Infant Mortality and Cultural Concepts of Infancy: A Case Study from an Early Twentieth Century Aboriginal Community
This article explores the impact of infant death on cultural perceptions of infancy. It employs a case study of the Cree-Ojibwa community of Fisher River, Manitoba in the early twentieth century to illustrate how a high risk of infant death can delay the point at which personhood is conferred on an infant. Further to this, the concept of infancy among the Aboriginal community is contrasted with wider Euro-Canadian values concerning the infant mortality rate. Differing cultural perceptions surrounding infant death provided the Canadian Government with rationale to contest Aboriginal autonomy over child welfare.
Annual Departmental Reports, 1925-1935 (ADR). Report of the Department of Indian Affairs.
Armstrong, D. (1986). The Invention of Infant Mortality. Sociology of Health and Illness 8(3), 211-232.
Bishop, C.A. (1974). The Northern Ojibwa and the Fur Trade: An Historical and Ecological Study. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, Limited.
Brown, J. (1980). Strangers in Blood, Fur Trade Company Families in Indian Country. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Canadian Sessional Papers (CSP). Report of the Department of Indian Affairs.
Chen, L.C. (1983). Child Survival: Levels, Trends, and Determinants. In R.A. Bulatao and R.D. Lee (Eds.). Determinants of Fertility in Developing Countries: Supply and Demand for Children (Vol. 1). New York: Academic Press.
Cook, S.F. and Borah, W. (1979). Essays in Population History: Mexico and California (Vol. III). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Dunning, R.W. (1959). Social and Economic Change among the Northern Ojibwa. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Dyhouse, C. (1978). Working-Class Mothers and Infant Mortality in England, 18951914. Journal of Social History 12(2), 248-267.
Friesen, J. (1992). Northern Manitoba 1870-1970-An Historical Outline. In Y.G. Lithman, R.R. Riewe, R.E. Wiest and R.E. Wrigley (Eds.). People and Land in Northern Manitoba. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Anthropology Papers 32.
Graham-Gumming, G. (1962). Maternal and Child Health Survey-Canadian Indians. Government of Canada, Department of National Health and Welfare, Medical Services.
Grobstein, C. (1988). Science and the Unborn. Choosing Human Futures. New York: Basic Books, Inc. Publishers.
Herring, D.A., P. Driben and L.A. Sawchuk (1983). Historical Fertility Patterns in a Northern Ojibwa Community: The Fort Hope Band. Anthropologica N.S. 25(2), 147161.
Hurlich, M.G. (1983). Historical and Recent Demography of the Algonkians of Northern Ontario. In (Ed.) A.T. Steegman, Jr. Boreal Forest Adaptations. New York: Plenum Press.
Huss-Ashmore R. and Johnston F.E. (1985). Bioanthropological Research in Developing Countries. Annual Review of Anthropology 14, 475-528.
Imhof, A.E. (1985). From the Old Mortality Pattern to the New: Implications of a Radical Change from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 59, 1-29.
Jenness, D. (1935). The Ojibwa Indians of Parry Island, their Social and Religious Life. Ottawa: National Museum of Canada.
Jones, R.E. (1976). Infant Mortality in Rural Shropshire, 1561-1810. Population Studies 30(2), 305-317.
Jordan, B. (1993). Birth in Four Cultures: A Crosscultural Investigation of Childbirth in Yucatan, Holland, Sweden, and the United States (Fourth Edition). Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press, Inc.
Kaufert, P.A. and O'Neil, J.D. (1990). Cooptation and Control: The Reconstruction of Inuit Birth. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 4(4), 427-442.
Klein, S.D. (1980). Class, Culture, and Health, In (Ed.) P.E. Sartwell. Public Health and Preventive Medicine (llth Edition). New York: Appleton-Century Crofts.
Latulippe-Sakamoto, C. (1971). Estimation de la mortalit