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Based on her presentation at the APPPAH Congress in Los Angeles, February, 2007, and her experience in training doctors, nurses, and first responders how to speak in medical emergencies, Dr. Prager (2002) focuses in this article on the essential and biological nature of rapport and bonding in the socialization of mammals, from the earliest prenatal influences on, and the deleterious effects of their absence to all of society and the future.


Acosta, J. & Prager, J.S. (2002). The worst is over: What to say when every moment counts. San Diego, CA: Jodere Group.

AfterSchool Alliance (2007). 22% of Latino children care for themselves after school day ends, study finds. Retrieved 3/10/2007 from

BBC News (2007). Fat toddlers risk early puberty. Retrieved 3/10/2007 from

Bradshaw, G., Shore, A., Poole, C. (2005). Elephant Breakdown? Nature 433, 807

Cassidy, T. (2006). Birth controlled. New York Times, March 26, 2006.

Chu, H. (2006). Infertile westerners are outsourcing childbearing to India. Los Angeles Times, April 23, 2006.

Elias, E. (2006). New antipsychotic drugs carry risks for children. Retrieved 3/10/2007 from

Goleman, D. (2006). Social Intelligence: The new science of social relationships. New York: Bantam Books.

Hardin, B. (2007). Numbers drop for the married with children; Institution becoming the choice of the educated, affluent. Washington Post, March 4, 2007, p. A03.

HealthDay (2007). Are autism cases on the rise in U.S.? Retrieved 3/10/2007 from

Horowitz, L., Wang, P., Koocher, C. P., Burr, B.H., Smith, M.F., Klavon, S., & Cleary, S.D. (2001). Detecting Suicide Risk in a Pediatric Emergency Department: Development of a Brief Screening Tool, Pediatrics 107[5] 1133-1137.

Lipton, B. (2005). The Biology of Belief: Unleashing the power of consciousness, matter, and miracles. Santa Rosa, CA: Mountain of Love/Elite Books.

Lewis, T., Amini, F., & Lannon, R. (2000). A general theory of love. New York: Vintage Books, 2000

NHMA (1999). News release. Retrieved 3/10/2007 from

Pearce, J.C. (1992). Evolution's end: Claiming the potential of our intelligence. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco. (2006). C-section controversy. Retrieved 3/10/2007 from tml

Siebert, C. (2006) An elephant crackup? The New York Times Magazine, October 8, 2006.

UNICEF (2007). The State of the World's Children. New York: Unicef.

Wadhwa, P. D. (2005). Psychoneuroendocrine processes in human pregnancy influence fetal development and health, Psychoneuroendocrinology 30, 724-743.

JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.

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