Early childhood literature suggests children born after the loss of an infant sibling are at risk for attachment disorders, yet there continues to be a lack of intervention available to support the parents of these children during their pregnancies. The stories of these adult subsequent children give meaning to why attachment disorders can result and provide a strong case for intervention around infant loss and the subsequent pregnancy. Contrary to other studies on this topic, these participants summarize healing and hope.
Anisfeld, L. & Richards, A. (2000). The replacement child: Variations on a theme in history and psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 55, 301-318.
Archer, J. (1999). The nature of grief: The evolution and psychology of reactions to loss. New York: Routledge.
Armstrong, D. & Hutti, M. (1998). Pregnancy after perinatal loss: The relationship between anxiety and prenatal attachment. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 27(2), 183-189.
Attig, T. (1991). The importance of conceiving of grief as an active process. Death Studies, 15(4), 385-393.
Bennett, S.M., Litz, B.T., SarnoffLee, B., & Maguen, S. (2005). The scope and impact of perinatal loss: Current status and future directions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36(2), 180-187.
Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss: Vol. 3. Loss: Sadness and depression. New York: Basic Books.
Cain, A. & Cain, B. (1964). On replacing a child. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 3(3), 443-456.
Cain, A., Erickson, M., Fast, I., & Vaughan, R. (1964a). Children's disturbed reactions to their mother's miscarriage. Psychosomatic Medicine, 26(1), 58-66.
Cain, A,, Fast, I., & Erickson, M. (1964b). Children's disturbed reactions to the death of a sibling. American Journal ofOrthopsychiatry, 34(4), 741-752.
Chamberlain, D. (1997). Early and very early parenting: New territories. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 12(2), 51-59.
Costa Segui, M. (1995). The prenatal period as the origin of character structures. International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 7(3), 309-322.
Cote-Arsenault, D. & Marshall, R. (2000). One foot in-One foot out: Weathering the storm of pregnancy after perinatal loss. Research in Nursing & Health, 23(6), 473-485.
Cote-Arsenault, D., Bidlack, D., & Hurom, A. (2001). Women's emotions and concerns during pregnancy following perinatal loss. Maternal Child Nursing, 26(3), 128-134.
Cuisinier, M., Janssen, H., de Graauw, C., Bakker, S., & Hoogduin, C. (1996). Pregnancy following miscarriage: Course of grief and some determining factors. Journal of Psychosomatics in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 17(3), 168-174.
Dahlberg, K., Drew, N., & Nystrom, M. (2001). Reflective lifeworld research. Lund, Sweden: Studentlitteratur.
Dali, S. & Parinaud, A. (1973). Maniac Eyeball: The Unspeakable Confessions of Salvador Dali. London: Allen.
Davis, B. (1999). Shadows in the sun: The experience of sibling bereavement in childhood. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.
Davis, D.L., Stewart, M., & Harmon, R.J. (1989). Postponing pregnancy after perinatal death: Perspective on doctors' advice. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28(4), 481-187.
Doka, K. (2002). Disenfranchised grief: New directions, challenges, and strategies for practice. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
Emerson, W. (1998). The vulnerable infant. International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 10(1), 5-17.
Fedor-Freybergh, P. (1992). The prenatal and perinatal psycho-medicine in the changing world. The International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Studies, 4(1), 8-9.
Findeisen, B. (1992). The long term psychological impact of pre- and perinatal experiences. The International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Studies, 4(1), 14.
Fonagy, P. (July 2000). The development ofpsychopathology from infancy to adulthood: The mysterious unfolding of disturbance in time. Presentation at the World Association of Infant Mental Health Conference, Montreal, Canada.
Gilbert, K.R. (1997). Couple coping with death of a child. In C.R. Figley (Ed.), The traumatology of grieving (pp. 101-121). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.
Giorgi, A. (1997). The theory, practice, and evaluation of the phenomenological method as a qualitative research procedure. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 28(2), 235-260.
Grout, L. & Romanoff, B. (1999). The myth of the replacement child: Parents' stories and practices after perinatal death. Death Studies, 24, (2), 93-113.
Hailing, S. (2002). Making phenomenology accessible to a wider audience. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 53(1), 19-38.
Heller, S. & Zeanah, C. (1999). Attachment disturbances in infants born subsequent to perinatal loss: A pilot study. Infant Mental Health Journal, 20(2), 183-199.
Hepper, P. & Shahidullah, S. (1994). The beginnings of mind: Evidence from the behavior of the fetus. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 12(3), 143-154.
Hughes, P., Turton, P., Hopper, E., McGauley, G.A., & Fonagy (2001). Disorganized attachment behavior among infants born subsequent to stillbirth. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(G), 791-801.
Hughes, P.M., Turton, P., & Evans, C.D.H. (1999). Stillbirth as risk factor for depression and anxiety in the subsequent pregnancy: Cohort study. British Medical Journal, 318(7200), 1721-1724.
Hughes, P., Turton, P., Hopper, E., & Evans, C.D.H. (2002). Assessment of guidelines for good practice in psychological care of mothers after stillbirth: a cohort study. Lancet, 360 (July), 114-118.
Jordan, J. (September 1990). Loss and family development: Clinical implications. Paper presented at the 98th annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Boston, MA.
Layne, L. (2003). Motherhood lost: A feminist account of pregnancy loss in America. New York, NY: Routledge Press.
Lehman, D.R., Wortman, C.B., & Williams, A.F. (1987). Long-term effects of losing a spouse or child in a motor vehicle crash. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(1), 218-231.
Leon, LG. (2001). Perinatal loss. In N. Stotland & D. Steward (Eds.), Psychological aspects of women's health care: The interface between psychiatry and obstetrics and gynecology (2nd ed., pp. 141-173). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Leon, I. (1986). Intrapsychic and family dynamics in perinatal sibling loss. Infant Mental Health Journal, 7(3), 200-213.
Moss, R.H. & Schaefer, J.A. (1986). Life transitions and crises: A conceptual overview. In R.H. Moss (Ed.), Coping with life crises: An integrated approach (pp. 3-28). New York: Plenum Press.
Neimeyer, R.A. (1998). Lessons of loss: A guide to coping. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Nickman, S.L., Silverman, P.R., & Normand, C. (1998). Children's construction of their deceased parent: the surviving parent's contribution. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68(10), 126-141.
Nolen-Hoekseman, S. & Larson, J. (1999). Coping with loss. Mahwah, NJ; Erlbaum.
O'Leary, J.M. (2004). Grief and its impact on prenatal attachment in the subsequent pregnancy. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 7(1), 7-18.
O'Leary, J. & Thorwick, C. (1997). Impact of pregnancy loss on subsequent pregnancy. In W. Esposito-Woods (Ed.), Loss during pregnancy or in the newborn period (pp. 431-463). Pitman, NJ: Jannetti.
O'Leary, J., Parker, L., & Thorwick, C. (1998). After loss: Parenting in the next pregnancy. A manual for professionals working with families in pregnancy following loss. Minneapolis, MN: Allina Health Systems, Available firstname.lastname@example.org
Parkes, C. (2002). Grief: Lessons from the past, visions for the future. Death Studies, 26(5), 367-385.
Peterson, G. (1994). Chains of grief: The impact of prenatal loss on subsequent pregnancy. Pre and Perinatal Psychology, 9(2), 49-158.
Pettle, S.A. & Britten, C.M. (1995). Talking with children about death and dying. Child: care, health, and development, 21(6), 394-404.
Polkinghorne, D. (1989). Phenomenological research methods. In R.S. Valle & S. Hailing (Eds.), Existential-phenomenological perspectives in psychology: exploring the breadth of human experience (pp. 41-60). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Powell, M. (1995). Sudden infant death syndrome: The subsequent child. British Journal of Social Work, 25(2), 227-240.
Pozanski, E. (1972). The replacement child: A saga of unresolved grief. Behavioral Pediatrics, 81(9), 1190-1193.
Rando, T.A. (1983). An investigation of grief and adaptation in parents whose children have died from cancer. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 8(1), 3-20, March.
Rando, T.A. (1986). Unique issues and impact. In T.A. Rando (Ed.), Parental loss of a child (pp. 5-43). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
Rubin, S. (1993). The death of a child is forever. In M. Stroebe, W. Stroebe, & R-O. Hansson (Eds.), Handbook of bereavement: Theory, research and intervention (pp. 285-299). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sabbadini, A. (1988). The replacement child. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 24(4), 528-547.
Schneider, J.M. (1994). Finding my way: Healing and transformation through loss and grief. Colfax, WI: Seasons Press.
Silverman, P.R. & Nickman, S.L. (1996). Children's construction of their dead parent. In D. Mass, P.R. Silverman, & S.L. Nickman (Eds.), Continuing Bonds: A New Understanding of Grief (pp. 73-86). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.
Wallerstedt, C., Lilley, M., & Baldwin, K. (2003). Interconceptional counseling after perinatal and infant loss. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecological Neonatal Nursing, 32(4), 533-542.
Walsh, F.M. & McGoldrick (1991). Loss and the family: A systematic perspective. In F. Walsh&M. McGoldrick (Eds. ), Living beyond loss: Death in the family (pp. 1-20). New York: W.W. Norton.
Wheeler, I. (2001). Parental bereavement: The crisis of meaning. Death Studies, 25(1), 51-66.
Zeanah, C.H. (1989). Adaptation following perinatal loss: A critical review. Journal of the Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28(3), 467-480.
Zeanah, C.H. & Harmon, R. (1995). Perinatal loss and infant mental health: An introduction. Infant Mental Health Journal, 16(2), 76-70.
JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.