The relationships among stress, state and trait anxiety, Type A personality and antepartum and postpartum health of women and their fetuses/infants were analyzed. A medical/psychosocial questionnaire and two inventories were mailed to each participant (n = 433) during each trimester of pregnancy. Medical records were reviewed to ascertain health problems. Type A and state anxiety were not as strongly related to maternal or fetal/infant complications as were stressor number, stressor intensity, or trait anxiety. Also, the predictors were generally stronger in the latter stages of pregnancy. Results suggest that health during and after pregnancy may be predicted on the basis of psychosocial problems, as well as the time period during which the problems occur.
Barnett, B. & Parker, G. (1986). Possible determinate, correlates and consequences of high levels of anxiety in primiparous mothers. Psychological Medicine, 16, 177-185.
Beck, N. C., Siegel, L. J., Davidson, N. P., Kormeier, S., Breitenstein, A. & Hall, D. G. (1980). The prediction of pregnancy outcome: Maternal preparation, anxiety and attitudinal sets. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 24, 343-351.
Berkowitz, G. S., & Kasl, S. V. (1983). The role of psychosocial factors in spontaneous preterm delivery. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 27, 283-290.
Cohen, F. (1981). Stress and bodily illness. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 4, 269.
Dohrenwend, B. P., & Shrout, P. E. (1985). "Hassles" in the conceptualization and measurement of life stress variables. American Psychologist, 40, 780-785.
Eskenazi, B. & Pearson, K. (1988). Validation of self-administered questionnaire for assessing occupational and environmental exposures of pregnant women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 128, 1117-1129.
Ferketich, S. L. & Mercer, R. T. (1990). Effects of antepartal stress on health status during early motherhood. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice, 4, 127-149.
Fonteyn, V. J. & Isada, N. B. (1988). Nongenetic implications of childbearing after age thirty-five. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 43, 709-720.
Goldhaber, M., Polen, M., & Hiatt, R. (1988). The risk of miscarriage and birth defects among women who use visual display terminals during pregnancy. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 13, (6), 695-706.
Holmes, J. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213-218.
Istvan, J. (1986). Stress, anxiety, and birth outcomes: A critical review of the evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 331-348.
Jahan, M. (1987). Role of psychological factors in complications during first trimester of pregnancy. Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies, 3(1), 11-16.
Jenkins, C., Zyzanski, S., & Rosenman, R. (1979). Jenkins Activity Survey, Form C. New York, New York; Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
Laferla, J. (1986). Termination of pregnancy. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 13, 9, 71-82.
Levin, J. & De Frank, R. (1988). Maternal stress and pregnancy outcomes: a review of the psychosocial literature. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 9, 3-16.
Lobel, M. & Dunkel-Schetter, C. (1990). Conceptualizing stress to study effects on health: Environmental perceptual, and emotional components. Anxiety Research, 3, 213-230.
Lobel, M., Dunkel-Schetter, C., & Scrimshaw, S. (1992). Prenatal maternal stress and prematurity: A prospective study of socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Health Psychology, 11, 32-40.
Mamelle, N., Laumon, B., Lazar, P. (1984). Prematurity and occupational activity during pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology, 119: 309-322.
Matthews, K. A., Glass, D. C., Rosenman, R. H., & Bornter, R. W. (1977). Competitive drive pattern A, and coronary heart disease: A further analysis of some data from the Western Collaborative Group Study. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 30, 489-498.
McBridge, W. Z. (1991). Spontaneous Abortion. American Family Physician, 43, 175-182.
Mercer, R. T., May, K. A., Ferketich, S., & DeJoseph, J. (1986). Theoretical models for studying the effect of antepartum stress on the family. Nursing Research, 35(6), 339-345.
Molfese, V. J., Bricker, M. C., Manion, L., Yaple, K. & Beadnell, B. (1987). Stress in pregnancy: The influence of psychological and social mediators in perinatal experiences. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 6, 33-42.
Norbeck, J. S. & Tilden, V. P. (1983). Life stress, social support, and emotional disequilibrium in complications of pregnancy: A prospective, multivariate study. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 30-46.
Rosenman, R. H. The interview method of assessment of the coronary-prone behavior pattern. In T. M. Dembroski, S. M. Weiss, J. L. Shields, S. G. Haynes, & M. Feinleib (Eds.), Coronary-prone Behavior. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1978.
Spielberger, C. (1983). State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI (Form Y), Self-evaluation questionnaire. Palo Alto, California; Consulting Psychologists Press.
Tuma, A. H. and Maser, J. D. (1985). Introduction. In A. H. Tuma and J. D. Maser (Eds.), Anxiety and the Anxiety Disorders. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J.
Kathleen M. Kalil, Ph.D., James E. Gruber, Ph.D., Joyce G. Conley, Ph.D., and Richard M. LaGrandeur, M.D.
Kathleen M. Kalil, Ph.D., is the Project Director for Research on Stress, Type A, Anxiety, Occupation and Pregnancy. This research was funded by a grant from William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan and the University of Michigan-Dearborn. James E. Gruber, Ph.D., is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Michigan. Joyce G. Conley, Ph.D., is the Assistant Director of the Research Institute at William Beaumont Hospital. Richard M. LaGrandeur, M.D., is a full time staff physician and clinical instructor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at William Beaumont Hospital. Address correspondence to Kathleen Kalil, Ph.D., 24940 Fairmount, Dearborn, Michigan 48124.
JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.