). Psychologists help spot crib danger. Chronicle of Higher Education, (December):37.

Valdes-Dapena, M.A. (1963). Sudden and unexpected death in infants: The scope of our ignorance. Pediatric Clinician of North America, 10, 693.

Valdes-Dapena, M.A. (1970). Progress in sudden infant death research, 1963-1969. In A.B. Bergman, J.B. Beckwith, & CG. Ray, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 3-14). Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Valdes-Dapena, M.A. (1978). Sudden infant death syndrome, 1970-1975. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Publication no. 78-5255.

Valdes-Dapena, M.A. (1980a). Sudden infant death syndrome: A review of the medical literature, 1974-1979. Pediatrics, 66, (4), 567-614.

Valdes-Dapena, M.A. (1980b) Sudden infant death syndrome. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Publication no. 80-5255.

Valdes-Dapena, M.A. (1983). The morphology of the sudden infant death syndrome: An overview. In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome, (pp. 169-182). New York: Academic Press.

Valdes-Dapena, M.A. (1984). A SIDS anatomical pathological update, 1984. 17th Annual Intra-Science Symposium. International Symposium on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Santa Monica, California, February 22-24.

Valdes-Dapena, M.A. & Felipe, R.P. (1971). Immunofluorescent studies in crib death: Absence of evidence of hypersensitivity to cows' milk. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 56, 421.

Van der Hal, A.L., Rodriquez, A.M., Sargent, C.W., Platzker, A.C & Keens, T.G. (1985). Hypoxic and hypercapnic arousal responses and prediction of subsequent apnea in infancy. Pediatrics, 75, 848.

Volpe, J.J. (1981). Neurology of the newborn, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

von Bertalanffy, L. (1933). Modern theories of development An introduction to theoretical biology. J. H. Woodger, (Ed. and Trans.). London: Oxford University Press.

von Bertalanffy, L. (1969). General systems theory. Rev. ed. New York: Braziller.

Wahlberg, V. (n.d.). The human incubator-"Kangaroo method." Unpublished paper. Available through author. Karolinska Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Karolinska Hospital, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden, and University of California School of Nursing N611Y, Department of Physiological Nursing, San Francisco, California 94143.

Walker, S., Grimwade, J., & Wood, C. (1971). Intrauterine noise: A component of the fetal environment. American Journal of Obstetric Gynecology, 109, 91-95.

Wedgwood, R., & Benditt, E., (Eds.) (1963). Sudden death in infants. Proceedings of the Conference of Causes of Sudden Death in Infants. Washington, D.C: Public Health Service Publication no. 1412.

Weinstein, S., Steinschneider, A., & Diamond, E. (1983). SIDS and prolonged apnea during sleep: Are they only a matter of state? In J.T. Tildon, L.M. Roeder, & A. Steinschneider, (Eds.), Sudden infant death syndrome (pp. 413-422). New York: Academic Press.

Weiss, P. (1969). The living system: Determinism stratified. In A. Koestler & J.R. Smythies, (Eds.), Beyond reductionism. Boston: Beacon Press.

Weiss, P. (1971). The basic concept of hierarchial systems. In P. Weiss, (Ed.), Hierarchially organized systems in theory and practice. New York: Hafner.

Werthammer, J., Brown, E., Neff, R.K., et al. (1982). Sudden infant death syndrome in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics, 95, 301.

Whitehead, R. (1983). Some respiratory and aerodynamic patterns in the speech of the hearing impaired. In I. Hochberg, J. Levitt, & M.J. Osberger, (Eds.), Speech of the hearing impaired: Research training, and personnel preparation, Baltimore: University Park Press.

Wholley, P.V. (1945). Mechanical suffocation during infancy: Relation to total problem of sudden death. Journal of Pediatrics, 26, 572.

Widdicombe, J.G. (1981). Nervous receptors in the respiratory tract and lungs. In T.F. Hornbein, (Ed.), Regulation of breathing (Part I). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Wilder, C.N. (1972). Respiratory patterns in infants: Birth to eight months of age. Dissertation, Columbia University. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International.

Williams, L.J., Spence, A., & Tideman, S.C (1977). Implications of the observed effect of air pollution on birth weight. Social Biology, 24, 1-9.

Williams, A.G., Wawter, G., & Reed, L. (1979). Increased Muscularity of the pulmonary circulation in victims of sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatrics, 63, 18-23.

James J. McKenna, Ph.D.

James J. McKenna is Department Chair and Associate Professor, Department of Anthropology, Pomona College, Claremont, California, and Adjunct Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Psychiatry, and Human Behavior, University of California School of Medicine, Irvine, California. This paper is a modified version of an Anthropological Perspective on the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: The Role of Parental Breathing Cues and Speech Breathing Adaptions published im Medical Anthropology Vol. 10 No. 1 Spring 1986. Reprinted with permission of Redgrove Press.