The Scientific Basis of Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology-Part 1
This paper deals with three significant parameters of Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology from a research perspective. First, the development and function of the CNS is examined with particular emphasis on myelination, audiology, EEG studies and neonatal behaviour. Next, advances in our knowledge of intrauterine learning are reviewed. Lastly, the effect of perinatal trauma on personality development is considered.
1. Tilney F, Rosett J. The value of brain lipoids as an index of brain development. Bull Neurol Inst. NY 1931; 1:28-71.
2. Schulte, F.J. Gestation, wachstum und hirnentwicklung. In: Linneweh F. ed. Fortschritte der Paedologie. Vol 2. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1968:46-64.
3. Grafstein, B. Postnatal development of the transcallosal evoked response in cerebral cortex of the cat, Journal of Neurophysiology. (26) 79, 1963.
4. Salam, Maria Z. & Adams, Raymond D. New horizons in the neurology of childhood perspectives, biology and*medicine.
5. Armitage, S.E., Baldwin, B.A. & Vince, M.A. (1980) The fetal sound environment of sheep.
6. Vince, M.A., Armitage, S.E., Walser, E.S., & Reader, M. (1982). Postnatal consequences of prenatal sound stimulation in the sheep. Behaviour, 81, 128-139.
7. Vince, M.A. (1980). The posthatching consequences of prehatching stimulation: Changes with amount of prehatching and posthatching exposure. Behaviour, 75. 36-53.
8. Impekoven, M. (1970). Prenatal experience of parental calls and pecking the laughing gull (Larus Atricilla L.). Animal Behaviour, 19, 475-480. Impekoven, M. (1975). Responses of laughing gull chicks (Larus Atricilla) to parental attraction-and alarm calls, and effects of prenatal auditory experience on the responsiveness to such calls. Behaviour, 56, 250-277.
9. Lien, J. (1976). Auditory stimulation of Coturnix Embryos (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and its later effect on auditory preferences. Behavioural Biology, 17,231-235.
10. Gottlieb, G. (1979). Development of species identification in ducklings: V. Perceptual differentiation in the embryo. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 93, 831-854.
Gottlieb, G. (1980). Development of species identification in ducklings:VI. Specific embryonic experience required to maintain species-typical perception in Peking ducklings. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 94, 579-587.
11. Eisenberg, R.B. (1976). Auditory competence in early life. Baltimore: University Park Press. Rubel, E.W. (1978) Ontogeny of structure and function in the vertebrate auditory system. In M. Jacobson (Ed.), Handbook of sensory physiology. Vol. 9\\ Development of Sensory systems. New York: Springer-Verlag.
12. Rubel, E. (1984) Special topic: Advances in the physiology of auditory information processing. Ontogeny of the Auditory System, Annual Review.
13. Spelt, D. (1948) The conditioning of the human fetus in utero Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 338-346.
14. Salk, L. (1960, December). The effects of the normal heartbeat sound on the behavior of the newborn infant: Implications for mental health. Technical paper presented at the annual meeting of the world Federation of Mental Health, Edinburgh.
Salk, L. (1962) Mother's heartbeat as an imprinting stimulus. Transactions: Journal of the New York Academy of Sciences, 24 (7) 753-763.
Salk, L. (1966) Thoughts on the concept of imprinting and its place in early human development. Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal 11, S295-303.
15. Liley, A.W. (1972) The foetus as a personality. A ustralian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 6, 99-105.
16. Wedenberg, J.B., Westin, B., & Johansson, B. When the fetus isn't listening. Medical World News 4:28. (1970, April).
17. Grimwade, J.C. (1970) Response of the human fetus to sensory stimulation. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 10, 222-224.
18. Grimwade, J.C, Walker, D., & Wood, C. (1971). Human fetal heart range change and movement in response to sound and vibration. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 109, 86-91.
19. Sakabe, N. et al. (1969) Human fetal evoked response to acoustic stimulation (Special issue) Journal of Otolaryngology, 252 (Supplement 29).
20. Read, J.A. et al. (1977) Fetal heart rate acceleration in response to acoustic stimulation as a measure of fetal well-being. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 129 (5), 512-517.
21. Bench, J. (1968) Sound transmission to the human fetus through the maternal abdominal wall. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 113, 85-87.
22. Scibetta, J.J. (1971) Human fetal brain response to sound during labour. American Journal of Gynecology Annals, 109, 82-85.
23. Walker, D., Grimwade, J., & Wood, C. (1971). Intrauterine noise: A component of the fetal environment. American Journal of Obstetric Gynecology, 109, 91-95.
24. Querleu, D., & Renard, X. (1981) Les perceptions du foetus humain. Medical Hygiene, 39, 2102-2110.
25. Bernard, J., & Sontag, L.W. (1949). Fetal reactivity to tonal stimulation: A preliminary report. Journal of Genetic Psychology. 12, 205-210.
26. Johansson, B. Wedenberg, E., & Westin, B. (1964). Measurement of tone response by the human foetus. Acta Oto-laryngology, 57, 188-192.
27. Birnholz, J.C, & Benacerraf, B.R. (1983). The development of human fetal hearing. Science, 222(4) 516-518.
28. Scibetta, J.J., Rosen, M.G., Hochberg, C.J., & Chik, L. (1971). Human fetal brain response to sound during labor. American Journal of Obstetric Gynecology, 109, 82-85.
29. Gelman, S.R., Wood, S. Spellacy W.N., & Abrams, R.M. (1982). Fetal movement in response to sound stimulation. American Journal of Obstetric Gynecology, 143, 484-485.
30. Grainer-Deferre, C, Lecaunet, J.P., Cohen, A., Busnell, M.C. & Sureau, C. (1984). Cardiac and motor components analysis of fetal responses to sound function of stimulus parameters and fetal alertness. Presented at the International Study for Developmental Psychobiology, Baltimore, Maryland: October.
31. Spehlmann, R. In: EEG primer. New York: Elsevier/North-Holland, 1981: 159-65.
32. Torres, F., Anderson, C. The normal EEG of the human newborn. J. Clin Neurophysiol 1985; 2:89-103.
33. Henderson-Smart, DJ, Pettigrew AG, Campbell DJ. Clinical apnea and brain-stem neural function in preterm infants. New England Journal of Medicine 1983:308: 353-7.
34. Prechtl HFR, ed. Continuity of neural functions from prenatal to postnatal life. Oxford: Blackwell 1984.
35. Birnholtz, JC. The development of human fetal eye movement patterns. Science, 1981. 213pp. 679-68.
36. Arduini D, Rizzo G, Giorlandino C, Valensise H, Dell'acqua S, Romanini C. The development of fetal behavioural states: A longitudinal study. Prenat Diagn 1986; 6: 117-24.
37. Sammons WAH. Premature behavior and the neonatal intensive care unit environment. In: Cloherty JP, Stark AR, eds. Manual of neonatal care. Boston: Little, Brown, 1980: 359-63.
38. Humphrey T. Some correlations between the appearance of human fetal reflexes and the development of the nervous system. Prog Brain Res. 1964; 4:93-135.
39. Valman HB, Pearson JF. What the fetus feels. Br. Med J. 1980; 280:233-4.
40. Flower MJ. Neuromaturation of the human fetus. J Med Philos 1985; 10:237-51.
41. Purpura, Dominick, Behavior Today, June 2, 1975. p. 494.
42. Lauersen, NH, Hockberg, HM. Does the Fetus Think, JAMA, June 18, 1982. (247) 23.
43. Clements, M, Observations on certain aspects of neonatal behaviour in response to auditory stimuli. Paper presented at the Fifth International Congress of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rome 1977.
44. Truby, H. & Lind, J. Cry sounds of the newborn infant. In J. Lind (Ed.) Newborn Infant cry. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavia, Supplement, 1965 163.
45. Truby, H.M. Prenatal and neonatal speech, prespeech, and an infantile speech lexicon. In Child Language-1975, a special issue of Word, The Journal of the International Linguistic Association, 1975, 27 (1-3).
46. Diamond, Marion. Mother's enriched environment alters brains of unborn rats. Brain/Mind Bulletin, March 1987, (12)7 pp. 1&5.
47. See B/MB, March 4, 1985.
48. Kiyono, S. Maternal-enrichment animal studies support ancient Oriental tradition, B/MB March 1987 (12)7, p. 4.
49. DeCasper, Anthony J, & William P. Fifer. Of human bonding: Newborns prefer their mothers' voices. Science, June 6, 1980, vol. 208 pp. 1174-76.
50. Kolata, Gina. Studying learning in the womb, Science July 20, 1984 vol. 225, pp. 302-3.
51. Human fetuses perceive maternal speech. Behavior Today Newsletter. Feb. 4,1985, vol. 16(5) p. 1-7.
52. Panneton, RK. Prenatal auditory experience with melodies: Effects on postnatal auditory preferences in human newborns. 1985, Doctoral Thesis, University of North Carolina, Greensboro.
53. Shetler, D.J. The inquiry into prenatal musical experience (A report of the eastman project 1980-1987). PPPJ Vol. 3. #3 Spring 1989.
54. Wein, B., Tiny dancers, Omni Magazine, May 1988.
55. Van De Carr, Rene. Enhancing early speech, parental bonding and infant physical development using prenatal intervention in standard obstetrical practice, Pre- and Peri-Natal PsychoLJ.d) 1, Fall 1986. pp. 20-30.
56. Rutt, CN, and Offord, DR, Prenatal and perinatal complications in childhood schizophrenics and their siblings, Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 152:324-331, January 1971.
Cheek, DB, Maladjustment patterns apparently related to imprinting at birth, The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 18:75-82, October 1975.
Salam and Adams, op.cit., p. 408 These investigators declare flatly: "There can be no doubt that the birth process traumatizes the infant brain."
57. Pasamanick, B. and Knobloch, H., Reproductive studies on the epidemiology of reproductive casualty: Old and new, Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 2:7-26, 1966.
58. Mednick, Sarnoff A. Breakdown in individuals at high risk for schizophrenia, Mental Hygiene, 54:50-61, January 1970.
59. Mednick, Sarnoff A. Birth defects and schizophrenia, Psychology Today, 4(11): 48-50, 80-81, 1971.
60. Rank, O. The trauma of birth. New York: Robert Brunner, New York, 1952:188.
61. Salk, L. Lipsitt, LP, Stumer WQ, Reilly BM, Levatt RH. Relationship of maternal and perinatal conditions to eventual adolescent suicide. Lancet 1985:1:624-627.
62. Jacobsen, B. 1988. Perinatal origin of eventual self-destructive behavior, Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 2(4) 155-169.
63. Jacobsen B, Eklund G, Hamberger L, Linnarsson D, Sedvall G, Valverius M. Perinatal origin of adult self-destructive behavior. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1987:76:364-371.
64. Jacobsen B, Nyberg K, Eklund G, Bejerot N. Obstetric Pain medication and drug addiction in offspring, (in press).
Thomas R. Verny, M.D., D. Psych., F.R.C.P. (C).
Thomas R. Verny, M.D. is president of PPPANA and editor of the PPPJ. He is a psychiatrist in private practice at 36 Madison Ave., Toronto, Ont. M5R 2S1 Canada.