Maternal Psychological Characteristics and Intrauterine Growth Retardation
Scores on six psychosocial questionnaires were compared to the risk of delivering an IUGR infant. In the second trimester, scales for stress, anxiety, social support, mastery, self esteem, and depression were prospectively administered to 1500 indigent women. In univariate analyses, significant relationships were found between IUGR and a poor score for mastery, stress, anxiety and self-esteem. The results were additive in that the more poor the scores, the higher the rate of IUGR. In a series of regression analyses controlling for height, weight, smoking, alcohol use, and the birth of a previous low birthweight infant, poor scores on 3 of the scales and an overall poor score remained significantly associated with IUGR, with odds ratios ranging from 1.68 to 2.34.
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Robert L. Goldenberg, M.D., Suzanne P. Oliver, B.A., Gary R. Cutter, M.S., Ph.D., Howard J. Hoffman, M.A., Rachel L. Copper, M.S.N., C.R.N.P., Sharon Gotlieb, Ph.D., and Richard O. Davis, M.D.
Robert L. Goldenberg, M.D., and Sharon Gotlieb, Ph.D., are with the Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the School of Public Health, The University of Alabama at Birmingham. Suzanne P. Cliver, B.A., Rachel L. Copper, M.S.N., C.R.N.P., and Richard O. Davis, M.D., are with the Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham. Gary R. Cutter, M.S., Ph.D., is with the Division of Biostatistics and Information Systems, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee. Howard J. Hoffman, M.A., is with the Prevention Research Program, National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Robert L. Goldenberg, M.D., Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, University Station, Birmingham, Alabama 35294.