This paper will focus on the infants and young children who underwent surgical procedures without anesthesia prior to 1987, the standard of practice at the time, and the lifelong consequences that remain unrecognized and untreated in this population. Relevant historical context unique to this phenomenon in the human story is critical to understanding the protocol by which the medical profession determined care for the infant. The review of the neuroscience of trauma and memory focuses on primary sensory and affective capacity. Physiologically, the neonate and preverbal child’s inability to integrate overwhelming pain and terror proved causative for psychopathology. Research will demonstrate how cognitive, affective, and behavioral developmental patterns continue during the lifespan. Through awareness of the profound violation exacted by medical trauma, a link for the adult between their history and current symptomatolgy may begin to be bridged. Looking at the origins of this legacy may further serve to stimulate current pediatric healthcare consideration of the implications of medical trauma occurring at the most vulnerable and trusting stage of early development.
AGI (2006). Surgery for children and adolescents. Retrieved from httpy/acadgi.conVwhatisguidediniagery/page25/page52/page56/page56.htnü
APA (American Psychiatric Association). (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Anand, K.J.S., Phil, D., & Hickey, PR. (1987). Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus. The New England Journal of Medicine, 317(21), 1321-1329.
Anand, K.J.S., Stevens, B.J., & McGrath, PJ. (2007). Pain in Neonates & Infants, 3rd Edition. Elsevier Publishers.
Chamberlain, D. (1991) Babies don't feel pain: A century of denial in medicine. Retrieved from http-y/www.nocirc. org/symposia/second/chamberlain.html
Chamberlain, D. (1995). What babies are teaching us about violence. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 10(2), 57-75.
Chamberlain, D. (1998). The mind of your newborn baby. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.
Chamberlain, D. (1999). Babies don't feel pain: A century of denial in medicine. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 14(1-2), 145-167.
Cozolino, L. (2006). The neuroscience of human development. New York: WW Norton & Company, Inc.
Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved from www.dhhs.gov
Edwards, S. (2011). On the brain. The Harvard Mahoney Neuroscience Institute Letter. 17(1), 1-3.
Felitti, J. V., Anda, RE, Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D.E, Spitz, A.M., Edwards, V., ...Marks, J.S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE Study. American Journal of Preventative Medicine. 14(4) 245-258
Gupta, S., & Anand, K. (2008). Treating pain in tiny patients, Video clip. Retrieved from http-y/wwwcbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=3861231n&tag=related; photovideo
Harrison, H. (1987). Why infant surgery without anesthesia went unchallenged. The New York Times. Retrieved from http^/www nytimes.com
Johnson, E. ( 1997) Investigating minds. Retrieved from httpy/pages.slc.edu/-ebj/IM_97/Lecture6/L6.html#Goleman
Lawson, J. (1988). Standards ofpracti.ee and the pain of premature infants. National Center for Clinical Infant Programs. Retrieved from http://recoveredscience.com/ROP_preemiepain.htm
Lieberman A.F., & Van Horn P. (2009). Giving voice to the unsayable: Repairing the effects of trauma in infancy and early childhood. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 18(3), 707-720.
Levine, PA. (2010). In an unspoken voice. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.
Lipton, B. (2008). The biology of belief. USA: Hay House.
McCarty, W. (2009). Wondrous beginnings: Supporting babies wholeness from the beginning of life. Santa Barbara, CA: Wondrous Beginnings Publications.
Murray, R. (n.d.) PTSD and childhood trauma. Uplift program. Retrieved from http://vmw.upliftprogram.com/article_ptsd.html
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2005). Excessive stress disrupts the architecture of the developing brain: Working paper #3. Retrieved from: httpy/developmgchnd.harvard.edu/ijidex.php/hbrary/reports_and_worldng_papers/ working_papers/wp3/
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2010). Early experiences can alter gene expression and affect long-term development: Working paper #10. Retrieved from http://developijigchüd.harvard.edu/mdex.php/u^ king_papers/wpl0/
Pert, C. B. (1997). Molecules of emotion. New York: Scribner.
Purges, S.W. (1993). The infant's sixth sense: Awareness and regulation of bodily processes. Zero to Three: Bulletin of the National Center for Clinical Infant Programs, 14, 12-16. Retrieved from httpV/stephenporges.com>imiages/the%20mfants%20sixth%20sense%20awareness%20and%20regmation%2(bf%20boo^y%2C)processes.pdf
Porges, S.W., & Dyke, R.M. (2006). How your nervous system sabotages your ability to relate. Nexus Colorado's Holistic Journal. Boulder, CO. Retrieved from httpy/wwwnexuspub.com/articles_2006/interview_porges_06_ma.php
Rubin, R. (2005, May 8). Believing babies feel pain. USA Today, p.l. Retrieved from httpy/wwwusatodaycom/news/health/2005 05-08-babies-pain_x.htm
Schwartz, R.C. (2001). Internal family systems model. Oak Park, IL: Trailheads Publications.
Shonkoff, J.P, Boyce, WT, & McEwen, B.S. (2009). Neuroscience, molecular biology, and the childhood roots of health disparities: Building a new framework for health promotion and disease prevention. Journal of American Medicine 301 (21):225 2-2259
Schore, A. N (2010). Traumatic attachment and the early origins of PTSD. Continuing Edcourses.com. Retrieved from: http://www.contmumgedcourses.net/active/iiidex.php
Silverman, WA. (1999). Where's the evidence?: Debates in modern medicine. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Sullivan, J. T (1996). Surgery before anesthesia. American Society of Anesthesiologists Newsletter, 60(9), Pages 8-10.
Van der Kolk, B. A. (2010). Developmental trauma disorder. DVD. (personal copy) httpy/tlcinstitute.wordpress.com/2009/11/03/developmental-trauma-disorder-whattrauma-specialists-need-to-know/
JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.