Attachment

Essential Clinical Principles For Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology Practitioners

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The burgeoning research in attachment theory, affective neuroscience, polyvagal theory, epigenetics, and trauma treatment has given new directions for the practice of prenatal and perinatal psychology. The authors offer essential fundamentals for the integration of these new principles into clinical practice with individuals and families from pre-conception through adulthood.

References: 

Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M.C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Aposhyan, S. (2004). Body-Mind psychotherapy: Principles, techniques, and practical applications. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
Badenoch, B. (2008). Being a brain-wise therapist: A practical guide to interpersonal neurobiology. New York: Norton.
Bowlby, J. (1969/1982). Attachment and loss. Vol. I. Attachment. New York: Basic Books.
Bowlby. J. (1969/1983). Attachment. New York: Basic Books.
Buber, M. (1965a). Between man and man (R. G. Smith, Trans.) New York: The Macmillan Co.
Chamberlain, D. (1988). Babies remember birth. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc.
Cory, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
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Fodor, N. (1949). The search for the beloved. New York: Hermitage Press.
Fonagy, P. & Target, M. (1997). Attachment and reflective function: Their role in self-organization. Development and Psychopathology 9, 679-700.
Freud, S. (1900/1965). The interpretation of dreams. New York: Avon.
McCarty, W. & Glenn, M. (2008). Investing in human potential from the beginning of life: Key to maximizing human capital. Journal of the Association for Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health 23(2) Winter 2008.
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Hutterer, J. & Liss, M. (2006). Cognitive development, memory, trauma treatment: An integration of psychoanalytic and behavioral concepts in light of current neuroscience research. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, 34, 287-302.
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Lester, B.M., Hoffman, J. & Brazelton, T.B. (1985). The rhythmic structure of mother-infant interaction in term and preterm infants. Child Development 56, 15-27.
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Main, M. & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of an insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. In T.B. Brazelton & M. Yogaman (Eds.) Affective development in infancy (pp. 95-124). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Mallinckrodt, B. (2010). The psychotherapy relationship as attachment: Evidence and implications. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 27 (2), 262-270.
Mulder, E.J.H., Robles de Medina, P.G., Huizink, A.C., Van den Bergh, B.R.H., Buitelaar, J. K., Visser, G.H.A. (2002). Prenatal maternal stress: Effects on pregnancy and the (unborn) child. Early Human Development, 70, 3–14.
Porges, S. (2011). The polyvagal theory: Neurophysiological foundations of emotions, attachment, communication, and self-regulation. New York: Norton.
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The Potential Effects of Contemplative Practices on the Cultivation of Empathic Attunement in Mothers

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Publication Date: 
October 2012

Recent research across various disciplines, including attachment theory, neuroscience, developmental psychology, and pre and perinatal psychology, suggests the importance of redefining parenting effectiveness to include empathic attunement. In light of this research, the importance of prenatal education and training for mothers in body-centered contemplative practices, due to the resulting potential for the development of empathic attunement and the corresponding impact on the developing mind/brain of their children, is discussed.

Somatically Informed Parent-Prenate Psychotherapy

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Publication Date: 
October 2012

This paper discusses somatically informed parent-prenate counseling/ psychotherapy. It defines and presents the phenomenon called parent-prenate attachment. Further, it reviews the literature on parent-prenate attachment; and also reports on some of the factors that have been found to strengthen, or weaken, the qualities of bonding in this relationship. Finally, the article defines and introduces somatic psychotherapy; and proposes some of the potential ways in which somatic clinical interventions could enhance the practice of parent-prenate psychotherapy.

Maternal Fetal Attachment: Can Acceptance of Fetal Sentience Impact the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Relationship?

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Publication Date: 
October 2012

Research into maternal-fetal attachment is increasing yet has not yielded substantive scientific results due in part to the lack of a clear definition of the word “attachment.” Furthermore, a controversy currently exists in the literature with debate focused on the use of the word “attachment” as referenced by John Bowlby when discussing the maternal-fetal relationship.

A Secure Attachment Base

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Publication Date: 
October 2012

The Mother and Child Reunion Bonding Therapy: The Four Part Repair

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Publication Date: 
March 2012

Repairing the broken bond between a mother and her child is relatively easy when one knows how to do it. The four-stage protocol presented here involves (I) suspecting that there is a bonding problem, (II) searching for the cause, (III) metabolizing the painful feelings, and (IV) creating an alternative birth. The therapy is short, quick, and effective. Eight cases are presented as examples.

References: 

Brown, G., Pennington, D., & Madrid, A. (1999). Maternal-Infant Bonding Survey.

Cheek, D. & LeCron, A. (1968). Clinical hypnotherapy. New York: Grune & Stratton.

Feinberg, S. (1988). Degree of maternal infant bonding and its relationship to pediatric asthma and family environments. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Professional School of Psychology, Sacramento, CA.

Klaus, M. & Kennell, J. (1976). Maternal-infant Bonding. St. Louis: M. V. Mosby.

Madrid, A. (2005/2006). Helping children with asthma by repairing maternal-infant bonding problems. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 48(3,2), 199-211.

Madrid, A., Skolek, S., & Shapiro, F. (2006). Repairing failures in bonding through EMDR. Clinical Case Series 5(4): 271-286.

Pennington, D. (1991). Events associated with maternal-infant bonding deficits and severity of pediatric asthma. Professional School of Psychology, Sacramento, CA.

Schwartz, M. (1988). Incidence of events associated with maternal-infant bonding disturbances in a pediatric asthma population. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rosebridge Graduate School, Walnut Creek, CA

The Role of Shame in Infant Development

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Publication Date: 
January 2011

Shame is a powerful emotion born of implicit mind and with lasting implications. This brief essay explores the source of this experience, including its possible role as an instrument of survival, its relationship to the processes of bonding and attachment, and its developmental aspects.
Key Words: Shame, Attachment, Dysregulation, Mother

References: 

Badenoch, B. (2008). Being a brain-wise therapist. A practical guide to interpersonal neurobiology. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Broucek, F.J. (1982). Shame and its relationship to early narcissitic developments. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 63, 630-378.

Cozolino, L. (2006). The neuroscience of human relationships: attachment and the developing social brain. New York: W.W. Norton & Company inc.

Cozolino, L. (2010). The neuroscience of psychotherapy: healing the social brain. New York: WW Norton & Company, Inc.

Dawson, G. (1994). Development of emotional expression and emotion regulation in infancy. In Dawson, G., and Fischer, KW (Eds.), Human behavior and the developing brain. New York: Guilford Press.

Diamond, S., Balvin, R.S., Diamond, FR. (1963). Inhibition and choice: A neurobiological approach to problems of plasticity in behavior. New York: Harper & Row Publishers.

Lewis, H.B. (1981). Shame and guilt in human nature. In Tuttman, S., Kaye, C, and Zimmerman, M. (Eds.), Object and self: A developmental approach. New York: International University Press.

Mahler, M.S., Pine, F, and Bergman, A. (2000). The psychological birth of the human infant: Symbiosis and individuation. New York: Basic Books.

Nathanson, D.L. (1987). A timetable for shame. In Nathanson, D.L. (Ed), The many faces of shame. New York: The Guilford Press.

Scheff, T. (1990). Microsociology: Discourse, emotion, and social structure. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Schore, A. (1994). Affect regulation and the repair of the self. New York: WW Norton & Company.

Schore, A. (1998). Early shame experiences and infant brain development. In Gilbert, P and Andrews, B. (Eds.), Shame, interpersonal behavior, psychopathology, and culture. New York: Oxford University Press.

Siegel, D. J. (1999). The developing mind: how relationships and the brain interact to shape who we are. New York: The Guilford Press.

Tomkins, S. (2008). Affect imagery consciousness: The complete edition. Volume I: The positive affects. Volume II: The negative affects. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Is Maternal Personality and Coping Style Related to Breech Presentation? Evaluating the Chinese Medicine and Ayurvedic Models of Risk Factors for Breech Presentation

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Publication Date: 
May 2011

We investigated maternal personality characteristics and coping style as potential risk factors for breech presentation in this case-control study. Mothers of cephalic presentation babies (n=72) and mothers of breech presentation babies (n=42) participated in a socio-demographic survey, the State Trait Personality Inventory (STPI), and an in-depth interview. In-depth interview results suggested mothers of breech presentation were more likely to be idealistic, analytical, overextended, and fearful; also less likely to be flexible.

References: 

Albrechtsen, S., Rasmussen, S., Dalaker, K., & Irgens, L. M. (1998). The occurrence of breech presentation in Norway 1967-1994. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavia, 77(4), 410-415.

Amiel-Tison, C, Cabrai, D., Denver, R., Jarreau, R-H., Papiernik, E., & Piazza, R V. (2004). Fetal adaptation to stress part II. evolutionary aspects; stress-induced hippocampal damage; long-term effects on behavior; consequences on adult health. Early Human Development, 78, 81-94.

Amoa, A. B., Saputi, M., & Klufio, C. A. (2001). Perinatal outcome and associated factors of persistent breech presentation at the Port Moresby General Hospital, Papua New Guinea. Papua and New Guinea Medical Journal, 44(1-2), 48-56.

Banks, M. (1998). Breech Birth: Woman-Wise. Hamilton, New Zealand: Birthspirit Books.

Barker, D. J., Osmond, C., Golding, J., Kuh, D., & Wadsworth, M. E. (1989). Growth in utero, blood pressure in childhood and adult life, and mortality from cardiovascular disease. British Medical Journal, 298, 564-567.

Bartlett, D. J., Okun, N B., Byrne, R J., Watt, J. M., & Piper, M. C. (2000). Early motor development of breech- and cephalic-presenting infants. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 95(3), 425-432.

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Bergman, K., Sarkar, R, O'Connor, T. G., Modi, N, & Glover, V. (2007). Maternal stress during pregnancy predicts cognitive ability and fearfulness in infancy. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(11), 1454-1463.

Blackburn, S. (2009). Maternal-fetal thyroid interactions. Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing, 23(4), 312-313.

Boivin, J., Sanders, K., & Schmidt, L. (2006). Age and social position moderate the effect of stress on fertility. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 345-356.

Boklage, C. E. (2005). The epigenetic environment: secondary sex ratio depends on differential survival in embryogenesis. Human Reproduction, 20(3), 583-587.

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Fukuda, M., Fukuda, K., Shimizu, T, & Moller, H. (1998). Decline in sex ratio at birth after Kobe earthquake. Human Reproduction, 13(8), 2321-2322.

Gau, M.-L., & Lee, T-Y (2003). Construct validity of the prenatal attachment inventory: a confirmatory factor analysis approach. Journal of Nursing Research, 11(3), 177-186.

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Grant, K-A., Austin, M.-P, Reilly, N, Leader, L., & Ah, S. (2009). Maternal prenatal anxiety, postnatal caregiving and infants' Cortisol responses to the stili-face procedure. Developmental Psychobiology , 51, 625-637.

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Hammig, O., & Bauer, G. (2009). Work-life imbalance and mental health among male and female employees in Switzerland. International Journal of Public Health, 54, 88-95.

Hannah, M. E., Hannah, W. J., Hewson, S. ?., Hodnett, E. D., Saigal, S., & Willan, A. R. (2000). Planned caesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: a randomised multicentre trial. The Lancet, 356, 1375-1383.

Hofmeyr, G. J., Sadan, 0., Myer, I. G., Galal, K C, & Simko, G (1986). External cephalic version and spontaneous version rates: ethnic and other determinants. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 93(1), 13-16.

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Huizink, A. C, Robles de Medina, R G, Mulder, E. J. H., Visser, G H. ?., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2003). Stress during pregnancy is associated with developmental outcome in infancy. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 44(6), 810-818.

Hutton, E. K, & Hofmeyr, G. J. (2009). External cephalic version for breech presentation before term. Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1.

Jenkins, C, & Williams, A. (2008). The mother-baby prenatal group: nurturing reflective functioning in a methadone-maintenance clinic. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 22(3), 163-180.

Ji, E. S., & Han, H.-R. (2010). The effects of Qi exercise on maternal/fetal interaction and maternal well-being during pregnancy. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 39, 310-318.

Jonas, O., & Roder, D. (1993). Breech presentation in South Australia, 1987-1989. Australia & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 33(1), 17-21.

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Kooistra, L., Kuppens, S. M. L, Hasaart, T H. M., Vader, H. L., Wijnen, H. A., Oei, S. G, & Pop, V.J. (2010). High thyrotrophin level at end term increase the risk of breech presentation. Clinical Endocrinology.

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Kuppens, S. M. L, Kooistra, L., Wijnen, H. A., Crawford, S., Vader, H. L., Hasaart, T H. M., Ori, S. G, & Pop, VJ. (2010). Maternal thyroid function during gestation is related to breech presentation at term. Clinical Endocrinology, 72, 820-824.

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Leung, E., Tasker, S. L., Atkinson, L., TVaillancourt, T, Schulkin, J., & Schmidt, L. A (2010). Perceived maternal stress during pregnancy and its relation to infant stress reactivity at 2 days and 10 months of postnatal life. Clinical Pediatrics, 49(2), 158-165.

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Pop, V. J., Brouwers, E. P., Wijnen, H., Oei, G., Essed, G. G, & Vader, H. L. (2004). Low concentrations of maternal thyroxin during early gestation: a risk factor of breech presentation? British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 111(9), 925-930.

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Perinatal Clinical Psychology: Parent-Child Interaction in Primary Care

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Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
December 2010
Perinatal clinical psychology deals with infant mental development, primary parent-child relationships, and problems related to nurturing and parenting activities of the woman and the couple during the prenatal and neonatal period. Its aims are promoting positive influences and preventing risk elements for the child’s development and for the parents raising the child, thus providing support to primary relationships. Perinatal clinical psychology studies intra-psychic, interpersonal, and trans-generational mental processes.
References: 

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A History of the Theory of Prenatal Attachment

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
May 2009
John Bowlby?s theory of human attachment has become widely applied across disciplines and across the stages of human development. This discussion explores the evolution of an application of Bowlby?s theory to the experience of pregnancy, from both maternal and paternal perspectives.
References: 

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Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & WaU, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum

Balint, M. (1959). Thrills and repression. London: Hogarth Press.

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Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and Loss Volume II: Separation: Anxiety and Anger. New York: Basic Books, Inc.

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Fonagy, P., Steele, H., & Steele, M. (1991). Maternal representations of attachment during pregnancy predict the organization of infant-mother attachment at one year of age. Child Development, 62, 891-905.

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Fuller, J. R. (1990a). Early patterns of maternal attachment. Health Care for Women International, 11, 433-446.

Fuller, J. R. (1990b). Early patterns of maternal attachment. Health Care for Women International, 11(4), 433-446.

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