The Interactional Model of Maternal-Fetal Attachment: An Empirical Analysis

Issue: 
Publication Date: 
10/2008
Page Count: 
16
Starting Page: 
49
Price: $10.00
Abstract: 

An Interactional Model of Maternal-Fetal Attachment was empirically studied to analyze contributions of fetal characteristics and psychoanalytic and ecological components. Ninety-nine women during their third trimester were administered questionnaires about themselves, their environment, and their fetus to identify predictors of maternal-fetal attachment. Whether the woman knew the fetus? gender and fetal age were the best predictors of the strength of maternal-fetal attachment. These data suggest that the mother?s interactions with her fetus are stronger predictors of attachment than her internal working model or her environment. The findings support an interactional model of maternal-fetal attachment.

References: 

American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). p. 320. Washington, D. C: American Psychiatric Association.

Beck, A. T., Ward, C, Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erlbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 53-63.

Behnke, M. & Eyler, E D. (1993). The consequences of prenatal substance abuse for the developing fetus, newborn, and young child. International Journal of tlie Addictions, 28, 1341-1391.

Bibring, G. L. (1959). Some considerations of the psychological processes in pregnancy. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 14, 113 -121.

Brazelton, T. B. & Cramer, B. G. (1990). The earliest relationship: parents, infants, and the drama of early attachment. Reading, M.A.: Addison- Wesley.

Bunikowski, R., Grimmer, L, Heiser, A., Metze, B., Schafer, A., Obladen, M. (1998) Neurodevelopmental outcome after prenatal exposure to opiates. European Journal of Pediatrics 157: 724-30.

Buri, J. R. (1989). Self-esteem and appraisals of parental behavior. Journal of Adolescent Research, 4, 33 - 49.

Carter-Jessop, L. & Keller, B. (1987). Early maternal bonding. Ch 6. In T. R. Verny (Ed.), Pre- and perinatal psychology: An introduction, pp. 107 - 127. New York: Human Sciences Press.

Condon, J. T (1985).The parental -foetal relationship - a comparison of male and female expectant parents. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 4,271 - 284.

Cranley, M. S. (1981). Development of a tool for the measurement of maternal attachment during pregnancy, Nursing Research, 30, 281 - 284.

Datta-Bhutada, S., Johnson, H. L., & Rosen, T. S. (1998). Intrauterine cocaine and crack exposure: neonatal outcomes. Journal of Perinatology, 18(S), 183 - 188.

Doan, H. McK. & Zimerman, A. (2003). Conceptualizing prenatal attachment: toward a multidimensional view. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 18(2), 109-129.

Finnegan, L. P (1994). Perinatal morbidity and mortality in substance using families: effects and intervention strategies. Bulletin on Narcotics, 46, 19 - 43.

Fonagy, P., Steele, M., Moran, G, Steele, H. & Higgitt, A. (1993). Measuring the ghost in the nursery: an empirical study of the relations between parents' mental representations of childhood experiences and their infants' security of attachment. Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association, 41(4), 957 - 989.

Gaffney K. F. (1986). Maternal-fetal attachment in relation to self-concept and anxiety. Maternal-Child Nursing Journal, 15(2), 91-101.

George, C. & Solomon, J. (1999). Attachment and caregiving: the caregiving behavioral system. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: theory, research, and clinical applications. New York: Guilford Press.

Grace, J. T. (1989). Development of maternal -fetal attachment during pregnancy. Nursing Research, 38(4), 228-232.

Grant, B. F. & Hasin, D. S. (1991). Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS). Bethesda, M. D.: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA).

Hart, R. & McMahon, CA. (2006). Mood state and psychological adjustment to pregnancy. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 9, 329-337.

Hendrick, S. S. (1988). A generic measure of relationship satisfaction. Journal of Marriage and Family, 50, 93-98.

Heidrich, S. M. & Cranley M. S. (1989). Effect of fetal movement, ultrasound scans, and amniocentesis on maternal-fetal attachment. Nursing Research, 38(2), 81-84.

Hobfoll, S. E., Ritter, C, Lavin, J., Hulsizer, M. R., & Cameron, R. P. (1995). Depression prevalence and incidence among inner-city pregnant and postpartum women, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(S), 445-453.

Jones, K. L. & Smith, D. W. (1973). Recognition of the fetal alcohol syndrome in early infancy Lancet, 2, 99-1001.

Kemp, V. H., & Page, C. K. (1987). Maternal prenatal attachment in normal and high-risk pregnancies. Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecological and Neonatal Nursing, 16(3), 195-206.

Klaus, M. H., Kennell, J. H., & Klaus, P. H. (1995). Bonding: building the foundation of secure attachment and independence, p. 192. Reading, M.A.: Addison-Wesley.

Koniak-Griffin, D. (1988). The relationship between social support, self-esteem, and maternal-fetal attachment in adolescents. Research in Nursing and Health, 11, 269-278.

Kunkel, G. F. & Doan, H. McK. (2003). Fetal attachment and depression: measurement matters. Journal of Perinatal and Prenatal Psychology and Health, 18(2), 149 - 166.

LaGasse, L. L., Messinger, D., Lester, B. M., Seifer, R., Tronick, E. Z., Bauer, C. R., Shankaran, S., Bada, H. S., Wright, L. L., Smeriglio, V. L., Finnegan, L. P, Maza, P L. & Liu, J. (2003). Prenatal drug exposure and maternal and infant feeding behaviour. Archives of Diseases in Child, Fetal, Neonatal Education, 88, 391 - 399.

Leifer, M. (1977). Psychological changes accompanying pregnancy and motherhood. General Psychiatry Monographs, 95, 55-96.

Leifer, M. (1980). Psychological effects of motherhood: a study of first pregnancy . pp. 47. New York: Praeger.

Lewis, M. & Lee-Painter, S. (1974). An interactional approach to the mother-infant dyad. In M. Lewis & L. A. Rosenblum (Eds.), The effect of the infant on its caregiver, pp. 22-23. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Lewis, M. W. (2001). Faciliation of maternal-fetal bonding in pregnant substance -abusing women attending outpatient treatment. Journal of Addictions Nursing, 13(3/4), 175-185.

Lewis, M. W., Misra, S., Johnson, H. L. & Rosen, T. S. (2004). Neurological and developmental outcomes of prenatally cocaine-exposed offspring from 12 - 36 months. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 30(2), 299 - 320.

Mayes, L. C, Bornstein, M. H., Chawarska, K. & Granger, R. H. (1995). Information processing and developmental assessments in 3-month-old infants exposed prenatally to cocaine. Pediatrics, 95(4), 539-545.

Mercer, R. T., Ferketich, S., May, K. A., DeJoseph, J., & Sollid, D. (1988). Further exploration of maternal and paternal fetal attachment. Research in Nursing and Health, 11, 83 - 95.

Nichols, M. R., Roux, G. M., & Harris, N R. (2007). Primigravid and multigravid women: prenatal perspectives. Journal of Perinatal Education, 16(2), 21-23.

National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). (1996). Drinking and your pregnancy. Publication -No. 96-4101-1966. www.niaaa.nig.gov/publications/brochure

Office of the Surgeon General. (2005). U. S. General Releases Advisory on Alcohol Use in Pregnancy. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from www.surgeongeneral.gov .

Phipps, S. & Zinn, A. B. (1986). Psychological response to amniocentesis: mood state and adaptation to pregnancy. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 23, 131-142.

Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Journal of Applied Psychological Measurement, 385-401.

Raskin, V. D., Rishman, J. A., & Gaines, C. (1990). Patterns of depressive symptoms in expectant and new parents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147(B), 658-660.

Reading, A. E., Campbell, S., Cox, D. N, & Sledmere, C. M. (1982). Health beliefs and healthcare behavior in pregnancy. Psychosomatic Medicine, 12, 379-383.

Rosen, T. S. & Johnson, H. L. (1982). Children of methadone-maintained mothers: followup to 18 months of age. Journal of Pediatrics, 101(2), 192-196.

Spence, M. R., Williams, R., DiGregorio, G. J., Kirby-McDonnell, A. & Polansky, M. (1991). The relationship between recent cocaine use and pregnancy outcomes. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 78, 326-329.

Stern, D. N. (1995). The motherhood constellation: a unified view of parent-infant psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.

Steele, H. & Steele, M. (1994). Intergenerational patterns of attachment. In K. Bartholomew & D. Perlman (Eds.), Attachment processes in adulthood; advances in personal relationships. (Vol. 5.). p. 111. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Valenzuela, C. F (1997). Alcohol and neutotransmitter interactions. Alcohol Health and Research World, 21(2), 144-148.

Warren, K. R. & Foudin, L. L. (2001). Alcohol-related birth defects - The past, present, and future. Alcohol Research & Health, 25(3), 153 - 158.

Wasserman, G. A., Rauh, V. A., Brunelli, S. A., Garcia-Castro, M., Ñecos, B. (1990). Psychosocial attributes and life experiences of disadvantaged minority mothers: Age and ethnic variations. Child Development, 61, 566-580.

Wu, J. H. L. & Eichmann, M. A. (1988). Fetal sex identification and prenatal bonding. Psychological Reports, 63, 199 - 202.

Zeanah, C. H., Carr, S., & WoIk, S. (1990). Fetal movements and the imagined baby of pregnancy: Are they related? Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 8, 23 - 36.

Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W, Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52, 30 - 41.

Zuckerman, B., Frank, D. A., Hingson, R., Amaro, H., Levenson, S. M., Kayne, H., Parker, S., Vinci, R., Aboagye, K, Fried, L. E., Cabrai, H., Timperi, R. & Bauchner, H. (1989). Effects of maternal marijuana and cocaine use on fetal growth. New England Journal of Medicine, 320, 762 - 768.