Adding Comments

We invite Member's comments on any Journal issue or any individual Journal Article. You will find the space for comments at the bottom of each Journal and Article page. You can also send comments directly to the editor at: Members can also be notified of all new comments posted by updating their Notification Settings.
Publication Date: 
Page Count: 
Starting Page: 
Price: $10.00

ABSTRACT: Modern pre- and perinatal psychology recognizes that the period of life immediately after birth is a significant one for the future development of the human being. This paper surveys the many ways that cultures around the world interpret the puerperium, and the ways they treat the mother and infant and structure mother-infant interaction during this vulnerable period. Both holocultural, statistical summaries and individual case studies are reported, covering such issues as infant feeding patterns, mother-infant separation, isolation of mother and infant from the community, acceptance and rejection of the infant, the postpartum sex taboo and other restrictions.



Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1967). Patterns of infantile attachment to mother. In Yvonne Brackbill and George G. Thompson (Eds.). Behavior in infancy and early childhood New York: The Free Press.

Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1977). Attachment theory and its utility in cross-cultural research. In P.H. Leiderman, S.R. Tulkin and A. Rosenfeld (Eds.). Culture and infancy: Variations in the human experience. New York: Academic Press.

Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1979). Mother-infant attachment. American Psychologist 34, 932937.

Ainsworth, M.D.S., S.M. Bell, and D. Stayton. (1972). Individual differences in the development of some attachment behaviors. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 18, 123-144.

Ali, Z. and M. Lowry. (1981). Early maternal-child contact: Effects on later behavior. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 23, 337-345.

Amighi, J.K. (1990). Some thoughts on the cross-cultural study of maternal warmth and detachment. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal 5 (2), 131-146.

Ayres, B.C. (1954). A cross-cultural study of factors relating to pregnancy taboos. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University.

Barraud, C. (1990) Kei society and the person. Ethnos 55 (3-4), 214-231.

Barry, H., Bacon, M.K. and Child, I.L. (1957). A cross-cultural survey of some sex differences in socialization. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 55, 327-332.

Barry, H., Child, I.L. and Bacon, M.K. (1959). Relation of child training to subsistence economy. American Anthropologist 61, 51-63.

Barry, H. and Paxson, L.M. (1971). Infancy and early childhood: Cross-cultural codes 2. Ethnology 10, 466-508.

Blount, B.G. (1990). Parental speech and language acquisition: An anthropological perspective. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal 4 (4), 319-337.

Blurton Jones, N.G. (1972). Comparative aspects of mother-child contact. In N.G. Blurton Jones (Ed.). Etiological studies of child behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bolton, R. (1978). Child-holding patterns. Current Anthropology 19 (1), 134-135.

Bourguignon, E. and Greenbaum, L.S. (1973). Diversity and homogeneity in world societies. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Bower, T.G. (1989). The rational infant: Learning in infancy. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.

Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss, Vol 1: Attachment New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1972). Attachment and loss, Vol 2: Separation. New York: Basic Books.

Broude, G.J. (1988). Rethinking the couvade: Cross-cultural evidence. American Anthropologist 90, 902-911.

Broude, G.J. (1989). A reply to Munroe and Munroe on the couvade. American Anthropologist 91, 735-738.

Broude, G.J. and Greene, S.J. (1983). Cross-cultural codes on husband-wife relationships. Ethnology 22 (3), 263-280.

Brown, J.K. (1970). A note on the division of labor. American Anthropologist 72, 10731078.

Bullowa, M. (1979). Before speech: The beginning of interpersonal communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Butterworth, G. and L. Grover. (1988). The origins of referential communication in human infancy. In L. Weiskrantz (Ed.). Thought Without Language. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Calvin, W.H. (1983). The throwing madonna: Essays on the brain. New York: McGrawHill.

Capitanio, J.P., Weissberg, M. and Reite, M. (1985). Biology of maternal behavior: Recent findings and implications. In M. Reite and T. Field (Eds.). The Psychobiology of Attachment and Separation, New York: Academic Press.

Chisholm, J.S. (1980). Development and adaptation in infancy. In Charles M. Super and Sara Harkness (Eds.). New Directions For Child Development Anthropological Perspectives on Child Development San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers.

Chisholm, J.S. (1983). Navajo infancy: An ethological study of child development. New York: Aldine Pub. Co.

Cronk, L. (1989). Low socioeconomic status and female-biased parental investment: The Mukogodo example. American Anthropologist 91, 414-429.

Davis-Floyd, R.E. (1990). The role of obstetrical rituals in the resolution of cultural anomaly. Pre- and PerUNatal Psychology Journal 4(3), 193-211, 5 (1), 23-39.

Dawson, W.W. (1929). The custom of the couvade. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

DeCasper, A.J. and W.P. Fifer (1980). Of human bonding: Newborns prefer their mothers' voices. Science 208, 1174-1176.

Dennis, W. (1972). The Hopi child New York: Arno Press and The New York Times.

Dettwyler, K.A. (1986). Infant feeding in Mali, West Africa: Variations in belief and practice. Social Science and Medicine 23 (7), 651-664.

Dettwyler, K.A. (1989). Styles of infant feeding: Parental/caretaker control of food consumption in young children. American Anthropologist 91, 696-703.

Dickeman, M. (1975). Demographic consequences of infanticide in man. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 6, 100-132.

Eisenberg, R.B. (1975). Auditory competence in early life. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.

Elmendorf, W.W. (1960). The structure of Twana culture. Research Studies (Monograph Supplement No. 2). Washington State University, Vol. 28, No. 3.

Field, T. (1985). Attachment as psychobiological attunement: Being on the same wavelength. In M. Reite and T. Field (Eds.). The Psychobiology of Attachment and Separation, New York: Academic Press.

Field, T.M. et al. (1981). Culture and early interactions. Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Fletcher, A. and la Flesche, F. (1911). The Omaha tribe. Bureau of American Ethnography, Annual report 27 (Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1970).

Fock, N. (1967). South American birth customs in theory and practice. In C.S. Ford (Ed.). Cross-cultural approaches. New Haven, CT: HRAF Press.

Ford, C.S. (1945). A comparative study of human reproduction, Yale University Publications in Anthropology, 32. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Galdikas, B.M.F. and J.W. Wood. (1990). Birth spacing patterns in humans and apes. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 83, 185-191.

Guilkey, D.K., Popkin B.M., Flieger, W. and Akin, J.S. (1990). Changes in breast-feeding in the Philippines. Social Science and Medicine 31 (12):1365-1375.

Harkness, S. (1980). The cultural context of child development. In CM. Super and S. Harkness (Eds.). Anthropological Perspectives on Child Development San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Harkness, S. and Super, CM. (1983). The cultural construction of child development: A framework for the socialization of affect. Ethos 11 (4), 221-231.

Harlow, CM. (Ed.). (1986). From learning to love: The selected papers ofH.F. Harlow. New York: Praeger.

Harlow, H.F. (1974). Learning to love. New York: Jason Aronson.

Hausfater, G. and S.B. Hrdy. (Eds.). (1984). Infanticide: Comparative and evolutionary perspectives. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine.

Hendrix, L. (1985). Economy and child training reexamined. Ethos 13 (3), 246-261.

Hicks, D. (1976). Tetum ghosts and kin. California: Mayfield.

Hinde, R.A. (Ed.). (1983). Primate social relationships: An integrated approach. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Hull, V. (1985). Breastfeeding, birth spacing, and social change in rural Java. In V. Hull and M. Simpson (Eds.). Breastfeeding, Child Health and Child Spacing: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Condon: Croom Helm.

Hull, V. and Simpson, M. (1985). Breastfeeding, child health and child spacing: An overview. In V. Hull and M. Simpson (Eds.). Breastfeeding, Child Health and Child Spacing: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. London: Croom Helm.

Jelliffe, D. (1962). Culture, social change and infant feeding. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10: 19-45.

Jenkins, GL. and Heywood, P.F. (1985). Ethnopediatrics and fertility among the Amele of lowland Papua New Guinea. In V. Hull and M. Simpson (Eds.). Breastfeeding, Child Health and Child Spacing: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. London: Croom Helm.

Kaitz, M., Good, A., Rokem, A.M. and Eidelman, A.I. (1987). Mother's recognition of their newborns by olfactory cues. Developmental Psychobiology 20 (6), 587-591.

Kay, M.A. (Ed.). (1982). Anthropology of human birth. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

Kitzinger, S. (1978). Women as mothers. Glasgow: Fontana Books/W. Collins & Sons.

Konner, M.J. (1976). Maternal care, infant behavior and development among the !Kung. Kalahari Hunter-Gatherers. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Konner, M. (1977). Infancy among the Kalahari Desert San. In P.H. Leiderman, S.R. Tulkin and A. Rosenfeld (Eds.). Culture and Infancy: Variations in the Human Experience. New York: Academic Press.

Konner, M.J. (1981). Evolution of human behavior development. In Ruth H. Munroe, Robert L. Munroe, Beatrice B. Whiting (Eds.). Handbook of Cross-Cultural Human Development New York: Garland S.T.P.M. Press.

Lamb, M.E., R.A. Thompson, W. Gardner, and E.L. Charnov (1985). Infant-mother attachment The origins and developmental significance of individual differences in strange situation behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Lancaster, J.B. (1975). Primate behavior and the emergence of human culture. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Laughlin, CD. (1989a). Pre- and perinatal anthropology: A selective review. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal 3 (4), 261-296.

Laughlin, CD. (1989b). The roots of enculturation. Anthropologica 31, 135-178.

Laughlin, CD. (1991). Pre- and perinatal brain development and enculturation: A biogenetic structural approach. Human Nature (in press).

Laughlin, CD. and Allgeier, E.R. (1979). An ethnography of the So of northeastern Uganda. New Haven, CT: HRAF Press.

Launer, L.J. and Habicht, J.-P. (1989). Concepts about infant health, growth, and weaning: A comparison between nutritional scientists and Madurese mothers. Social Science and Medicine 29 (1), 13-22.

Leiderman, P.H. and Leiderman, G.F. (1977). Economic change and infant care in an East African agricultural community. In P.H. Leiderman, S.R. Tulkin and A. Rosenfeld (Eds.). Culture and Infancy: Variations in the Human Experience. New York: Academic Press.

Leighton, D. and Kluckhohn, C. (1948). Children of the people. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

LeVine, R.A. (1977). Child rearing as cultural adaptation. In P.H. Leiderman, S.R. Tulkin and A. Rosenfeld (Eds.). Culture and Infancy: Variations in the Human Experience. New York: Academic Press.

LeVine, R.A. (1980). Anthropology and child development. In Charles M. Super and Sara Harkness (Eds.). New Directions for Child Development Anthropological Perspectives on Child Development San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.

LeVine, R.A. and LeVine, B.B. (1963). Nyansongo: A Gusii community in Kenya, New York: Wiley.

Lindburg, D.G. and Hazell, L.D. (1972). Licking of the neonate and duration of labor in great apes and man. American Anthropologist 74, 318-325.

Lipsitt, L.P. (1979). The pleasures and annoyances of infants: Approach and avoidance behavior. In E.B. Thomas. (Ed.). Origins of Infants' Social Responsiveness. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Maccoby, E. and Masters, J. (1970). Attachment and dependency. In P. Mussen (Ed.). Manual of Child Psychology. New York: Wiley.

Malinowski, B. (1929). The sexual life of savages in north-western Melanesia, New York.

Marshall, L.B. (ed.). (1985). Infant care and feeding in the South Pacific. New York: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.

Martin, E. (1987). The woman in the body: A cultural analysis of reproduction. Boston: Beacon.

McFarlane, A. (1975). Olfaction in the development of social preferences in the human neonate. Parent Infant Interaction (Ciba Foundation Symposium 33). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

McKenna, J.J. (1982). The evolution of primate societies, reproduction, and parenting. In J.L. Forbes and J.E. King (Eds.). Primate Behavior. New York: Academic Press.

McKenna, J.J. et al. (1990). Sleep and arousal patterns of co-sleeping human mother/ infant pairs: A preliminary physiological study with implications for the study of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 83, 331-347.

Mead, M. (1956). New lives for old: Cultural transformation-Manus, 1928-1953. New York: William Morrow and Company.

Mead, M. and Newton, N. (1967). Cultural patterning of perinatal behavior. In S.A. Richardson and A.F. Guttmacher (Eds.). Childbearing-Its Social and Psychological Aspects. Washington: Williams and Wilkins Company.

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964). The primacy of perception, Evanston, 111.: Northwestern University Press.

Millard, A.V. and Graham, M.A. (1985). Breastfeeding in two Mexican villages: Social and demographic perspectives. In V. Hull and M. Simpson (Eds.). Breastfeeding, Child Health and Child Spacing: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. London: Croom Helm.

Mineka, S. (1982). Depression and helplessness in primates. In H.E. Fitzgerald, J.A. Mullins and P. Gage (Eds.). Child Nurturance, Vol 3: Studies of Development in Nonhuman Primates. New York: Plenum.

Minturn, L. and Lambert, W.W. (1964). The mothers of six cultures. New York: Wiley.

Moller, M.S.G. (1961). Custom, pregnancy and childrearing in Tanganyika. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics and African Child Health 7, 66-80.

Montagu, A. (1986). Touching: The human significance of the skin (Third edition). New York: Harper and Row.

Munroe, R.H. and Munroe, R.L. (1980). Infant experience and childhood affect among the Logoli: A longitudinal study. Ethos 8 (4), 295-315.

Munroe, R.H. and Munroe, R.L. (1984). Infant experience and childhood cognition: A longitudinal study among the Logoli of Kenya. Ethos 12 (4), 291-306.

Munroe, R.L. and Munroe, R.H. (1975). Cross-cultural human development. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Munroe, R.L. and Munroe, R.H. (1987) The couvade and male pregnancy symptoms. In C. Kagitcibasi (Ed.). Growth and Progress in Cross-Cultural Psychology. Lisse, Netherlands: Swets and Zeitlinger.

Munroe, R.L. and Munroe, R.H. (1989). A response to Broude on the couvade. American Anthropologist 91, 730-735.

Murdock, G.P. (1967). Ethnographic Atlas. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Murdock, G.P. and White, D.R. (1969). Standard cross-cultural sample. Ethnology 8, 329-369.

Murphy, Y. and Murphy, R.F. (1974). Women of the forest. New York: Columbia University Press.

Murray, L. and Trevarthen, C. (1985). Emotional regulation of interactions between twomonth-olds and their mothers. In T. Field and N. Fox (Eds.). Social Perception in Infants. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Myers, B.J. (1987). Mother-infant bonding as a critical period. In M.H. Bornstein (Ed.). Sensitive Periods in Development Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Naroll, R. and Cohen, R. (1970). A handbook of method in cultural anthropology. Garden City, NY: American Museum of Natural History.

Nash, L.T. and Wheeler, R.L. (1982). Mother-infant relationships in non-human primates. In H.E. Fitzgerald, J.A. Mullins and P. Gage (Eds.). Child Nurturance, Vol. 3: Studies of Development in Nonhuman Primates. New York: Plenum.

Nerlove, S.B. (1974). Women's workload and infant feeding practices: A relationship with demographic implications. Ethnology 13 (2), 207-214.

Oakley, A. (1982). Obstetric practice: Cross-cultural comparisons. In P. Stratton (Ed.). Psychobiology of the human newborn. New York: Wiley.

Papousek, H. and M. Papousek (1982). Integration into the social world: Survey of research. In P. Stratton (Ed.). Psychobiology of the Human Newborn. New York: Wiley.

Perez, A.P., Vela, R. and Masnick, G.S. (1971). Timing and sequence of resuming ovulation and menstruation after childbirth. Population Studies 25, 491-503.

Pitman, M.A., R.A. Eisikovits, and Dobbert, M.L. (1989). Culture acquisition: A holistic approach to human learning. New York: Praeger.

Poirier, F. (1973). Socialization and learning among nonhuman primates. In S. Kimball and J. Burnett (Eds.). Learning and Culture Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Prechtl, H. (1965). Problems of behavioral studies in the newborn. In D.S. Lehoman, R.A. Hinde and E. Shaw (Eds.). Advances in the Study of Behavior. New York: Academic Press.

Preston, S.H. (1980). Biological and social aspects of mortality and length of life. Liege: Ordina.

Raphael, D. and Davis, F. (1985). Only mothers know: Patterns of infant feeding in traditional cultures. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Reissland, N. and Burghart, R. (1989). Active patients: The integration of modern and traditional obstetric practices in Nepal. Social Science and Medicine 29 (1), 43-52.

Richards, J.L. and Finger, S. (1975). Mother-child holding patterns: A cross-cultural photographic survey. Child Development 46, 1001-1004.

Richards, M.P.M. (1978). Possible effects of early separation on later development of children: A review. In F.S.W. Brimblecombe, M.P.M. Richards, and N.K.C Robertson (Eds.). Separation and Special Care Units. London: Heinemann.

Rogoff, B., Sellers, M.J., Pirrotta, S., Fox, N. and White, S.H. (1975). Age of assignment of roles and responsibilities to children: A cross-cultural survey. Human Development 18, 353-369.

Rohner, R.P. (1975). They love me, they love me not A worldwide study of the effects of parental acceptance and rejection. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Rohner, R.P. (1980). Worldwide tests of parental acceptance-rejection theory. Behavioral Science Research 15, 1-21.

Rohner, R.P. and Rohner, E.C (1981). Parental acceptance-rejection and parental control: Cross-cultural codes. Ethnology 20 (3), 245-260.

Salk, J. (1973). The role of the heartbeat in relations between mother and infant. Scientific American 228, 24-29.

Sample, L.L. (1980). Wishram birth and obstetrics. Ethnology 19 (4), 427-445.

Sargent, CF. (1988). Born to die: Witchcraft and infanticide in Bariba culture. Ethnology 27 (1), 79-95.

Saucier, J.-F. (1972). Correlates of the long postpartum taboo: A cross-cultural study. Current Anthropology 13 (2), 238-267.

Scheper-Hughes, N. (1985). Culture, scarcity, and maternal thinking: Maternal detachment and infant survival in a Brazilian shantytown. Ethos 13 (4), 291-317.

Scheper-Hughes, N. (1987a). The cultural politics of child survival. In N. ScheperHughes (Ed.). Child Survival Anthropological Perspectives on the Treatment and Maltreatment of Children. Dordrecht: D. Reidel.

Scheper-Hughes, N. (Ed.). (1987b). Child survival Anthropological perspectives on the treatment and maltreatment of children. Dordrecht: D. Reidel.

Schieffelin, B.B. (1985). The importance of cultural perspectives on infant care and feeding. In L.B. Marshall (Ed.). Infant Care and Feeding in the South Pacific. New York: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.

Schneirla, T.C (1959). An evolutionary and developmental theory of motivation underlying approach and withdrawal. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 7, 1-42.

Schutz, A. and T. Luckman. (1973). The structures of the life-world London: Heinemann.

Silk, J.B. (1987). Adoption among the Inuit. Ethnology 15 (3), 320-330.

Sostek, A.M., Vietze, P., Kreiss, L., Van der Waals, F. and Rubinstein, D. (1981). Social context in caregiver-infant interaction: A film study of Fais and the United States. In T.M. Field, A.M. Sostek, P. Vietze, and P.H. Leiderman (Eds.). Culture and Early Interactions. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Spence, M. and DeCasper, A. (1982). Human fetuses perceive maternal speech. Paper presented before the International Conference on Infant Studies. Austin, TX.

Super, CM. (1981). Cross-cultural research on infancy. In H.C Trandis and A. Heron (Eds.). Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Volume 4: Developmental Psychology. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Tennes, K. (1982). The role of hormones in mother-infant transactions. In R.N. Emde and R.J. Harmon (eds.). The Development of Attachment and Affiliative Systems. New York: Plenum.

Tonkinson, R. (1978). The Mardujara aborigines. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Trevathan, W.R. (1987). Human birth: An evolutionary perspective. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Tronick, E. (1980). The primacy of social skills in infancy. In D.B. Sawin, R.C Hawkins, L.O. Walker, and J.H. Penicuff (Eds.). Exceptional Infant, Vol. 4: Psychosocial Risks in Infant-Environment Transactions. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Tronick, E.Z., Morelli, G.A. and Winn, S. (1987). Multiple caretaking of Efe (Pygmy) infants. American Anthropologist 89, 96-106.

Tronick, E.Z., Winn, S. and Morelli, G.A. (1985). Multiple caretaking in the context of human evolution: Why don't the Efe know the western prescription for child care? In M. Reite and T. Field (Eds.). The Psychobiology of Attachment and Separation. New York: Academic Press.

Tuttle, R.H. (1986). Apes of the world. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes.

Waterson, N. and C. Snow. (Eds.). (1978). The development of communication. New York: Wiley.

Watson, J.S. (1967). Memory and "contingency analysis" in infant learning. MerrillPalmer Quarterly 13 (1), 55-76.

Weisner, T.S. and Gallimore, R. (1977). My brother's keeper: Child and sibling caretaking. Current Anthropology 18 (2), 169-190.

Wellin, E. (1955). Maternal and infant feeding practices in a Peruvian village. Journal of American Dietetic Association 31, 889-894.

Whiting, J.W.M. (1941). Becoming a Kwoma: Teaching and learning in a New Guinea tribe. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Whiting, J.W.M. (1961). Socialization process and personality. In F. Hsu (Ed.). Psychological Anthropology. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.

Whiting, J.W.M. (1964). Effects of climate on certain cultural practices. In W.H. Goodenough (ed.). Explorations in Cultural Anthropology. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Whyte, M.K. (1978). Cross-cultural codes dealing with the relative status of women. Ethnology 17 (2), 211-237.

Wickes, I.G. (1953). A history of infant feeding. Archives of Disease in Childhood 28: 151-158.

Williams, T.R. (1966). Cultural structuring of tactile experience in a Borneo society. American Anthropologist 68, 27-39.

Williams, T.R. (1969). A Borneo childhood- Enculturation in Dusun society. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Winikoff, B. and Laukaran, V.H. (1989). Breast feeding and bottle feeding controversies in the developing world: Evidence from a study in four countries. Social Science and Medicine 29 (7), 859-868.

Winikoff, B., Castle, M.A. and Laukaran, V.H. (1988). Feeding infants in four societies: Causes and consequences of mothers' choices. New York: Greenwood Press.

Wood, C.S. (1983). Early childhood, the critical stage in human interactions with disease and culture. Social Science and Medicine 17 (2), 79-85.

Charles D. Laughlin, Ph.D.

Charles D. Laughlin, Ph.D., is a professor of anthropology in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada K1S 5B6. He has done ethnographic fieldwork among East African pastoralists, Tibetan lamas in Nepal and India, and Navajo Indians in the American Southwest. He is co-author of Biogenetic Structuralism, The Spectrum of Ritual, Extinction and Survival in Human Populations, Science As Cognitive Process, and Brain, Symbol and Experience. He is the editor of the Neuroanthropology Network Newsletter and the Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal. The author wishes to thank Dr. David Chamberlain for his kind comments and suggestions. Address correspondence to the author at Department of Sociology-Anthropology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada K1S 5B6.

JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.

Join APPPAH for unlimited access to all journals.