Adding Comments

We invite Member's comments on any Journal issue or any individual Journal Article. You will find the space for comments at the bottom of each Journal and Article page. You can also send comments directly to the editor at: journal.editor@birthpsychology.com. Members can also be notified of all new comments posted by updating their Notification Settings.
Issue: 
Publication Date: 
10/2005
Page Count: 
24
Starting Page: 
25
Price: $10.00
Abstract: 

The current study sought to establish the psychometric properties of the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in early pregnancy to determine the potential clinical usefulness of the sub-scales that comprise this measure. The CWS was administered to 129 women during early pregnancy at the antenatal booking clinic. Factor analysis revealed support for the socio-medical, health, socio-economic and relationships subscale domains. The CWS sub-scales were observed to assess dimensions distinct to those of anxiety and depression. In summary, the CWS is a valid and reliable measure of distinct domains of pregnancy-related worry.

References: 

Akaike, H. (1987). Factor analysis and the AIC. Psychometrika, 52, 317-332.

Arbuckle, J.L. & Wothke, W. (1999). AMOS 4.0 Users Guide, Smallwaters, Chicago.

Beck, C.T. (2001). Predictors of postpartum depression: an update. Nursing Research, 50, 275-285.

Bentler, P.M. & Bonett, D.G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588-606.

Bentler, P.M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238-246.

Bozdogan, H. (1987). Model selection and Akaike's information criterion (AIC): The general theory and its analytical extensions. Psychometrika, 52, 345-370.

Browne, M.W. & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K.A. Bollen & J.S. Long (Eds.), Testing Structural Equation Models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Borkovec, T.D., Metzger, R.L., & Pruinsky, T. (1986). Anxiety, worry and the self. In L. Hartman & K.R. Blackstein (Eds.), Perception of Self in Emotional Disorder and Psychotherapy. New York: Plenum.

Carmines, E.G. & Mciver, J.P. (1981). Analyzing models with unobserved variables: Analysis of covariance structures. In G.W. Bohmstedt & E.F. Borgatta (Eds.), Social Measurement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Chung, T.K., Lau, T.K., Yip, A.S., Chiu, H.F., & Lee, D.T. (2001). Antepartum depressive symptomology is associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 830-834.

Collins, V., Halliday, J., Warren, R., & Williamson, R. (2000). Cancer worries, risk perceptions and associations with interest in DNA testing and clinic satisfaction in a familial colorectal cancer clinic. Clinical Genetics, 58, 460-468.

Cox, J.L., Chapman, G., Murray, D. & Jones, P. (1996). Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in non-postnatal women. Journal of Affective Disorders, 39, 185-189.

Cox, J.L., Holden, J.M. & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 782-786.

Cox, J.L. & Holden, J.M. (2003). A guide to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. London: Gaskell.

Crandon, A.J. (1979). Maternal anxiety and obstetric complications. Psychosomatic Research, 23, 109-111.

Cronbach, L.J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334.

Dunbar, M., Ford, G., Hunt, K. & Der, G. (2000). A confirmatory factor analysis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale: comparing empirically and theoretically derived structures. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 79-94.

Evans, J., Heron J., Francomb, J., Oke, S. & Golding, J. (2001). Cohort study of depressed mood during pregnancy and after childbirth. British Medical Journal, 323, 257-260.

Gebhardt, W.A. & Brosschot, J.F. (2002). Desirability of control: Psychometric properties and relationships with locus of control, personality, coping and mental and somatic complaints in three Dutch samples. European Journal of Personality, 16, 423-438.

Georgsson-Ohman, S., Grunewald, C., & Waldenstrom, U. (2003). Women's worries during pregnancy: testing the Cambridge Worry Scale on 200 Swedish women. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 17, 148-152.

Glazer, G. (1980). Anxiety levels and concerns among pregnant women. Research in Nursing and Health, 3, 107-113.

Glover, V. (1997). Maternal stress or anxiety in pregnancy and emotional development of the child. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 105-106.

Green, J.M. (1998). Postnatal depression or perinatal dysphoria? Findings from a longitudinal community-based study using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Journal of Reproductive & Infant Psychology, 16, 143-55.

Green, J. (1990). Calming or Harming? A critical review of psychological effects of fetal diagnosis of pregnant women. Gallon Institute, Occasional Papers, second series, No 2. London: Galton Institute.

Green, J., Kafetsios, K., Statham, H., & Snowden, C. (2003). Factor Structure, validity and reliability of the Cambridge Worry Scale in a pregnant population. Journal of Health Psychology, 8, 753-764.

Green, J.M., & Murton, F.E. (1993). Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Families responses to diagnosis and genetic counselling. Cambridge: Centre for Family Research, University of Cambridge.

Hilvingsson, I., Radestad, I., Rubersson, C., & Waldenstrom, U. (2002). Few women wish to be delivered by ceasarean section. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 109, 618-623.

Homer, C., Farrell, T., Davies, G., & Brown, M. (2002). Women's worry in the antenatal period. British Journal of Midwifery, 10, 356-360.

Hu, L.T. & Bentler, P.M. (1995). Evaluating model fit. In R.H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modelling: Concepts, issues and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Jomeen, J. & Martin, C.R. (2004a). Confirmation of an occluded anxiety component within the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during early pregnancy, Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, in press.

Jomeen, J. & Martin, C.R. (20046). Is the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) a reliable screening tool in early pregnancy? Psychology and Health, in press.

Joreskog, K.G. & Sorbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International.

Karimova, G. & Martin, C.R. (2003). A psychometric evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale during pregnancy. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 8, 89-103.

Kline, P. (1993). The handbook of psychological testing. London: Routledge.

Kline, P. (2000). A psychometrics primer. London: Free Association Books.

Kline, R.B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.

Light, K.H., & Fenster, C. (1974). Maternal concerns during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetric Gynaecology, 118, 46-50.

Lubin, B., Gardner, S., & Roth, A. (1975). Mood and somatic symptoms during pregnancy. Psychosomatic Medicine, 37, 136-146.

Marsh, H.W., Balla, J.R. & McDonald, R.P. (1988). Goodness-of-fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis: The effect of sample size. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 391-110.

Martin, C.R. & Jomeen, J. (2003). Is the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) confounded by scoring method during pregnancy and following birth? Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 21, 267-278.

Martin, C.R. & Jomeen, J. (2004). The impact of clinical management type on maternal locus of control in pregnant women with pre-labour rupture of membranes at term. Health Psychology Update, 13, 3-13.

Martin, C.R. & Thompson, D.R. (1999). Utility of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients with end-stage renal disease on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 4, 369-376.

Martin, C.R. & Thompson, D.R. (2000). A psychometric evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in coronary care patients following acute myocardial infarction. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 5, 193-201.

Martin, C.R., Tweed, A.E. & Metcalfe, M.S. (2004). A psychometric evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients diagnosed with end-stage renal disease. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 51-64.

Mulder, E. J.H., Robles de Medina, P.G., Huizink, A.C., Van den Bergh, J., & Buitlaar, K. (2001). Prenatal maternal stress: Effects on pregnancy and the (unborn) child. Early Human Development, 70, 3-14.

National Institute For Clinical Excellence. (2003). Clinical Guidelines for Antenatal Care: Routine Antenatal Care. London: Department of Health.

Nimby, G.T., Lundberg, L., Sveger, T., & McNeil, F. (1999). Maternal distress and congenital malformations: do mothers of malformed fetuses have more problems? Journal of Psychiatric Research, 33, 291-301.

O'Connor, T.G., Heron, J., Golding, J., Beveridge, M., it Glover, V. (2002). Maternal antenatal anxiety and children's behavioural/emotional problems at 4 years: report form the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 502-508.

Paarlberg, K.M., Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M., Passchier, J., Dekker, G.A., & Van Geijn, H.P. (1995). Psychosocial factors and pregnancy outcome: A review with emphasis on methodological issues. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 39, 563-595.

Rubertsson, C., Waldenstrom, U. & Wickberg, B. (2003). Depressive mood in early pregnancy: Prevalence and women at risk in a national Swedish sample. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 21, 113-123.

Sikorski, J., Wilson, J., Clement, S., Das, S., & Smeeton, N. (1996). A randomised controlled trial comparing two schedules of antenatal visits: the antenatal care project. British Medical Journal, 312, 546-553.

Snaith, R.P. & Zigmond, A.S. (1994). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Manual. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.

Statham, H., Green, J., & Kafetsios, K. (1997). Who worries that something might be wrong with the baby? A prospective study of 1072 women. Birth, 24, 223-233.

Stober, J., & Muijs, M. (2001). Patterns of situational appraisal in experiences of worry and anxiety. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 14, 367-390.

Stocky, A. & Lynch, J. (2000). Acute psychiatric disturbance and the puerperium. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 14, 73-87.

Stowe, Z.N. & Nemeroff, C.B. (1995). Women at risk for postpartum-onset major depression. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 173, 639-645.

Tallis, F., Eynsenck, M., & Matthews, A. (1991). Elevated evidence requirements and worry. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 21-27.

Weisberg, R.B., & Paquette, J. A. (2002). Screening and Treatment of anxiety disorders in pregnant and lactating women. Women's Health Issues, 12, 32-36.

Zigmond, A.S. & Snaith, R.P. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67, 361-370.

Julie Jomeen and Colin R. Martin

Department of Health Studies, University of Leeds, United Kingdom

Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China.

Send correspondence to: Professor Colin R. Martin, Faculty of Medicine, The Nethersole School of Nursing, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Esther Lee Building, Chung Chi College, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. Tel: +852 2609 8172. Fax: 4852 2603 5269. E-mail: colinmartin@cuhk.edu.hk

JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.

Join APPPAH for unlimited access to all journals.

JOURNAL of PRENATAL & PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH
journals/volume-20-issue-1/factor-structure-cambridge-worry-scale-early-pregnancy