Relationships Among Stress, Anxiety, Type A, and Pregnancy-Related Complications
The relationships among stress, state and trait anxiety, Type A personality and antepartum and postpartum health of women and their fetuses/infants were analyzed. A medical/psychosocial questionnaire and two inventories were mailed to each participant (n = 433) during each trimester of pregnancy. Medical records were reviewed to ascertain health problems. Type A and state anxiety were not as strongly related to maternal or fetal/infant complications as were stressor number, stressor intensity, or trait anxiety. Also, the predictors were generally stronger in the latter stages of pregnancy. Results suggest that health during and after pregnancy may be predicted on the basis of psychosocial problems, as well as the time period during which the problems occur.
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Kathleen M. Kalil, Ph.D., James E. Gruber, Ph.D., Joyce G. Conley, Ph.D., and Richard M. LaGrandeur, M.D.
Kathleen M. Kalil, Ph.D., is the Project Director for Research on Stress, Type A, Anxiety, Occupation and Pregnancy. This research was funded by a grant from William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan and the University of Michigan-Dearborn. James E. Gruber, Ph.D., is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Michigan. Joyce G. Conley, Ph.D., is the Assistant Director of the Research Institute at William Beaumont Hospital. Richard M. LaGrandeur, M.D., is a full time staff physician and clinical instructor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at William Beaumont Hospital. Address correspondence to Kathleen Kalil, Ph.D., 24940 Fairmount, Dearborn, Michigan 48124.