The Significance of Pregnancy and Birth for Cultural Evolution by Ludwig Janus

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
Sep 2015

One of the important differences between Homo sapiens and the other primates is the condition of pregnancy and birth. Because of the upright walk and the larger brain size of Homo sapiens, the birth channel became too narrow to accommodate birth after a long pregnancy. The evolutionary solution was the shortening of human pregnancy from about 21 months to only nine months. The consequence of this was the so-called “physiological prematurity” of human newborns.

References: 

Bachofen, J. J. (1992). Myth, religion and mother right: Selected writings of J.J. Bachofen (R. Manheim, Trans.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bächtold-Stäubli, H. (1986). Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens [Concise dictionary of German superstition]. E. Hoffmann-Krayer (Ed.). Berlin,
      Germany: Walter de Gruyter & Co.
Crisan, H. (2013). Die prä- und perinatale Psychologie der Mentalitätsentwicklung [The pre- and perinatal psychology of the development of mentalities]. In: L.
      Janus L (Ed.), Die Psychologie der Mentalitätsentwicklung [The psychology of the development of mentalities] (pp. 111-172). Münster, Germany: LIT
      Verlag.
Janus, L. (2013a). Grundlinien einer Tiefenpsychologie der Mentalitätsentwicklung [Baseline of the psychodynamic psychology of the development of the
      mentalities]. In L. Janus (Ed.), Die Psychologie der Mentalitätsentwicklung [The psychology of the development of the mentalities] (pp. 53-66). Münster,
     Germany: LIT Verlag.
Janus, L. (2013b). Überlegungen zum wissenschaftlichen Status der Psychodynamischen Psychologie [Reflections on the scientific status of psychodynamic
      psychotherapy]. Psychodynamische Psychotherapie, 12(2), 63-69.
Meier-Seethaler, C. (1993) Von der göttlichen Löwin zum Wahrzeichen männlicher Macht. Ursprung und Wandel großer Symbole [From the divine lioness to the
      sign of male power. From the origin and the transformation of the big symbols.]. Stuttgart, Germany: Kreuz Verlag.
Morgan, E. (1995) The descent of the child: Human evolution from a new perspective. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Neumann, E. (1949) Ursprungsgeschichte des Bewusstseins [The origins and history of consciousness]. Zurich, Switzerland: Rascher and Cie.
Obrist, W. (1988) Die Mutation des Bewusstseins [The mutation of consciousness]. Frankfurt, Germany: Peter Lang.
Obrist, W. (2013). Der Wandel des Welt- und Menschenbildes im Verlauf der Neuzeit unter dem Blickwinkel der Bewusstseins-Evolution betrachtet. [Mutation of
      European consciousness: From the mythical to the modern.]. In L. Janus (Ed.), Die Psychologie der Mentalitätsentwicklung [The psychology of the
      development of mentalities] (pp. 11-24). Münster, Germany: LIT Verlag.
Oesterdiekhoff, G. (2013a) Psycho- und Soziogenese der Menschheit [The historical development of the psychological and social mentality of the mankind]. In
      L. Janus L (Ed.), Die Psychologie der Mentalitätsentwicklung [The psychology of the development of mentalities] (pp. 25-52). Münster, Germany: LIT
      Verlag.
Oesterdiekhoff, G. (2013b). Relevance of Piagetian cross-cultural psychology to humanities and social sciences. American Journal of Psychology, 126(4), 477-
      492.
Portmann, A. (1969) Fragmente zu einer Lehre vom Menschen [Fragments for a new doctrine of mankind]. Basel, Switzerland: Schwabe Verlag.
Schacht, J. (2012). Wurzeln der Menschheit. Die Wiederentdeckung der mütterlichen Kulturstufe [Roots of mankind: The rediscovery of maternal level of
      culture]. In S. Hildebrandt, J. Schacht, & H. Blazy (Eds.), Wurzeln des Lebens [Roots of life] (pp. 56-70). Heidelberg, Germany: Mattes Vlg.
Strohm, H. (2003). Über den Ursprung der Religion. Oder: Warum Indra mit dem Dreirad zur Hochzeit fuhr [About the origin of religion or: Why Indra rode a
      tricycle to the wedding]. Paderborn, Germany: Wilhelm Fink Verlag.
Strohm, H. (2014). Die Geburt des Monotheismus im alten Iran [The birth of monotheism in ancient Iran]. Paderborn, Germany: Wilhelm Fink Verlag.

The far-reaching psychological implications of la condition humaine will be outlined in this contribution. Because of this “physiological prematurity,” human babies live simultaneously in the real, outside world, but also still experience the fetal emotional state as a dreamy “other world.”