Shame is a powerful emotion born of implicit mind and with lasting implications. This brief essay explores the source of this experience, including its possible role as an instrument of survival, its relationship to the processes of bonding and attachment, and its developmental aspects.
Key Words: Shame, Attachment, Dysregulation, Mother
Badenoch, B. (2008). Being a brain-wise therapist. A practical guide to interpersonal neurobiology. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Broucek, F.J. (1982). Shame and its relationship to early narcissitic developments. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 63, 630-378.
Cozolino, L. (2006). The neuroscience of human relationships: attachment and the developing social brain. New York: W.W. Norton & Company inc.
Cozolino, L. (2010). The neuroscience of psychotherapy: healing the social brain. New York: WW Norton & Company, Inc.
Dawson, G. (1994). Development of emotional expression and emotion regulation in infancy. In Dawson, G., and Fischer, KW (Eds.), Human behavior and the developing brain. New York: Guilford Press.
Diamond, S., Balvin, R.S., Diamond, FR. (1963). Inhibition and choice: A neurobiological approach to problems of plasticity in behavior. New York: Harper & Row Publishers.
Lewis, H.B. (1981). Shame and guilt in human nature. In Tuttman, S., Kaye, C, and Zimmerman, M. (Eds.), Object and self: A developmental approach. New York: International University Press.
Mahler, M.S., Pine, F, and Bergman, A. (2000). The psychological birth of the human infant: Symbiosis and individuation. New York: Basic Books.
Nathanson, D.L. (1987). A timetable for shame. In Nathanson, D.L. (Ed), The many faces of shame. New York: The Guilford Press.
Scheff, T. (1990). Microsociology: Discourse, emotion, and social structure. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Schore, A. (1994). Affect regulation and the repair of the self. New York: WW Norton & Company.
Schore, A. (1998). Early shame experiences and infant brain development. In Gilbert, P and Andrews, B. (Eds.), Shame, interpersonal behavior, psychopathology, and culture. New York: Oxford University Press.
Siegel, D. J. (1999). The developing mind: how relationships and the brain interact to shape who we are. New York: The Guilford Press.
Tomkins, S. (2008). Affect imagery consciousness: The complete edition. Volume I: The positive affects. Volume II: The negative affects. New York: Springer Publishing Company.