This prospective study focused on the relationships between social support, family, and income pressures on anxiety and stress during pregnancy. Four hundred and thirty-three women elected to participate in a study that included completing a medical/psychosocial questionnaire, the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Jenkins Activity Survey, and stress measures formulated using the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Each participant was assessed once during each trimester of pregnancy. Results found that lack of social support and experience of family and income pressures were related to anxiety and stress during pregnancy. Analysis of variance found that women with an emotionally supportive husband or an emotional confidante had lower state and trait anxiety. Married women, women with a lower number of stressors, and women who desired their pregnancy had lower state and trait anxiety. State and trait anxiety were also related to having lower incomes. Suggestions for expectant mothers were discussed.
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Brown, M.A. (1987). Employment During Pregnancy: Influences on women's health and social support. Health Care for Women International, 151-167.
Chalmers, B. (1983). Psychosocial factors and obstetric complications. Psychological Medicine, 13, 333-339.
Kalil, K.M., Gruber, J.E. & Conley, J. (1991, August). Prospective Study of Health-Related and Psychosocial Factors and Miscarriages. Paper presented at the meeting of the 99th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA.
Leaderman, R.P. (1985). Maternal Anxiety in Pregnancy: Relationship to Fetal and Newborn Health Status. Research on Nursing Practice, 3-19.
Norbeck, J.S., & Tilden, V.P. (1983). Life stress, social and emotional disequilibrium in complications of pregnancy: A prospective, multivariate study. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 30-46.
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Kathleen M. Kalil, Ph.D., James E. Gruber, Ph.D., Joyce Conley, Ph.D., and Michael Sytniac
Kathleen M. Kalil, Ph.D., is a staff psychologist in Dearborn, Michigan, and an instructor in the Psychology Department at Wayne County Community College in Detroit. She is a past Project Director of Research Unit at University of Michigan, Dearborn and William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan. She is the author of Adoption: Let's Talk (Adoption Resources Press, 1990). James E. Gruber, Ph.D., is a professor of sociology at the University of Michigan, Dearborn. Joyce G. Conley, Ph.D., is the Assistant Director, Research Unit, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan. And Michael Sytniac is a graduate student in psychology at Bowling Green University, Ohio. This research was funded by a grant from the William Beaumont Hospital and the University of Michigan-Dearborn. Address correspondence to 24940 Fairmount, Dearborn, MI 48124, USA.
JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.