Fear of Life and Fear of Death – A Cross Cultural Study Part II: Multiple Single Case Analysis in Malaysia and The Netherlands by Nathalia M.S. Moonen–Budhi Nugroho

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Publication Date: 
Jun 2017

There are strong indications that fear of life and fear of death are universal and already start to develop at an unconscious level before birth. Client-based research, using retrogressive analysis, was conducted to find empirical support for these notions and to assess whether these fears can be identified in the unconscious mind. From eleven subjects of varying age, cultural, and social background, in ten cases either fear of life or fear of death or both could be identified and related to the prenatal psychological development of the subjects.

Fear of Life and Fear of Death – A Cross Cultural Study: Part I: General Considerations by Nathalia M. S. Moonen–Budhi Nugroho

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Publication Date: 
Jun 2017

Fear of death and fear of life are two psychological forces that are important in driving human behavior. The understanding of these forces may help therapists to better identify the underlying dynamics of their client’s behavior and responses. This article proposes a conceptual framework that puts both fears into a broader, psychological, anthropological, and philosophical context. The article explains why fear of life and fear of death may be universal and presents arguments supporting the notion that they have prenatal origins.

References: 

Austin, E.A. (2010). Prudence and the fear of death in Plato’s Apology. Ancient Philosophy, 30(1), 39–55. Pittsburgh, PA: Mathesis Publications. Available from: https://www.pdcnet.org/pdc/bvdb.nsf/purchase?openform&fp=ancientphil&id= ancientphil_2010_0030_0001_0039_0055. doi: 10.5840/ancientphil20103013

Bailey, C. (Trans.) (1926). (Epicurus) Letter to Menoeceus. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Retrieved from http://newepicurean.com/epicurus/letter-to-menoeceus-reference-translation/

Becker, E. (1985). The denial of death (20th ed). New York: The Free Press.

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Demir, A. (2008). The operation of life and death instincts in the psychoanalytic, object relations theories of Melanie Klein. London: Birkbeck College, University of London.

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Hoelter, J.W., & Hoelter, J.A., (1978). The relationship between fear of death and anxiety. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 99(2), 225–26. Washington, DC: Heldref Publications. doi: 10.1080/00223980.1978.9921462

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Hϋther, G., & Krens, I. (2011), Das Geheimnis der ersten neun Monate: Unsere fruhesten Pragungen (The mystery of the first nine months: Our earliest formative influences). Weinheim & Basel: Beltz (Taschenbuch 923).

Jung, C.G. (2009). The red book, liber novus. Shamdasani, S. (Ed.). New York - London: Philemon Series, The Philemon Foundation & W.W. Norton & Co.

Kohler, R.M. (2013), Archetypes and complexes in the womb. The Jung page, reflections on psychology, culture and life. Houston, TX: The Jung Center. Retrieved from: http://www.cgjungpage.org/learn/articles/analytical-psychology/870-archetypes-and-complexes-in-the-womb

Langs, R. (2004). Death anxiety and the emotion-processing mind. Psychoanalytic Psychology 21(1), 31–53. USA: American Psychological Association.

Lowen, A. (2012), Fear of life. Hinesburg, VT: The Alexander Lowen Foundation.

Moonen-Budhi Nugroho, N.M.S. (2017). Fear of life and fear of death, part II: Multiple single case analysis. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 31(4).

Moore, C.C., & Williamson, J.B. (2003). The universal fear of death and the cultural response. In the Handbook of Death & Dying, p. 3-14. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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The Evolution of Mind-Body Practice in Obstetrics* by Robert Bruce Newman

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Publication Date: 
Dec 2015

Though obstetrics has been dominated by medical procedures for decades, the medical paradigm has been shifting, particularly through the inclusion of mind-body medicine, and new forms of childbirth practice and care have been evolving. Mind-body practice in childbirth is seen to have developed in three distinct stages, from the mid-nineteenth century to the present.  Prenatal mind-body practices have emerged, supported by traditional meditation science and extensive contemporary research.

References: 

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Achterberg, J. (1985). Imagery in healing: Shamanism and modern medicine. Boston, MA: Shambhala Publications.

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       m
edicine. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Churchill Livingston.

Though obstetrics has been dominated by medical procedures for decades, the medical paradigm has been shifting, particularly through the inclusion of mind-body medicine, and new forms of childbirth practice and care have been evolving. This article presents three stages of mind-body practice in obstretrics.

Prenatal and Perinatal Medicine and Psychology Towards Integrated Neurosciences: General Remarks and Future Perspectives

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Publication Date: 
Mar 2014

Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine is an interdisciplinary scientific field of research and practice with the scientific focus on prenatal and perinatal conditions of human life. Prenatal period of human life represents a crucial phase in human life during which crucial developmental processes and regulations take place and these serve as adaptation strategies and physiological capabilities for the next postnatal life´s periods.

References: 

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Online usage of theory of mind continues to develop in late adolescence. Developmental Science 13(2): 331–338. Fagiolini M., Jensen, C.L., Champagne, F.A. (2009). Epigenetic influences on brain development and plasticity. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 19(2): 207–212. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2009.05.009. Fedor-Freybergh, P.G., Maas, L. (2011). Continuity and indivisibility of integrated psychological, spiritual and somatic life processes. International Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Medicine, 23 (Suppl 1): 135–142. Fedor-Freybergh, P.G. (2008). Psychosomatické charakteristiky prenatálneho a perinatálneho obdobia ako prostredia die.a.a. [(Psychosomatic Characteristics of Prenatal and Perinatal Period as the Environment of Infant.) (In Slovak.)] Bratislava: Vysoká .kola zdravotníctva a sociálnej práce sv. Al.bety. p. 3–28. Fedor-Feybergh, P.G. (2011). Editorial International Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Medicine, 23 (Suppl 1): 5–6. Fedor-Freybergh, P.G. (1999). Psychoimmuno-neuroendocrinology: An integrative approach to modern philosophy in medicine and psychology. Neuroendocrinology Letters 20(3–4): 205–213. Fietta, P., Fietta, P., Delsante, G. (2009). Central nervous system effects of natural and synthetic glucocorticoids. Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience 63: 613–622. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2009.02005.x. Fišar, Z., Hroudová, J. (2010). Common aspects of neuroplasticity, stress, mood disorders and mitochondrial functions. Activitas Nervosa Superior Rediviva 52(1): 3–20. Frith, C.D., Frith, U. (2005). Theory of mind. Current Biology 15: R 644–R645. Frith, C.D., Frith, U. (2006). The neural basis of mentalizing. Neuron 50: 531–534. Grant-Beuttler, M., Glynn, L.M., Salisbury, A.L., Davis, E.P., Holliday, C., Sandman, C.A. (2011). Development of fetal movement between 26 and 36-weeks’ gestation in response to vibro-acoustic stimulation. Frontiers in Psychology 350(2): 1–7. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00350. Goel, N., Bale, T.L. (2009). Examining the intersection of sex and stress in modeling europsychiatric disorders. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 21(4): 415–420. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2009.01843.x. Hašto J (2006) Vzťahová väzba, pripútavacie správanie a psychiatria-psychoterapia. [(Attachment, Attachment Behaviour and Psychiatry-Psychotherapy.) (In Slovak with English abstract.)] Psychiatrie, 10(1): 36–40. Haussmann, M.F., Longenecker, A.S., Marchetto, N.M., Juliano, S.A., Bowden, R.M. (2012). Embryonic exposure to corticosterone modifies the juvenile stress response, oxidative stress and telomere length. Proceedings of the Royal Society 279: 1447–1456. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.1913. Hill, M., Cibula, D., Havlíková H., Kancheva, L., Fait, T., Kancheva R, ,. . . Stárka L (2007). Circulating levels of pregnanolone isomers during the third trimester of human pregnancy. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 150: 166–175, doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2006.10.010 Hill, M., Pařízek, A., Jirásek, J.E., Jirkovská, M., Velíková, M., Dušková, M., Klímková, M., . . . . . Stárka L (2010). Is Maternal Progesterone Actually Independent of the Fetal Steroids? Physiological Research 59: 211–224. Hroudová, J., Fišar, Z. (2011). Connectivity between mitochondrial functions and psychiatric disorders. Journal of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience 65: 130–141. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2010.02178.x.

Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine is an interdisciplinary scientific field of research and practice with the scientific focus on prenatal and perinatal conditions of human life. Prenatal period of human life represents a crucial phase in human life during which crucial developmental processes and regulations take place and these serve as adaptation strategies and physiological capabilities for the next postnatal life´s periods.