Medical and social attitudes and practices as they pertain to pregnant women and their unborn and newborn children are examined applying the scientific, the sociological, the psychosomatic and the pre- and peri-natal psychology perspectives. The case is made that hi-tech tests and obstetrical procedures adversely affect the pregnant woman and her baby. Medical interventions tend to be dehumanizing, disempowering and sometimes harmful. It is therefore incumbent upon us to apply these interventions only to a small number of medically high-risk pregnancies and not routinely to every pregnant woman.
1. Gordon, H. Mayo Clinic. The People's Doctor Newsletter 30110 1979, p. 3.
2. Robinson, A. et al. Intrauterine diagnosis: Potential complications. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 116, 1973, pp. 937-941.
3. Cook, I.N., Shott, R.J. and Andrews, B.F. Fetal complications of diagnostic amniocentesis: A review and report of a case with pneumothorax. Pediatrics 53, 1974, pp. 421-424.
4. Lamb, M.P. Gangrene of a fetal limb due to amniocentesis. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 82, 1975, pp. 829-830.
5. Goodlin, R.C., and Clewell, N.H. Sudden death following diagnostic amniocentesis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 118, 1974, pp. 285-288.
6. Wald, N.J. et al. Congenital talipes and hip malformation in relationship to amniocentesis: A case controlled study. Lancet 2, 1983, pp. 246-249.
7. Blatt, Robin J.R. Prenatal Tests, pp. 88-90.
8. The New England Journal of Medicine 323, 9, Aug. 30,1991, pp. 557-561 as quoted in Mothering Magazine, Spring 1991, op. cit.
9. Concensus panel opposes routine use of ultrasound in pregnancy. Medical World News 12, March 1984, pp. 19-20.
10. Compulsory Hospitalization, Marble Hill, Mo. 1979, NAPSAC International.
11. Stratmeyer, M.E. Research in ultrasound bioeffects: A public health view. Birth and the Family Journal 7(2), 1980, pp. 92-100.
12. Stark, C.R. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of South Florida Medical School.
13. Haverkamp, A.D. et al. The evaluation of continuous fetal heart rate monitoring in high-risk pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 125, 1976, pp. 310-317.
14. Edwards, M., and Simkin, P. Obstetrical tests.
15. Davis-Floyd, Robbie, Obstetrical rituals and cultural anomaly: Part 1. Pre- and PeriNatal Psychology Journal 4(3), Spring 1990.
16. Verny, Thomas. The scientific basis of pre- and peri-natal psychology. Pre- and PeriNatal Psychology Journal 3(3), Spring 1989, pp. 157-170.
17. Laughlin, Charles D. Pre- and peri-natal brain development and enculturation: A biogenetic structural approach. Human Nature 2, pp. 171-213.
18. Chamberlain, David. Babies Remember Birth. Jeremy P. Tarcher Inc., Los Angeles, 1988.
19. Anand, K.J.S. and P.R. Hickey. Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus. New England Journal of Medicine 317, 1321 (Nov. 19) 1987, pp. 103-123.
20. Verny, T.R. and J. Kelley. The secret Life of the Unborn Child New York, 1982, Dell.
21. Davis-Floyd, Robbie, Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal 5(1), Fall 1990, pp. 35.
22. Cesariana no Brasil: um record desnecessaria. Diario de Pernambuco, Recife, Oct. 28, 1990.
23. Sallot, Jeff. Soviet women give birth in loneliness. The Globe and Mail Toronto, Apr. 8, 1991.
24. Wong, J. No escape from the ties that bind. The Globe and Mail Wed. November 6, 1991.
25. Brozan, Nadine. Women gain as technology becomes part of natural childbirth. New York Times, November 13, 1988.
26. Davis-Floyd, Robbie. Pre- and PerUNatal Psychology Journal, 5(1), Fall 1990, p. 35.
27. Gardosi, J., et al., Lancet 2:74, July 1989.
Thomas R. Verny, M.D., D. Psych, F.R.C.P. (C)