Pain and Its Effects in the Human Neonate and Fetus

Publication Date: 
Page Count: 
Starting Page: 
Price: $10.00

1. Merskey H, Albe-Fessard DG, Bonica JJ, et al. Pain terms: a list with definitions and notes on usage: recommended by the IASP Subcommittee on Taxonomy. Pain 1979; 6:249-52.

2. McGraw MD. The neuromuscular maturation of the human infant. New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.

3. Merskey H. On the development of pain. Headache 1970; 10:116-23.

4. Levy DM. The infant's earliest memory of inoculation: a contribution to public health procedures. J Gen Psychol 1960; 96:3-46.

5. Harris FC, Lahey BB. A method for combining occurrence and nonoccurrence interobserver agreement scores. J Appl Behav Anal 1978; 11:523-7.

6. Bondy AS. Infancy. In: Gabel S, Erickson MT, eds. Child development and developmental disabilities. Boston: Little, Brown, 1980:3-19.

7. Eland JM, Anderson JE. The experience of pain in children. In: Jacox AK, ed. Pain: a source book for nurses and other health professionals. Boston: Little, Brown, 1977:453-73.

8. Wallerstein E. Circumcision: the uniquely American medical enigma. Urol Clin N Am 1985; 12:123-32

9. Anand KJS, Aynsley-Green A. Metabolic and endocrine effects of surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in the human preterm neonate: Are there implications for further improvement of postoperative outcome? Mod Probl Paediatr 1985; 23:143-57.

10. Lippmann N, Nelson RJ, Emmanouilides GC, Diskin J, Thibeault DW. Ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants. Br J Anaesth 1976; 48:365-9.

11. Shaw EA. Neonatal anaesthesia. Hosp Update 1982; 8:423-34.

12. Katz J. The question of circumcision. Int Surg 1977; 62:490-2.

13. Swafford LI, Allan D. Pain relief in the pediatric patient. Med Clin North Am 1968; 52:131-6.

14. Rees GJ. Anesthesia in the newborn. Br Med J 1950; 2:1419-22.

15. Betts EK, Downes JJ. Anesthetic considerations in newborn surgery. Semin Anesth 1984; 3:59-74.

16. Inkster JS. Paediatric anaesthesia and intensive care. Int Anesthesiol Clin 1978; 16:58-91.

17. Norman EA. Pulse oximetry during repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Br J Anaesth 1986; 58:934-5.

18. Hatch DJ. Analgesia in the neonate. Br Med J 1987; 294:920.

19. Shearer MH. Surgery on the paralysed, unanesthetized newborn. Birth 1986; 13:79.

20. Robinson S, Gregory GA. Fentanyl-air-oxygen anesthesia for ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants. Anesth Analg 1981; 60:331-4.

21. Weiss C. Does circumcision of the newborn require an anesthetic? Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1968; 7:128-9.

22. Owens ME. Pain in infancy: conceptual and methodological issues. Pain 1984; 20:213-30.

23. Richards T. Can a fetus feel pain? Br Med J 1985; 291:1220-1.

24. Gleiss J, Stuttgen G. Morphologic and functional development of the skin. In: Stave U, ed. Physiology of the perinatal period. Vol. 2. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970:889-906.

25. Humphrey T. Some correlations between the appearance of human fetal reflexes and the development of the nervous system. Prog Brain Res 1964; 4:93-135.

26. Valman HB, Pearson JF. What the fetus feels. Br Med J 1980; 280:223-4.

27. Okado N. Onset of synapse formation in the human spinal cord. J Comp Neurol 1981; 201:211-9.

28. Wozniak W, OTtahilly R, Olszewska B. The fine structure of the spinal cord in human embryos and early fetuses. J Hirmforsch 1980; 21:101-24.

29. Rizvi T, Wadhwa S, Bijilani V. Development of spinal substrate for nociception. Pain [Suppl] 1987; 4:195.

30. Tilney F, Rosett J. The value of brain lipoids as an index of brain development. Bull Neurol Inst NY 1931; 1:28-71.

31. Schulte FJ. Neurophysiological aspects of brain development. Mead Johnson Symp Perinat Dev Med 1975; 6:32-47.

32. Idem. Gestation, wachstum und hirnentwicklung. In: Linneweh F, ed. Fortschritte der Paedologie. Vol. 2. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1968:46-64.

33. Gilles FJ, Shankle W., Dooling EC. Myelinated tracts: growth patterna. In: Gilles FH, Leviton A., Dooling EC, eds. The developing human brain: growth and epidemiologic neuropathology. Boston: John Wright, 1983:117-83.

34. Marin-Padilla M. Structural organization of the human cerebral cortex prior to the appearance of the cortical plate. Anat Embryol (Berl) 1983; 168:21-40.

35. Molliver ME, Kostovic I, Van der Loos H. The development of synapses in cerebral cortex of the human fetus. Brain Res 1973; 50:403-7.

36. Rakic P, Goldman-Rakic PS. Development and modifiability of the cerebral cortex: early developmental effects: cell lineages, acquisition of neuronal positions, and areal and laminar development. Neurosci Res Prog Bull 1982; 20:433-51.

37. Kostovic I, Rakic P. Development of prestriate visual projections in the monkey and human fetal cerebrum revealed by transient cholinesterase staining. J Neurosci 1984; 4:25-42.

38. Kostovic I, Goldman-Rakic PS. Transient cholinesterase staining in the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus and its connections in the developing human and monkey brain. J Comp Neurol 1983; 219:431-47.

39. Spehlmann R. In: EEG primer. New York: Elsevier/North-Holland, 1981:159-65.

40. Torres F, Anderson C. The normal EEG of the human newborn. J Clin Neurophysiol 1985; 2:89-103.

41. Henderson-Smart DJ, Pettigrew AG, Campbell DJ. Clinical apnea and brain-stem neural function in preterm infants. N Engl J Med 1983; 308:353-7.

42. Prechtl HFR, ed. Continuity of neural functions from prenatal to postnatal life. Oxford: Blackwell, 1984.

43. Chugani HT, Phelps M. Maturational changes in cerebral function in infants determined by ^sup 18^FDG positron emission tomography. Science 1986; 231:840-3.

44. Arduini D, Rizzo G, Giorlandino C, Valensise H, Dell'acqua S, Romanini C. The development of fetal behavioural states: A longitudinal study. Prenat Diagn 1986; 6:117-24.

45. Sammons WAH. Premature behavior and the neonatal intensive care unit environment. In: Cloherty JP, Stark AR, eds. Manual of neonatal care. Boston: Little, Brown, 1980:359-63.

46. Flower MJ. Neuromaturation of the human fetus. J Med Philos 1985; 10:237-51.

47. Ralston HJ. Synaptic organization of spinothalamic projections to the thalamus, with special reference to pain. Adv Pain Res Ther 1984; 6:183-95.

48. Nawa H, Hirose T, Takashima H, Inayama S, Nakanishi S. Nucleotide sequences of cloned cDNAs for two types of bovine brain substance P precursor. Nature 1983; 306:32-6.

49. Watson SP, Sandberg BEB, Hanley MR, Iversen LL. Tissue selectivity of substance P alkyl esters: suggesting multiple receptors. Eur J Pharmacol 1983; 87:77-84.

50. Mantyh PW, Maggio JE, Hunt SP. The autoradiographic distribution of kassinin and substance K binding sites is different from the distribution of substance P binding sites in rat brain. Eur J Pharmacol 1984; 102:361-4.

51. Valentino KL, Tatemoto K, Hunter J, Barchas JD. Distribution of neuropeptide K-immunoreactivity in the rat central nervous system. Peptides 1986; 7:1043-59.

52. Pernow B. Substance P. Pharmacol Rev 1983; 35:85-141.

53. Otsuka M, Konishi S. Substance P-the first peptide neurotransmitter? Trends Neurosci 1983; 6:317-20.

54. Henry JL. Relation of substance P to pain transmission: neurophysiological evidence. In: Porter R, O'Connor M, eds. Substance P in the nervous system, Ciba Foundation Symposium 91. Loudon: Pitman, 1982:206-24.

55. Pearson J, Brandeis L, Cuello AC. Depletion of substance P-containing axons in substantia gelatinosa of patients with diminished pain sensitivity. Nature 1982; 295:61-3.

56. Jessel T, Iversen LL. Opiate analgesics inhibit substance P release from rat trigeminal nucleus. Nature 1977; 268:549-51.

57. Charnay Y, Paulin C, Chayvialle J-A, Dubois PM. Distribution of substance P-like immunoreactivity in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of the human foetus and infant. Neuroscience 1983; 10:41-55.

58. Paulin C, Charnay Y, Dubois PM, Chayvialle J-A, Localisation de substance P dans le systeme nerveux du foetus humain: resultats preliminaires. C R Acad Sci Paris [SERIES D] 1980; 291:257-60.

59. Pickel VM, Sumal KK, Reis DJ, Miller RJ, Hervonen A. Immunocytochemical localization of enkephalin and substance P in the dorsal tegmental nuclei in the human fetal brain. J Comp Neurol 1980; 193:805-14.

60. Roizen MF, Newfield P, Eger EI II, Hosobuchi Y, Adams JE, Lamb S. Reduced anesthetic requirement after electrical stimulation of periaqueductal gray matter. Anesthesiology 1985; 62:120-3.

61. Del Fiacco M, Dessi ML, Leranti MC. Topographical localization of substance P in the human post-mortem brainstem: an immunohistochemical study in the newborn and adult tissue. Neuroscience 1984; 12:591-611.

62. Nomura H, Shiosaka S, Inagaki S, et al. Distribution of substance P-like immunoreactivity in the lower brainstem of the human fetus: an immunohistochemical study. Brain Res 1982; 252:315-25.

63. Helke CA, Charlton CG, Keeler JR. Bulbospinal substance P and sympathetic regulation of the cardiovascular system: a review. Peptides 1985; 6:Suppl 2:69-74.

64. Inagaki S, Sakanaka M, Shiosaka S, et al. Ontogeny of substance P-containing neuron system of the rat: immunohistochemical analysis. Neuroscience 1982; 7:251-77, 1097-126.

65. Quirion R, Dam T-V. Ontogeny of substance P receptor binding sites in rat brain. J Neurosci 1986; 6:2187-99.

66. Jonsson G, Hallman H. Substance P counteracts neurotoxin damage on norepinephrine neurons in rat brain during ontogeny. Science 1982; 215:75-7.

67. Idem. Effect of substance P on neonatally axotomized noradrenaline neurons in rat brain. Med Biol 1983; 61:179-85.

68. Narumi S, Fujita T. Stimulatory effects of substance P and nerve growth factor (NGF) on neurite outgrowth in embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia. Neuropharmacology 1978; 17:73-6.

69. Pert CB, Snyder SH. Opiate receptor: demonstration in nervous tissue. Science 1973; 179:1011-4.

70. Terenius L. Stereospecific interaction between narcotic analgesics and a synaptic plasma membrane fraction of rat cerebral cortex. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 1973; 32:317-20.

71. Hughes J. Isolation of an endogenous compound from the brain with pharmacological properties similar to morphine. Brain Res 1975; 88:295-308.

72. Jacob JJC, Ramabadran K. Role of opiate receptors and endogenous ligands in nociception. In: Williams NE, Wilson H, eds. Pain and its management. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1983:13-32.

73. Hosobuchi Y, Li CH. The analgesic activity of human beta-endorphin in man. Commun Psychopharmacol 1978; 2:33-7.

74. Paterson D J, Robson LE, Kosterlitz HW. Classification of opioid receptors. Br Med Bull 1983; 39:31-6.

75. Begeot M, Dubois MP, Dubois PM. Immunologic localization of ? and ?-endorphins and ?-lipotropin in corticotropic cells of the normal and anencephalic fetal pituitaries. Cell Tissue Res 1978; 193:413-22.

76. Li JY, Dubois MP, Dubois PM. Ultrastructural localization of immunoreactive corticotropin, ?-lipotropin, ?- and ?-endorphin in cells of the human fetal anterior pituitary. Cell Tissue Res 1979; 204:37-51.

77. Gibbs DM, Stewart RD, Liu JH, Vale W, Rivier J, Yen SSC. Effects of synthetic corticotropin-releasing factor and dopamine on the release of immunoreactive ?-endorphin/?-lipotropin and ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone from humal fetal pituitaries in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1982; 55:1149-52.

78. Csontos K, Rust M, H