Infant development among the Baganda of Uganda is discussed from a sociocultural perspective. Cross-cultural examples which illustrate cultural effects on infant behavior are presented. In particular, the area of sensorimotor development is examined by means of a social survey, direct observations and formal testing during the Muganda infant's first six or eight months of life. The pattern of advancement found supports the view that parental values and childcare behaviors influence rate of infant sensorimotor development. The issue of "African infant precocity" is discussed in terms of the importance of sociocultural factors on infant development.
Ainsworth, M.D. (1967) Infancy in Uganda: Infant Care and the Growth of Love. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
Ainsworth, M.D. (1977) Infant Development and Mother-Infant Interaction Among Uganda and American Families. Culture and Infancy: Variations in the Human Experience, (ed.) P.H. Leiderman, S. Tulkin, and A. Rosen. New York: Academic Press.
Barry, H. III and L.M. Paxson (1971) Infancy and Early Childhood: Cross-Cultural Codes 2. Ethnology 10:466-508.
Bayley, N. (1969) Manual for the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. New York: The Psychological Corporation.
Brazelton, T.B., J.S. Robey, and G. Collier (1969) Infant Development in the Zinacanteco Indians of Southern Mexico. Pediatrics, 44:274-290.
Caudill, W. (1973) Psychiatry and Anthropology: The Individual and His Nexus. Cultural Illness and Health: Essays in Human Adaptation, Anthropological Studies, 9, (eds.) L. Nader and T.W. Maretzki. Washington, D.C.: American Anthropological Association.
Caudill, W. and L. Frost (1972) A Comparison of Maternal Care and Infant Behavior in Japanese-American, American and Japanese Families. Influences on Human Development, (ed.) U. Bronfenbrenner. Hinsdale, Ill.: Dryden.
Caudill, W. and H. Weinstein (1969) Maternal Care and Infant Behavior in Japan and America. Psychiatry 32:12-43.
Fallers, L.A. ed. (1964) The King's Men: Leadership and Status in Buganda on the Eve of Independence. London: Oxford University Press.
Fischer, J.L. and A. Fischer (1966) The New Englanders of Orchard Town USA. Six Cultures Series (Vol V). New York: John Wiley.
Francis-Williams, J. and W. Yule (1967) The Bayley Infant Scales of Mental and Motor Development: An Exploratory Study with an English Sample. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 9:391-401.
Freedman, D.G. (1979) Human Sociobiology: A Holistic Approach. New York: Free Press.
Geber, M. (1956) Développement Psycho-moteur de L'enfant Africain. Courrier VI:17-29.
Geber, M. (1960) Problèmes Posés par le Développement du Jeune Enfant Africain en Fonction de Son Millieu Social. Le Travail Humain 23:97-111.
Geber, M. (1958) The Psycho-motor Development of African Children in the First Year and the Influence of Maternal Behavior. The Journal of Social Psychology 47:185-195.
Gesell, A. and C.S. Amatruda (1934) Developmental Diagnosis of Normal and Abnormal Child Development: Clinical Methods and Practical Application New York: McGrawHill.
Gewirtz, J.L. (1968) On Designing the Functional Environment of the Child to Facilitate Behavioral Development. Early Child Care: The New Perspectives, (ed.) L.L. Dittmann. New York: Atherton Press.
Gewirtz, J.L. (1971) Stimulation, Learning and Motivation: Principles for Day-Care Settings. Day Care: Resources for Decisions, (ed.) E.E. Grotberg. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Goldschmidt, W. (1965) Review of L.A. Fallers, The King's Men: Leadership and Status in Buganda on the Eve of Independence. American Anthropologist 67:785-788.
Herskovitz, M.J. (1948) Man and His Works. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Jensen, A.R. (1969) How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement? Harvard Educational Review XXXIX:1-123.
Kilbride, J.E. (1969) The Motor Development of Rural Baganda Infants. Unpublished M.A. Thesis. State College: The Pennsylvania State University.
Kilbride, J.E. (1973) The Motor Development of Rural Baganda Infants. Kampala, Uganda: Makerere Institute of Social Research.
Kilbride, J.E. and P.L. Kilbride (1975) Sitting and Smiling Behavior of Baganda Infants: The Influence of Culturally Constituted Experience. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 6:88-107.
Kilbride, J.E., M.C. Robbins, and P.L. Kilbride (1970) The Comparative Motor Development of Baganda, American White and American Black Infants. American Anthropologist 72:1422-1428.
Kilbride, P.L. and J.E. Kilbride (1990) Changing Family Life in East Africa: Women and Children at Risk. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
Knobloch, H. (1958) Precocity of African Children. Letter to the Editor. Pediatrics 22:601-603.
Konner, M. (1977) Infancy Among the Kalahari Desert San. Culture and Infancy: Variations in the Human Experience, (eds.) P.H. Leiderman, S.R. Tulkin, and A. Rosenfeld. New York: Academic Press.
Korner, A.F. and R. Grobstein (1966) Visual Alertness as Related to Soothing in Neonates: Implications for Maternal Stimulation and Early Deprivation. Child Development 37:867-876.
Leiderman, H.P., S.R. Tulkin, and A. Rosenfeld (1977) Culture and Infancy: Variations in the Human Experience. New York: Academic Press, Inc.
LeVine, R.A. and B.B. Levine (1966) Nyasongo: A Gusii Community in Kenya, Six Cultures Series, Volume II. New York: John Wiley.
LeVine, S. (1960) Stimulation in Infancy. Scientific American 202:81-86.
Lewis, M. and S. Goldberg (1969) Perceptual-Cognitive Development in Infancy: A Generalized Expectancy Model as a Function of the Mother-Infant Interaction. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 15:81-100.
Maretski, T.W. and H. Maretski (1966). Taira: An Okinawan Village. Six Cultures Series Volume VII. New York: John Wiley.
Mead, M. (1963) Socialization and Enculturation. Current Anthropology 4:184-188.
Minturn, L. and J.T. Hitchcock (1966) The Rajputs of Khalapur, India. Six Cultures Series Volume VIII. New York: John Wiley.
Moss, H.A. (1967) Sex, Age and State as Determinants of Mother-Infant Interaction. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 13:19-36.
Munroe, R.H., R.L. Munroe, and B.B. Whiting, eds. (1981) Handbook of Cross-Cultural Human Development. New York: Garland S.T.P.M. Press.
Nydegger, W. and C. Nydegger (1966) Tarong: An Ilocos Barrio in the Philippines. Six Cultures Series Volume VI. New York: John Wiley.
Robbins, M.C. and P.L. Kilbride, eds. (1974) Psychocultural Change in Modern Buganda. Kampala, Uganda: Nkanga Publications, Makerere Institute of Social Research.
Romney, K. and R. Romney (1966) The Mixtecans of Juxtlahuaca, Mexico. Six Cultures Series Volume IV. New York: John Wiley.
Roscoe, J. (1911) The Baganda: An Account of Their Native Customs and Beliefs. London: Macmillan.
Schwartz, T. (1975) Introduction. Ethos 3:93-97.
Super, CM. (1981) Behavioral Development in Infancy. Handbook for Cross-Cultural Human Development, (eds.) R.L. Munroe, R.H. Munroe, and B.B. Whiting. New York: Garland Press.
Super, CM. (1973) Patterns of Infant Care and Motor Development in Kenya. Kenya Education Review 64-69.
Wallace, A.F.C (1961) Culture and Personality. New York, Random House.
Warren, N. (1972) African Infant Precocity. Psychological Bulletin 78:353-367.
White, B.L. and P.W. Castle (1964) Visual Exploratory Behavior Following Postnatal Handling of Human Infants. Perceptual and Motor Skills 18:497-502.
Whiting, B.B. and J.W.M. Whiting (1975) Children of Six Cultures: A Psycho-Cultural Analysis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Whiting, J.W.M., J.L. Child, and W.W. Lambert (1966) Field Guide for a Study of Socialization. Six Cultures Series Volume I. New York: John Wiley.
Williams, J.E. and R.B. Scott (1953) Development of Negro Infants: IV. Motor Development and its Relationship to Child Rearing in Two Groups of Negro Infants. Child Development 24:103-121.
Wober, J.M. (1972) Infancy and Weaning in Africa; A Review. Occasional Paper, No. 14, Social Psychology. Kampala, Uganda: Makerere University, August.
Yarrow, L.J. (1963) Research in Dimensions of Early Maternal Care. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 9:101-114.
Yarrow, L.J., F.A. Pederson, and J. Rubenstein (1977) Mother-Infant Interaction and Development in Infancy. Culture and Infancy: Variations in the Human Experience, (eds.) P.H. Leiderman, S. Tulkin, and A. Rosenfeld. New York: Academic Press.
Janet E. Kilbride, Ph.D. and Philip L. Kilbride, Ph.D.
Janet Kilbride is presently affiliated with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center, Behavioral Research, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19141, U.S.A. A past secretary/Treasurer of the Society for Cross-Cultural Research, she has published in psychological and anthropological journals on topics concerning infancy, socialization, and facial expression recognition. She has recently co-authored with Philip Kilbride, Changing Family Life in East Africa: Women and Children at Risk, University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990.
Philip Kilbride is a Professor of Anthropology at Bryn Mawr College. He has published on various topics including modernization, infancy, deviance, and visual perception. In addition to the above co-authored book with Janet Kilbride, he has edited with Jane Goodale and Elizabeth Ameisen, To Know Thyself: Studies in American Ethnic Culture, Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama Press (forthcoming). Requests for reprints should be sent to Dr. Philip Kilbride, Anthropology, Dalton Hall, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010.
JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.