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Verbal metaphors and their behavioral counterparts are discussed within the context of pre and perinatal issues. The major developmental stages are illustrated by the patient's use of language. These metaphors may emerge frequently in casual conversation or during periods of stress throughout life. As an example phrases such as "no way out" express the energy bound in prolonged labor and "being pulled in all directions" is related to a forceps assisted delivery. The baby's reaction to physical and psychological experiences during gestation may be discerned from verbal cues. These symbolic statements offer new possibilities in the realm of diagnosis and psychotherapeutic treatment.

Berne, E. (1964). Games people play. New York: Grove Press.

Buchheimer, A. (1983). Memory-preverbal and verbal. Paper presented at the meeting of the 1st International Congress of Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology, Toronto, Ontario, July 1983.

Cassill, K. (1982). Twins: Nature's amazing mystery. New York: Anthenum.

English, J. (1985). Different doorway: Adventure of a caesarean born, California: Earth Heart.

Fehrer, L. (1981). The psychology of birth. New York: Continuum.

Grof, S. (1976). Realms of the human unconscious. New York: E.P. Dutton.

Haeslein, H.L. and Niswander, K.R., (1980). Fetal distress in full term pregnancies. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 137: 245-251.

Hull, W.F. (1983). Prenatal oxygen deprivation: It's resultant life-long emotionality. Paper presented at the 1st International Congress of Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology, Toronto, Ontario: July 1983.

Janov, A. (1983). Imprints: The life long effects of the birth experience. New York: Coward-McCann, Inc.

Karpman, S.B., (1968). Fairy tale and script drama analysis. Transactional Analysis Journal, 7(26): 26-42.

Laing, R.D. (1976). Facts of life. New York: Panthenon Books.

Laing, R.D. (1982). Voices of experience. New York: Panthenon Books.

Moore, K.L. (1983). Before we are born: Basic embryology and birth defects. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Nilsson, L. (1966). A child is born. New York: Delacorte Press.

Tessler, S.R. (1984). "Study links depression to biological problems." The Detroit News, August 30, 1984.

Sandra G. Landsman, Ph.D.

Sandra G. Landsman, Ph.D., is a psychologist and healer in private practice in Jupiter, Florida. Address correspondence to the author at P.O. Box 7134, Jupiter, FL 33468-7134.

JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.

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