Fetus

The Possible Prenatal Origins of Morbid Obesity

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Publication Date: 
December 2008
The rapidly developing science of pre-birth psychology is casting a new light on some old problems. One such is morbid obesity, some aspects of which can possibly be explained in the light of prenatal theory. This article sets out the hypothesis that firstly, obesity may represent a self-destructive personal choice. Secondly, there may be a psychological reason why the possibly fatal consequences of that choice are largely ignored by the obese person. Thirdly, the choice and its consequences comprise a style of eating behaviour that seems to re-construct a particular pre-birth experience.
References: 

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Fairburn, C. G. & Brownell, K. D. (Eds.) (2002). Eating disorders and obesity: A comprehensive handbook (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Fall, H. D. (2006). Developmental origins of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity in humans. In M. Wintour-Coghlan & J. Owens (Eds.), Early life origins of health and disease (pp. 8-28). New York: Springer Science+Business Media.

Felitti, V. J. (1993). Childhood sexual abuse, depression, and family dysfunction in adult obese patients: a case control study. Southern Medical Journal, 86, 732-6.

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Investigation by Questionnaire Regarding Fetal/Infant Memory in the Womb and/or at Birth

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Publication Date: 
December 2005

The purpose of this study is to clarify the possession rate of fetal/infant memory in the womb and/or at birth and to validate its characteristic. A total of 1620 answered questionnaires of the 3601 distributed were returned, giving an overall recovery rate of 45.0%. The possession rates of womb and birth memory were 33.0% and 20.7%, respectively. Parents, too, responded with regard to their own memory from birth, and 1.1% appeared possessing such memory.

References: 

Chamberlain, D. (1988). Babies remember birth. New York: Ballantine Books.

Chamberlain, D. (1998). The mind of your newborn baby. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Gulpinar, M.A., & Yegen B.C. (2004, Dec). The physiology of learning and memory: role of peptides and stress. Current Protein and Peptide Science, 5(6), 457-473.

Heinrichs, M., Meinlschmidt G., Wippich W., Ehlert U., & Hellhammer D.H. (2004, Oct). Selective amnesic effect of oxytocin on human memory. Physiology and Behavior 30; 83(1), 31-8.

Verny, T., with Weintraub, P. (2002). Pre-parenting nurturing your child from conception. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Verny, T., with Kelly, J., (1981). The secret life of the unborn child. New York: Dell Publishing.

Akira Ikegawa, Administrative Director of Ikegawa Clinic

Send correspondence to Akira Ikegawa, MD, PhD, Administrative Director of Ikegawa Clinic. Address: 2-5-13 Daidou Kanazawa-Ku Yokohama Japan 236-0035. Email: aikegawa@seaple.icc.ne.jp

The Potential Risks of Ultrasound Examinations on Fetal Development

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Publication Date: 
March 2007

Ultrasound examinations are a trusted diagnostic procedure in prenatal Healthcare. The benefits of ultrasound are numerous. However, research documents physical risks that must be taken seriously. Although many of these findings are inconclusive, they indicate that ultrasound examinations may not be totally benign. The following is an exploration of the current research available on the effects of ultrasound exposure on fetal development with discussion on potential physical, behavioral and psychological health risks.

References: 

Ang, E., Gluncic, V., Duque, Á., Schafer, M., & Rakic, P. (2006). Prenatal exposure to ultrasound waves impacts neuronal migration in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(34), 12903-12910.

Bellieni, C.V., Buonocore, G., Bagnoli, F., Cordelli, D.M., Gasparre, O., Calonaci, F., Filardi, G., Merola, A., & Petraglia, F. (2005). Is an excessive number of prenatal ichnographies a risk for fetal growth? Early Human Development, 81, 689-693.

Campbell, S. (2002). Editorial. Ultrasound Obstetrics and Gynecology, 19, 1-4.

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Hande, M.P., Devi, P., Uma, & Karanth, S. (1993). Effect of prenatal ultrasound exposure on adult behavior in mice. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 15, 433-438.

Ji, E.K., Pretorius, D.H., Newton, R., Uyan, K., Hull, A.D., Hollenbach, K., & Nelson, T.R. (2005). Effects of ultrasound on maternal-fetal bonding: a comparison of two- and three-dimensional imaging. Ultrasound Obstetrics and Gynecology, 25, 473-477.

Kroeger, M. & Smith, L.J. (2004). Impact of birthing practices on breastfeeding: protecting the mother and baby continuum. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett.

Newnham, J.P., Doherty, D., Kendall, G.E., Zubrick, S.R., Landou, L., & Stanley, F.J. (2004). Effects of repeated prenatal ultrasound examinations on childhood outcome up to 8 years of age: Follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Lancet, 364, 2038-44.

Rados, C. (2004). FDA cautions against ultrasound 'keepsake' images. FDA Consumer Magazine, January-February Issue. Retrieved August 12, 2006 from http://fda.gov/ fdac/features/2004/104_images.html

Righetti, P.L., Dell'Avanzo, M., Grigio, M., & Nicolini, U. (2005). Maternal/paternal antenatal attachment and fourth-dimensional ultrasound technique: a preliminary report. British Journal of Psychology 96, 129-137.

Schmid, R.E. (August 7, 2006). Ultrasound may affect fetal brain: Study. Toronto Star. Retrieved August 12, 2005 from http://www.thestar.com/NASApp/cs/ContentServer? pagename=thesta...

Suresh, R., Devi, P., Uma, Ovchinnkov, N., & McRae, A. (2002). Long-term effects of diagnostic ultrasound during fetal period on postnatal development and adult behavior of mouse. Life Sciences, 71, 33-350.

Thomson, P. (2004). The impact of trauma on the embryo and fetus: an application of the diathesis-stress model and the neurovulnerability-neurotoxicity model. Journal of. Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health 79(1), 9-64.

Who says ultrasound is safe? (2004). AIMS Journal. 16 (4). Retrieved August 12, 2006 from http://www.airms.org.uk/Journal/Voll6No4/ultrasound.htm