Adding Comments

We invite Member's comments on any Journal issue or any individual Journal Article. You will find the space for comments at the bottom of each Journal and Article page. You can also send comments directly to the editor at: Members can also be notified of all new comments posted by updating their Notification Settings.
Publication Date: 
Page Count: 
Starting Page: 
Price: $10.00

This article is an updated review of the literature on the long term consequences of birth. Current literature reviewed includes the topics of autism, juvenile criminality, drug addiction, anorexia nervosa, asthma, exposure of antibiotics during pregnancy, the behavioural effects of hormones, and caesarean sections and is offered from a primal health perspective. The article closes with recommendations the profound changes that need to be made if this vision of childbirth is to be brought to a broader audience.


Al-Mufti, R-, McCarthy, A., & Fisk, N.M. (1997). Survey of obstetricians' personal preference and discretionary practice. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 73, 1-4.

Apgar, V. ( July-Aug 1953). A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 261-262.

Armenteros, J.L. & Adams, P.B., et al. (1995). Haloperidol-related dyskinesias and preand perinatal complications in autistic children. Psychopharmacol Bull, 31(2), 363-9.

Bager, P., Melbye, M., Rostgaard, K., Stabell Benn, C., & Westergaard, T. (2003). Mode of delivery and risk of allergic rhinitis and asthma. J Allergy Clin. Immunol, 111(1), 51-6.

Brinton, R.E., Warasley, J.K., Gee, K.W., et al. (1984). ^sup 3^H-oxytocin binding sites demonstrated in the rat brain by quantitative light microscopic autoradiography. Eur. J. Pharmacol, 102, 365-67.

Carmichael, M.S. & Humbert, R., et al. (1987). Plasma oxytocin increases in the human sexual response. J. Clin.Endocrinol. and Metab, 64(1), 27-31.

Cnattingius, S., Hultman, C.M., Dahl, M., & Sparen, P. (1999). Very preterm birth, birth trauma and the risk of anorexia nervosa among girls. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 56, 634-38.

De Kloet, E.R. & Rotteveel, F., et al. (1985). Topography of binding sites for neurohypophyseal hormones in rat brain. Eur J Pharmacol, 110, 113-19.

Dietz, H.P. & Bennett, M.J. (2003). The effect of childbirth on pelvic organ mobility. Obstet Gynecol, 102, 223-8.

Eaton, S.B., Shostak, M., & Konner, M. (1988). The Palaeolithic prescription: A program of diet and exercises and a design for living. Harper and Row, NY.

Eggesbo, M., Botten, G., Stigum, H., et al. (2003). Is delivery by cesarean section a risk factor for food allergy? J Allergy Clin Immunol, 112(2), 420-6.

Egli, C.E. & Newton, M. (1961). Transport of carbon particles in the human female reproductive tract. Fertility and Sterility, 12, 151-55.

Favaro, A., Tenconi, E., & Santonastaso, P. (2006). Perinatal factors and the risk of developing anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63(1), 82-8.

Faxelius, G., Hagnevik, K., Lagercrantz, H., Lundell, B., & Irestedt, I. (1983). Catecholamine surge and lung function after delivery. Arch Dis Child, 4, 262-66.

Freund-Mercier, M.J. & Stoeckel, M.E., et al. (1987). Pharmacological characteristics and anatomical distribution of ^sup 3^H-oxytocin binding sites in the Wistar rat brain studied by autoradiography. Neuroscience, 20, 599-614.

Gabbe, S.G. & Holzman, G.B. (2001). Obstetricians' choice of delivery. Lancet, 357, 722.

Glasgow, T.S., Young, P.C., Wallin, J., et al. (2005). Association of intrapartum antibiotic exposure and late-onset serious bacterial infections in infants. Pediatrics, 116(3), 696-702.

Glasson, E.J., Bower, C., Petterson, B., et al. (2004). Perinatal factors and the development of autism: a population study. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 67(6), 618-27.

Green, L. & Fein, D., et al. (2001). Oxytocin and autistic disorder: alterations in peptides forms. Biol Psychiatry, 50(8), 609-13.

Hager, R.M., Daltveit, A.K., Hofoss, D., Nilsen, S.T., Kolaas, T., Oian, P., & Henriksen, T. (2004). Complications of cesarean deliveries: rates and risk factors. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 190(2), 428-34.

Hallet, J.P. (1973). Pygmy Kitabu. New York: Random House.

Hattori, R., Desimaru, M., Nagayama, I., & Inoue, K. (1991). Autistic and developmental disorders after general anaesthetic delivery. Lancet, 337, 1357-8.

Hook, B., Kiwi, R., Amini, S.B., Fanoroff, A., & Hack, M. (1997). Neonatal morbidity after elective repeat cesarean section and trial of labour. Pediatrics, 100, 348-53.

Hultman, C., Sparen, P., & Cnattingius, S. (2002). Perinatal risk factors for infantile autism. Epidemiology, 13, 417-23.

Insel, T.R. (1986). Postpartum increases in brain oxytocin binding. Neuroendocrinology, 44, 515-18.

Jacobson, B. & Nyberg, K. (1990). Opiate addiction in adult offspring through possible imprinting after obstetric treatment. BMJ, 301, 1067-70.

Jacobson, B. & Bygdeman, M. (1998). Obstetric care and proneness of offspring to suicide as adults: case control study. BMJ, 317, 1346-9.

Jain, L. & Eaton, D.C. (2006). Physiology of fetal lung fluid clearance and the effect of labor. Semin Perinatal, 30(1), 34-43.

Joel-Cohen, S. (1972). Abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy: New techniques based in time and motion studies. London: William Heinemann Medical Books.

Kosfeld, M., Heinrichs, M., Zak, P.J., Fischbacher, U., & Fehr, E. (2005). Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature, 435(7042), 673-6.

Kero, J., Gissler, M., Gronlund, M.M., Kero, P., Koskinen, P., Hemminki, E., & Isolauri, E. (2002). Mode of delivery and asthma - is there a connection? Pediatr Res, 52(1), 6-11.

Kozak, L.J. & Weeks, J.D. (2002). U.S. trends in obstetric procedures 1990-2000. Birth, 29, 157-61.

Krehbiel, D. & Poindron, P. (1987). Peridural anaesthesia disturbs maternal behaviour in primiparous and multiparous parturient ewes. Physiology and Behavior, 40, 463-72.

Lundbland, E.G. & Hodgen, G.D. (1980). Induction of maternal-infant bonding in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys after caesarian delivery. Lab. Anim. Sci, 30, 91.

McKeever, T.M., Lewis, S.A., Smith, C., & Hubbard, R. (2002). Mode of delivery and risk of developing allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 109(5), 800-2.

McKeever, T.M., Lewis, S.A., Smith, C., & Hubbard, R. (2003). The importance of prenatal exposures on the development of allergic disease: a birth cohort study using the West Midlands General Practice Database. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 167(11), 1578.

McNeilly, A.S. & Ducker, H.A. (1972). Blood levels of oxytocin in the female goat during coitus and in response to stimuli associated with mating. J. Endocrinol, 54, 399-406.

Nissen, E., Lilja, G., Widstrom, A.M., & Uvnas-Moberg, K. (1995). Elevation of oxytocin levels early post partum in women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 74, 530-3.

Nissen, E. & Uvnas-Moberg, K., et al. (1996). Different patterns of oxytocin, prolactin but not cortisol release during breastfeeding in women delivered by caesarean section or by the vaginal route. Early Human Development, 45, 103-118.

Nissen, E., Gustavsson, P., Widstrom, A.M., & Uvnas-Moberg, K. (1998). Oxytocin, prolactin, milk production and their relationship with personality traits in women after vaginal delivery or Cesarean section. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol, 79(1), 49-58.

Nyberg, K., Buka, S.L., & Lipsitt, L.P. (2000). Perinatal medication as a potential risk factor for adult drug abuse in a North American cohort. Epidemiology, 11(6), 715-16.

Odent, M. (1986). Primal health. London: Century-Hutchinson.

Odent, M. (1987). The fetus ejection reflex. Birth, 14, 104-105.

Odent, M. (1992). Colostrum and civilisation. In: The nature of birth and breastfeeding. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey.

Odent, M. (1999). The scientification of loue. London: Free Association Books.

Odent, M. (2000). Between circular and cul-de-sac epidemiology. Lancet, 355, 1371.

Odent, M. (2001). New reasons and new ways to study birth physiology. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 75, S39-S45.

Odent, M. (2002). The farmer and the obstetrician. London: Free Association Books.

Odent, M. (2003). Risk factors for anorexia nervosa. Lancet, 361, 1913-14.

Odent, M. (2004). The caesarean. London: Free Association Books.

Pedersen, C.S. & Prange, J.R. (1979). Induction of maternal behavior in virgin rats after intracerebroventricular administration of oxytocin. Pro. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 76, 6661-65.

Pedersen, C.A., Caldwell, J.D., Jirikowski, G.F., & Insel, T.R. (Eds.) (1992). Oxytocin in maternal, sexual and social behaviors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 652.

Poma, P.A. (1999). Vanishing forceps delivery. American Journal Perinatology, 16, 227-31.

Potter, J.E., Berquo, E., Perpetuo, I.H., Leal, O.F., Hopkins, K., Souza, M.R., & Formiga, M.C. (2001). Unwanted caesarean sections among public and private patients in Brazil: prospective study. BMJ, 17, 323(7322), 1155-8.

Raine, A., Brennan, P., & Medink, S.A. (1994). Birth complications combined with early maternal rejection at age 1 year predispose to violent crime at 18 years. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 51, 984-8.

Roemer, F.J., Rowland, D.Y., & Nuamah, I.F. (1991). Retrospective study of fetal effects of prolonged labor before cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol, 77(5), 653-8.

Salk, L., Lipsitt, L.P., Sturner, W.Q., Reilly, B.M., & Levat, R.H. (1985). Relationship of maternal and perinatal conditions to eventual adolescent suicide. Lancet, 624-7.

Sapiro, L.E. & Insel, T.R. (1992). Oxytocin distribution reflects social organization in monogamous and polygamous voles. In: Oxytocin in maternal, sexual and social behaviors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 652.

Sartori, C., Alleman, Y., Trueb, L., et al. (1999). Augmented vasoreactivity in adult life associated with perinatal vascular insult. Lancet, 353, 2205-2207.

Sharaf, H., Foda, H.D., Said, S.I., & Bodansky, M. (1992). Oxytocin and related peptides elicit contractions of prostate and seminal vesicle. In: Oxytocin in maternal, sexual and social behavior. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 652.

Schalling, D., Edman, G., & Asberg, M. (1983). Impulse cognitive style and inability to tolerate boredom. In M. Zuckerman (Ed.), Biological Bases of Sensation Seeking, Impulsivity, and Anxiety (pp. 123-145). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Soloff, M.S., Alexandrova, M., & Fernstrom, M.J. (1979). Oxytocin receptors: Triggers for parturition and lactation? Science, 204, 1313-24.

Steer, P. (1998). Caesarean section: an evolving procedure? BJOG, 105, 1052-5.

Stein, D., Weizman, A., Ring, A., & Barak, Y. (2006). Obstetric complications in individuals diagnosed with autism and in healthy controls. Compr Psychiatry, Jan-Feb, 47(1), 69-75.

Sultan, A.H., Kamm, M.A., Hudson, C.N., & Bartram, C.I. (1994). Third degree obstetric and anal sphincter tears: risk factors and outcome of primary repair. BMJ, 308, 887-91.

Terkel, J. & Rosenblatt, J.S. (1968). Maternal behavior induced by maternal blood plasma injected into virgin rats. J. Comp. Physio. Psychol., 65, 479-82.

Thomas, J. & Paranjothy, S. (2001). National sentinel caesarean section audit report. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Clinical Effectiveness Support Unit.

Thomas, S.A. & Palnuter, R.D. (1997). Impaired maternal behavior in mice lacking norepinephrine and epinephrine. Cell., 91, 583-92.

Tinbergen, N. & Tinbergen, A. (1983). Autistic children. London: Alien and Unwin.

Tulandi, T. & Al-Jaroudi, D. (2003). Non closure of peritoneum: a reappraisal. Am J Obst Gynecol, 189(2), 609-12.

Uvnas-Moberg, K. (1989). Hormone release in relation to physiological and psychological changes in pregnant and breastfeeding women. Womens' Health in the 1990s, E.V. Van Hall & W. Everaerd (Eds.). Casterton Hall, UK: Parthenon Publishing Group.

Van Leeuwen, F.W. & Heerikhuize, J.V., et al. (1985). Light microscopic autoradiographie localization of ^sup 3^H-oxytocin binding sites in the rat brain, pituitary, and mammary gland. Br. Res, 359, 320-25.

Verbalis, J.G., McCann, M., McHale, C.M., & Stricker, E.M. (1986). Oxytocin secretion in response to cholecystokinin and food: differentiation of nausea from satiety. Science, 232, 1417-19.

Vogl, S.E., Worda, C., Egarter, C., Bieglmayer, C., Szekeres, T., Huber, J., & Husslein, P. (2006). Mode of delivery is associated with maternal and fetal endocrine stress response. BJOG, 113(4), 441-5.

Xu, B., Pekkanen, J., & Jarvelin, M.R. (2000). Obstetric complications and asthma in childhood. J Asthma, 37(7), 589-94.

Xu, B., Pekkanen, J., Hartikainen, A.L., & Jarvelin, M.R. (2001). Caesarean section and risk of asthma and allergy in adulthood. J allergy Clin Immunol, 107(4), 732-3.

Yamaguchi, K., Akaishi, T., & Negoro, H. (1979). Effect of estrogen treatment on plasma oxytocin and vasopressin in ovariectomized rats. Endocrinol. Jpn, 26, 197-205 notes. June 1987: 157-160.

Zak, P. (2003). Trust begets hormone: Oxytocin may help human bond. Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. New Orleans, LA.

JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.

Join APPPAH for unlimited access to all journals.