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This paper summarizes results of three investigations: an ecological study dealing with the epidemiology of self-destructive behavior in the United States (unpublished), a case-control study of forensic victims in Stockholm,1 and preliminary results from an ongoing study of amphetamine addicts in Stockholm.2 The results seem alarming. The revealed data suggest that obstetric methods should be modified to prevent damages to future generations.


1. Jacobson, B., Eklund, G., Hamberger, L., Linnarsson, D., Sedvall, G, & Valverius, M. (1987). Perinatal origin of adult self-destructive behavior. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 76, 364-371.

2. Jacobson, B. Nyberg, K., Eklund, G., & Bejerot, N. Obstetric pain medication and drug addiction in offspring. To be published.

3. Rank, O. (1952). The trauma of birth, (p. 188). New York: Robert Brunner.

4. Salk, L., Lipsitt, L.P., Stumer, W.Q., Reilly, B.M., & Levat, R.H. (1985). Relationship of maternal and perinatal conditions to eventual adolescent suicide. Lancet, 1, 624-627.

5. Des Jarlais, D.C. & Uppal, G.S. (1980). Heroin activity in New York City. Am J. Drug Alcohol Abuse, 7, 335-346.

6. Murphy, G.E. & Wetzel, R.D. (1980). Suicide risk by birth cohort in the United States 1949 to 1974. Arch Gen. Psychiatr, 37, 519-523.

7. Solomon, M.I. & Hellon, C.P. (1980). Suicide and age in Alberta, Canada 1951 to 1977. Arch Gen. Psychiatr, 37, 511-513.

8. Goldney, R.D. & Katsikitis, M. (1983). Cohort analysis of suicide rates in Australia. Arch Gen. Psychiatr, 40, 71-74.

Bertil Jacobson, M.D.

Bertil Jacobson, M.D. is with the Department of Medical Engineering, Karolinska Institute, Box 60400, S-10401, Stockholm, Sweden.

JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.

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