Adding Comments

We invite Member's comments on any Journal issue or any individual Journal Article. You will find the space for comments at the bottom of each Journal and Article page. You can also send comments directly to the editor at: Members can also be notified of all new comments posted by updating their Notification Settings.
Publication Date: 
Page Count: 
Starting Page: 
Price: $10.00

This paper will examine the anatomy and physiology of the development of the seven senses in utero. On the basis of this knowledge clinicians will be better able to promote more peaceful as well as enriched prenatal environments and plan interventions for children at risk for later developmental difficulties.


Anand, J.S. & Hickey, P.R. (1987). Pain and its effect on the developing fetus. New England Journal of Medicine, 377(21), 1321-1329.

Ayres, A.J. (1979). Sensory integration and the child. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

Elliot, L. (1999). What's going on in there? How the brain and mind develop in the first year of life. New York: Bantam Books.

Hartman, D. & Zimberoff, D. (2002). Memory access to our earliest influences. Journal of Heart-Centered Therapies, 5(2), 3-63.

Hill, S., DeBellis, M., Keshavan, M., Lowers, L., Shen, S., & Pitts, T. (2001). Right amygdala volume in adolescent and young adult offspring from families at high risk for developing alcoholism, Biological Psychiatry, 49, 894-905.

Kandel, E., Schwartz, J., & Jessel, T. (2000). Principles of Neural Science. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Larson, W. (2001). Human embryology. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone.

Lecanuet, J., Granier-Defeere, C., & Busnel, M. (1995). Human fetal auditory perception. In Fetal Development: A Psychobiological Perspective. Lecanuet, J., Pifer, W., Krasnegor, N., & Smotherman, W. (Eds.), Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 239-262.

O'Rahilly, R. & Muller, F. (1996). Human embryology & teratology. Davis, CA: WileyLiss.

Sameroff, A. (2000). Developmental systems and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 297-312.

Schaal, B., Orgeur, P., & Rognon, C. (1995). Odor sensing in the human fetus: Anatomical, functional and chemoecological bases. In Fetal Development: A Psychobiological Perspective. Lecanuet, J., Fifer, W., Krasnegor, N., & Smotherman, W. (Eds.), Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Schepers, M. & Benson, J. (2006). Understanding Sensory Integration. OT Practice, August, 14, 2006.

Smotherman, W. (1995). Tracing developmental trajectories into the prenatal period. In J.P. Lecanuet, Krasnegor, W., Norman, A., & Smotherman, W. (Eds.), Fetal Development: A Psychological Perspective. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Thomson, P. (2004). The impact of trauma on the embryo and fetus: An application of the Diathesis-Stress Model and the Neurovulnerability-Neurotoxicity Model." Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 79(Fall 2004), 9-63.

Truby, H. (1975). Prenatal and neonatal speech, pre-speech, and an infantile speech lexicon. Child Language, 27(A special issue of WORD), parts 1-3.

Tsiaras, W. (2002). From conception to birth: A life unfolds. New York: Doubleday.

Williamson, G. & Anzalone, M. (2001). Sensory integration and self-regulation in infants and toddlers: Helping very young children interact with their environment. Washington D.C.: Zero to Three.

JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.

Join APPPAH for unlimited access to all journals.