Brain Development

Prenatal and Perinatal Medicine and Psychology Towards Integrated Neurosciences: General Remarks and Future Perspectives

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Publication Date: 
March 2014

Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine is an interdisciplinary scientific field of research and practice with the scientific focus on prenatal and perinatal conditions of human life. Prenatal period of human life represents a crucial phase in human life during which crucial developmental processes and regulations take place and these serve as adaptation strategies and physiological capabilities for the next postnatal life´s periods.

References: 

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Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine is an interdisciplinary scientific field of research and practice with the scientific focus on prenatal and perinatal conditions of human life. Prenatal period of human life represents a crucial phase in human life during which crucial developmental processes and regulations take place and these serve as adaptation strategies and physiological capabilities for the next postnatal life´s periods.

The Sentient Prenate: What Every Parent Should Know

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Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
January 2011

Abstract: In the 1980’s parents in large numbers were first introduced to the sensitive, perceptive, conscious, and cognitive prenate. This paper summarizes the evidence from major research findings, demonstrating that prenates are 1) sensitive and aware, 2) learn and dream, and 3) are social and communicative. Well-designed experimental programs in prenatal enrichment confirm the intelligence and receptivity of womb babies. A closing section describes the special resources now available to parents who want to deliberately enhance prenatal bonding and communication.

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Pain in Childbirth, Maternal Care, and Mind Development: A Review

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
September 2010

In recent decades perinatal clinical psychology and infant research has shown how neurological maturation of the newborn and infant brain is due to learning from maternal care: properties of baby’s mind development are conditioned by maternal care, and the baby’s primary mental development conditions the future child and adult mental development. Research has also shown that maternal care may be modulated by childbirth pain. The experience of pain may increase and enrich maternal care, and its suppression may depress the mother’s ability in maternal care.

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Nurture of the Brain, Nutritional & Emotional, in the Context of Evolution and the Lifecycle

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
March 2010
Controlled trials reveal that, from before conception, nutrient deficits and toxins affect sperm, ovum, and maternal stores, lastingly impairing a child's health and abilities. Deficits, toxins, and stress can inhibit structure and function, and be linked to autism or reduced self-control, possibly with violent tendencies. From the beginning, epigenetic settings are mostly set early for directing development according to current environment. Many are operative in the brain.
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Yehuda, R., Engel, S.M., Brand, S.R., Seckl, J., Marcus, S.M., & Berkowitz, G.S. (2005). Transgenerational Effects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Babies of Mothers Exposed to the World Trade Center Attacks during Pregnancy. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(7), 4115-411

Hypothesis: Preeclampsia as a Maternal-Fetal Conflict

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Publication Date: 
May 2006

The association of preeclampsia with both high and low birth weight challenges the current belief that reduced uteroplacental perfusion is the unique pathophysiologic process in preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is thus presented from a new perspective, in the framework of maternal/fetal conflict. Interspecies comparisons encourage us to raise new questions concerning the potential for conflict among humans. The spectacular brain growth spurt during the second half of fetal life is a specifically human trait.

References: 

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Al, M.D., Van Houwelingen, A.C., & Hornstra, G. (1997). Relation between birth order and the maternal and neonatal docosahexaenoic acid status. Eur J Clin Nutr. 51, 548-553.

Appel, L.J., Miller, E.R., Seidler, A.J., & Whelton, P.K. (1993). Does supplementation of diet with 'fish oil' reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 153, 1429-1438.

Bucher, H.C., Guyatt, G.H., & Cook, R.J., et al. (1996). Effect of calcium supplementation on pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia. JAMA. 275, 1113-1117.

Caritis, S., Sibai, B., Thorn, C., & McLaughlin, S. (1995). Pregnancy effects of non-proteinuric gestational hypertension. SPO Abstracts. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 418, 376.

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Chappell, L.C., seed, P.T., Briley, A.L., Kelly, F.J., & Hunt, B.J., et al. (1999). Effect of antioxidants on the occurrence of pre-eclampsia in women at increased risk: A randomised trial. Lancet. 354, 810-816.

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De Groot, C.J.M., O'Brien, T. J., & Taylor, R.N. (1996). Biochemical evidence of impaired trophoblastic invasion of decidual stroma in women destined to have pre-eclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 175, 24-29.

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Duley, L., Henderson-Smart, D., Knight, M., & King, J. (2001). Antiplatelet drugs for prevention of pre-eclampsia and its consequences: Systematic review. BMJ. 322, 329-333.

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Haig, D. (1993). Genetic conflicts in human pregnancy. Q Rev Biol. 68, 495-531.

Haig, D. (1996). Altercation of generations: genetics conflicts of pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol. 35, 226-236.

Kesmodel, U., Olsen, S.F., & Salvig, J.D. (1997). Marine n-3 fatty acid and calcium intake in relation to pregnancy induced hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm delivery. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 76, 38-44.

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Odent, M. (2000). Pre-eclampsia as a maternal - fetal conflict: The link with fetal brain development. International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL) News. 7, 7-10.

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Velzing-Aarts, F.V., van der His, F.R., van der Dijs, F.P., & Muskiet, F.A. (1999). Umbilical vessels of preeclamptic women have low contents of both n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr. 69, 293-298.

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Xiong, X., Demianczuk, N.N., Buekens, P., & Saunders, L.D. (2000). Association of preeclampsia with high birth weight for age. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 183, 148-155.

Michel Odent, MD, Primal Health Research Centre, London, England

Editor's note: This essay is reprinted with the permission of Michel Odent, Director, Primal Health Research, published in North and South America by Birth Works, Ic., Medford, N.J. Free access to Primal Health Research Data Bank is provided at: www.Birthworks.org/primalhealth. Email address for Dr. Odent is: modent@aol.com

The Neurological Impact of Preterm and Very Preterm Birth and Influence of IVF Pregnancies on Developmental Outcomes: A Literature Review and Case Study

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Publication Date: 
December 2005

This article explores the influence on brain development, as well as the neurological and behavioral outcomes, of the preterm and very preterm infant. It also briefly covers the influence of In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF), multiple births, gestational age, and birth weight on development as well as giving a more in depth review of literature that evaluates the impact of preterm birth and very preterm birth on brain development and neurological and behavioral outcomes.

References: 

Ajayi-Obe, M., Saeed, N., Cowan, P.M., Rutherford, M.A., & Edwards, A.D. (2000). Reduced development of cerebral cortex in extremely preterm infants. The Lancet, 356(9236), 1162-1165.

Anderson, P. & Doyle, L. (2003). Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born extremely low birth weight or very preterm in the 1990s. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 3264-3272.

Bernasko, J., Lynch, L., Lapinski, R., & Berkowitz, R. (1997). Twin pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive techniques: maternal and neonatal outcomes. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 89(3), 368-372.

Bryan, E. (2003). The impact of multiple preterm births on the family. BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 110(Suppl. 20), 24-28.

Cusson, R. (2003). Factors influencing language development in preterm infants. JOGNN, 32(3), 402-409.

Goldberg, S. & DiVitto, B. (1983). Born too soon. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company.

Grasby, D.O., Esterman, A., & Marshall, P. (2003). Ultrasound grading of cerebral ventricular dilatation in preterm neonates. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 39, 186-190.

Hack, M., Flannery, D., Schluchter, M., Cartar, L., Borawski, E., & Klein, N. (2002). Outcomes in young adulthood for very-low-birth-weight infants. The New England Journal of Medicine, 346(3), 149-157.

Hughes, M., Shults, J., McGrath, J. & Medoff-Cooper, B. (2002). Temperament characteristics of premature infants in the first year of life. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 23(6), 430-435.

Mouradian, L., Als, H., & Coster, W. (2000). Neurobehavioral functioning of healthy preterm infants of varying gestational ages. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 21(6), 408-416.

Olivennes, F., Kadhel, P., Rufat, P., Fanchin, R., Fernandez, H., & Frydman, R. (1996). Perinatal outcome of twin pregnancies obtained after in vitro fertilization: comparison with twin pregnancies obtained spontaneously or after ovarian stimulation. Assisted Reproductive Technology, 66(1), 105-109.

Peterson, B., Anderson, A., Ehrenkranz, R., Staib, L., Tageldin, M., Colson, E., Gore, J., Duncan, C., Makuch, R., & Ment, L. (2003). Regional brain volumes and their later neurodevelopmental correlates in term and preterm infants. Pediatrics, 111(5), 939-948.

Peterson, B., Vohr, B., Staib, L., Cannistraci, C., Dolberg, A., Schneider, K., Katz, K., Westerveld, M., Sparrow, S., Anderson, A., Duncan, C., Makuch, R., Gore, J., & Ment, L. (2000). Regional brain volume abnormalities and long-term cognitive outcome in preterm infants. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(15), 1939-1947.

Stewart, A.L., Rifkin, L., Amess, P.N., Kirkbride, V., Townsend, J.P., Miller, D.H., Lewis, S.W., Kingsley, D.P.E., Moseley, I.F., Foster, O., & Murray, R.M. (1999). Brain structure and neurocognitive and behavioural function in adolescents who were born very preterm. The Lancet, 353, 1653-1657.

Torrioli, M., Frisone, M., Bonvini, L., Luciano, R., Pasca, M., Lepori, R., Tortorolo, G., & Guzzetta, F. (2000). Perceptual-motor, visual and cognitive ability in very low birthweight preschool children without neonatal ultrasound abnormalities. Brain and Development, 22, 163-168.

Wocadlo, C. & Rieger, I. (2000). Very preterm children who do not cooperate with assessments at three years of age: skill differences at five years. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 21(2), 107-113.

Send correspondence to: Mari Fullmer, MA at 3695 La Entrada, Santa Barbara, CA 93105. Email: womynwise@hotmail.com Ms. Fullmer is a recent graduate of Santa Barbara Graduate Institute.