An evolutionary perspective on human infancy suggests that the active infant, skilled at information-gathering and -prompting from adults, and at coordinating its behavior with that of adults, has been shaped by millions of years of natural selection. Infant monkeys and apes are skilled in these ways because they have to be; adults rarely donate information to them, although the contexts in which they do are likely to have evolutionary significance. Ecological shifts over time may have "driven" selection for an information-donating primate adult, an experienced social partner who is motivated to guide infant behavior and to coordinate its behavior in structured routines with that of infants.
Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour 49:213-266.
Altmann, J. (1980). Baboon mothers and infants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Altmann, S. & Altmann, J. (1970). Baboon ecology: African field research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bard, K.A. (1990). "Social tool use" by free-ranging orangutans: A Piagetian and developmental perspective on the manipulation of an animate object. In S.T. Parker & K. Gibson (Eds). "Language" and intelligence in monkeys and apes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Berman, C.M. (1982). The ontogeny of social relationships with group companions among free-ranging infant rhesus monkeys. I. Social networks and differentiation. Animal Behaviour 30, 149-162.
Bloch, M. (1991). Language, anthropology, and cognitive science. Man 26, 183-198.
Boesch, C. (1991). Teaching among chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour 41, 530-532.
Boesch, C. (1993). Aspects of transmission of tool-use in wild chimpanzees. In K. Gibson & T. Ingold (Eds.). Tools, language and cognition in human evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Boesch, C. & Boesch, H. (1990). Tool use and tool making in wild chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica 54, 86-99.
Boinski, S. & Fragaszy, D.M. (1989). The ontogeny of foraging in squirrel monkeys, Saimiri oerstedi. Animal Behaviour 37, 415-428.
Borchert, C.M. & Zilhman, A.L. (1990). The ontogeny and phylogeny of symbolizing. In M.L. Foster & L. J. Botscharow (Eds). The life of symbols. Boulder: Westview.
Bruner, J. (1983). Child's talk. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Caro, T.M. & Hauser, M.D. (1992). Is there teaching in nonhuman animals? Quarterly Review of Biology 67 (2), 151-74.
Cartmill, M. (1990). Human uniqueness and theoretical content in paleoanthropology. International Journal of Primatology 11 (3), 173-192.
Cheney, D.L. & Seyfarth, R.M. (1990). How monkeys see the world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
deWaal, F.B.M. (1990). Do rhesus mothers suggest friends to their offspring? Primates 31 (4), 597-600.
deWaal, F.B.M., Luttrell, L.M. & Canfield, M.E. (1993). Preliminary data on voluntary food sharing in brown capuchin monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 29,73-78.
Dettwyler, K.A. (1989). Styles of infant feeding: Parental/caretaker control of food consumption in young children. American Anthropologist 91, 696-703.
Dittus, W.P.J. (1984). Toque macaque food calls: Semantic communication concerning food distribution in the environment. Animal Behaviour 32, 470-477.
Dolhinow, P. (1991). Tactics of primate immaturity. In M.H. Robinson & L. Tiger (Eds.) Man and beast revisited, Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Feistner, A. and McGrew, W.C. (1989). Food-sharing in primates: A critical review. In P.K. Seth & S. Seth (Eds.) Perspectives in primate biology Volume 3. New Delhi: Today and Tomorrow's Printers and Publishers.
Fernald, A. (1992). Human maternal vocalizations to infants as biologically relevant signals: An evolutionary perspective. In J.H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.) The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ferrari, S.F. (1987). Food transfer in a wild marmoset group. Folia Primatologica 48, 203-206.
Galef, B.G. (1988). Imitation in animals: History, definition and interpretation of data from the psychological laboratory. In T. Zentall & B.G. Galef (Eds). Social learning: Psychological and biological perspectives. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
Galef, B.G. (1992). The question of animal culture. Human Nature 3(2), 157-178.
Gibson, K.R. (1990). New perspectives in instincts and intelligence: Brain size and the emergence of hierarchical mental constructional skills. In S.T. Parker & K. Gibson (Eds). "Language" and intelligence in monkeys and apes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gibson, K.R. (1994). Continuity theories of human language origins versus the lieberman model. Language and Communication 14(1): 97-114.
Gibson, K.R. (19-). The ontogeny and evolution of the brain, cognition and language. In A. Lock & C. Peters (Eds). Handbook of symbolic intelligence. Oxford University Press (in press).
Goodall, J. (1973). Cultural elements in the chimpanzee community. In E.W. Menzel (Ed.) Precultural primate behavior. Basel: S. Karger.
Goodall, J. (1986). The chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of behavior. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press.
Hauser, M.D. & P. Marier. (1993). Food-associated calls in rhesus macaques (Macaco mulatto): I. Socioecological factors. Influencing call production. Behavioral Ecology 4: 206-212.
Hewlett, B.S. (1991). Intimate fathers: The nature and context of Aka Pygmy paternal infant care. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M. (1990). Role of food sharing between mother and infant in the ontogeny of feeding behavior. In T. Nishida (Ed.) The chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains: Sexual and life history strategies. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.
Horr, D.A. (1977). Orang-utan maturation: Growing up in a female world. In S. Chevalier-Skolnikoff & F.E. Poirer (Eds). Primate bio-social development: Biological, social and ecological determinants. New York: Garland.
Ingold, T. (1993). A social anthropological view. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16(3), 526-527.
Jay, P. (1963). Mother-infant relations in langurs. In H.L. Reingold (Ed.) Maternal behaviour in mammals. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Kano, T. (1992). The last ape: Pygmy chimpanzee behavior and ecology. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Kawamura, S. (1959). The process of sub-culture propagation among Japanese macaques. Primates 2, 43-60.
King, B. J. (1986). Extractive foraging and the evolution of primate intelligence. Human Evolution 1(4), 361-372.
King, B.J. (1989). Social information transfer and foraging in yellow baboon (Papio cynocephalus) infants. Ph.D. thesis, University of Oklahoma. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.
King, B.J. (1991). Social information transfer in monkeys, apes, and hominids. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 34, 97-115.
King, B.J. (1994). Evolutionism, essentialism, and an evolutionary perspective on language: Moving beyond a human standard. language and Communication 14(1): 1-13.
King, B.J. (19-). The Information Continuum: Evolution of Social Information Transfer in Monkeys, Apes, and Hominids. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press (in press).
Lancaster, J.B. & O.S. Lancaster. 1983. Parental investment: The hominid adaptation. In D.J. Ortner (Ed.) How humans adapt: A biocultural odyssey. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
McGrew, W.C. (1992). Chimpanzee material culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McKenna, J.J., Thoman, E.B., Anders, T.F., Sadeh, A., Schechtman, V.L. & Glotzbach, S.F. (1993). Infant-parent co-sleeping in an evolutionary perspective: Implications for understanding infant sleep development and the sudden infant death syndrome. Sleep 16(3), 263-282.
Mason, W. (1979). Ontogeny of social behavior. In P. Marier & J. Vandenberg (Eds.) Handbook of behavioral neurobiology, Volume 3. Social behavior and communication. New York: Plenum Press.
Milton, K. (1988). Foraging behaviour and the evolution of primate intelligence. In R. Byrne & A. Whiten (Eds.) Machiavellian intelligence. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Nishida, T., Wrangham, R.W., Goodall, J. & Uehara, S. (1983). Local differences in plantfeeding habits of chimpanzees between the Mahale Mountains and Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution 12, 467-480.
Owings, D.H. (1994). How monkeys feel about the world: A review of How monkeys see the world. Language and Communication 14(1): 15-30.
Parker, S.T. & Gibson, K.R. (1979). A developmental model for the evolution of language and intelligence in early hominids. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2, 367-408.
Peters, E.H. (19-). Human infancy as a vehicle for teaching anthropology. In P. Erickson (Ed.) Strategies for teaching the central themes of anthropology. New Delhi: Reliance Press (in press).
Peters, A.M. & Boggs, S.T. (1986). Interactional routines as cultural influences upon language acquisition. In B.B. Schieffelin & E. Ochs (Eds.) Language socialization across cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Post, D. (1982). Feeding behavior of yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus). Ph.D. thesis, Yale University.
Richman, A.L., LeVine, R.A., New, R.S., Howrigan, G.A., Welles-Nystrom, B. & LeVine, S.E. (1988). Maternal behavior to infants in five cultures. In R.A. LeVine, P.M. Miller, & M.M. West (Eds.) Parental behavior in diverse societies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in thinking: cognitive development in social context. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rowell, T.E. (1975). Growing up in a monkey group. Ethos 3, 113-128.
Russon, A.E. & B.M.F. Galdikas (1993). Imitation in free-ranging rehabilitant orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Journal of Comparative Psychology 107 (2), 147-161.
Savage-Rumbaugh, E.S., Murphy, J., Sevcik, R.A., Brakke, K.E., Williams, S.L., & Rumbaugh, D.M. (1993). Language comprehension in ape and child. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. Serial No. 233, Volume 58, 3-4.
Snow, C.E. (1977). The development of conversation between mothers and babies. Journal of Child Language 4, 1-22.
Stein, D.M. (1984). The sociobiology of infant and adult male baboons. Norwood, N. J.: Ablex.
Tomasello, M. (1990). Cultural transmission in the tool use and communicatory signaling of chimpanzees? In S.T. Parker & K.R. Gibson (Eds.) "Language" and intelligence in monkeys and apes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tomasello, M. (1992). The social bases of language acquisition. Social Development 1 (1), 67-87.
Tomasello, M., Kruger, A.C. & Ratner, H.H (1993). Cultural learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16, 495-552.
Trevarthen, C. (1993). Predispositions to cultural learning in young infants. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16, 534-535.
Visalberghi, E. & Fragaszy, D.M. (1990). Do monkeys ape? In S.T. Parker & K.R. Gibson (Eds.) "Language" and intelligence in monkeys and apes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Watts, D.P. (1985). Observations on the ontogeny of feeding behavior in mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). American Journal of Primatology 8, 1-10.
Whitehead, J.M. (1986). Development of feeding selectivity in mantled howling monkeys, Alouatta palliata. In J. Else & P.C. Lee (Eds.) Primate ontogeny, cognition, and social behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Whiting, B.B. & Edwards, C.P. (1988). Children of different worlds: The formation of social behavior. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Barbara J. King, Ph.D.
Barbara J. King, Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the College of William and Mary, is a behavioral primatologist with an interest in the evolution of communication. She has studied wild baboons in Kenya and captive apes in several zoos. She recently edited a special issue of the journal Language and Communication (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1994) and her book The Information Continuum: Evolution of Social Information Transfer in Monkeys, Apes, and Hominids (School of American Research Press, Santa Fe) will appear later this year. Address correspondence to Department of Anthropology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795.
JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.