Birth Trauma

Cesarean Birth Stories

PERSONAL STATEMENT
When my mother told me the story of how I was born, I became fascinated with the impact my method of birth seemed to have on my life. She showed me a very large scar on her stomach and told me, "This is where you came out." I was born by cesarean section.

References: 

Arms, S. (1994). Immaculate deception II: Myth, magic and birth. Berkley, California, Celestial Arts.
Chamberlain, D. (1988). Babies remember birth: And other extraordinary scientific discoveries about the mind and the personality of your newborn. Los Angeles: Tarcher.
Emerson, W. (1997). Birth trauma: The psychological effect of obstetrical interventions. Petaluma, CA: Emerson Training Seminars.
Emerson, W. (1998). Birth trauma: The psychological effects of obstetrical interventions. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 13(1), 11-44.
Emerson, W. (2001). Treating cesarean birth trauma during infancy and childhood. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 15(3), 177-192.
English, J. (1994). Being born caesarean: Physical and psychosocial aspects. International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 6(3), 381-394 .
Goer, H. (1995). Obstetrical myths versus research realities: A guide to the medical literature. London: Bergin & Garvey.
Martin, J. A., Hamilton, B. E., Sutton, P. D., Ventura, S. J., Menacker, E, & Kirmeyer, S. (2006). Births: Final data for 2004. National vital statistics reports, 55(1). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
McCarty, W. (2002). Keys to healing and preventing foundational trauma: What babies are teaching us. Bridges-ISSSEEM Magazine, 73(4), 8-12.
Verny, T, & Kelly, J. (1981). The secret life of the unborn child. New York: Dell.

 

Prenatal and Perinatal Psychotherapy with Adults: An Integrative Model for Empirical Testing

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Publication Date: 
June 2011

This article identifies an issue within the discipline of prenatal and perinatal (PPN) psychology, namely that the field currently consists of individual practitioners’ modalities without empirical validation around treatment efficacy. The goal undertaken was to integrate the PPN literature related to adult psychotherapy into a coherent and practical model to serve as a guide for students and professionals that could also be empirically tested.

References: 

Bruhn, A. R. (1989). The Early Memories Procedure (EMP) manual. Author.

Castellino, R. (2000). The stress matrix: Implications for prenatal and birth therapy. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 25(1), 31-62.

Chamberlain, D. (1988). Babies remember birth. Los Angeles, Jeremy P. Tarcher.

Cheek, D. B. (1986). Prenatal and perinatal imprints: Apparent prenatal consciousness as revealed by hypnosis. Pre-and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 1(2).

Cheek, D.B. (1996). Use of the telephone and hypnosis in reversing true preterm labor at 26 weeks: The value of ideomotor questioning in a crisis, Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 10(4), 273-286.

Cheek, D. B. & Le Cron, LM. (1968). Clinical hypnotherapy. New York: Green & Stratton.

Corsini, RJ., & Wedding, D. (2005). Current Psychotherapies, 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning, Inc.

Doan, H. M. & Zimerman, A. (2003). Conceptualizing prenatal attachment: Toward a multidimensional view. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 18(2), 109-130.

Emerson, W. (1989). Psychotherapy with infants and children. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 3(3), 190-217.

Emerson, W. (1998). Birth trauma: The psychological effects of obstetrical interventions. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 13(1), 11-44.

Emerson, W. (2001). Collected works I: The treatment of birth trauma with infants and children. Petaluma, CA: Emerson Training Seminars.

English, J. (1993). Being born caesarean: Physical, psychosocial and metaphysical aspects. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 7(3), 215-229.

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Givens, A. (1987). The Alice Givens Approach to prenatal and birth therapy. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 1(3), 223-229.

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Hendricks, G. & Hendricks, K. (1987). Techniques for dealing with prenatal and perinatal issues in therapy: A bodymind perspective, Pre- and Perinatal Psychology, 2(3), 230-238.

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Janov, A (1970). Primal scream. New York: Dell Publishing.

Janov, A. (1973). The feeling child. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Janov, A. (1983). Imprints: The lifelong effects of the birth experience. New York: Coward-McCann, Inc.

Janov, A. with E. Michael Holden. (1975). Primal man: The new consciousness. New York: Thomas Y Crowell Company.

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Lyman, B. J. (1999). Antecedents to somatoform disorders: A pre- and perinatal psychology hypothesis. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 13(34), 247-254.

McCarty, W. A. (2002). The power of beliefs: What babies are teaching us. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 16(4), 341-360.

Pearlman, L. A. (1996). Review of the TSI Belief Scale. In B. H. Stamm (Ed.), Measurement of stress, trauma, and adaptation (pp. 415-417). Lutherville, MD: Sidran Press.

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Rank, O. (1952). The trauma of birth. New York: Robert Brunner. (Original work published 1929).

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Riley, CD. (1986). Tess: The emotional and physiological effects of prenatal physical trauma Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 2(1), 69-74.

Schore, A. N (2002). The neurobiology of attachment and early personality organization. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 16(3), 249-263.

Sonne, J.C. (1997). Interpreting the dread of being aborted in therapy. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 11(4), 185-214.

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Verny, T, & Weintraub, P. (1991). Nurturing the unborn child. New York Delacorte Press.

Verny, T, & Weintraub, P. (2002). Tomorrow's baby: The art and science of parenting from conception through infancy. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Ward, S. (1999). Birth trauma in infants and children. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 13(3-4), 201-212.

Welch, M.A (1983). Retrieval from autism through mother-child holding therapy. In Autistic Children - New Hope for a Cure, in E. A Tinbergen (Ed.) London: George Allen & Unwin.

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Zimberoff, D. & Hartman, D. (1998). Insidious trauma caused by prenatal gender prejudice. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 13(1), 45-51.

Zimerman, A & Doan, H. M. (2003). Prenatal attachment and other feelings and thoughts during pregnancy in three groups of pregnant women. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 18(2), 131-148.

Collective Birth Trauma in the Ancient Biblical History of Israel

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Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
May 2008

This article attempts to apply Rank?s concept of individual birth trauma to the history of ancient Israel as depicted in the Bible. The birth of the Jewish people as reviewed in the relevant Biblical texts demonstrates recurrent and significant traumata at individual, family, and large-scale collective levels, indicating that the early Israelites did experience collective birth trauma. Ramifications of this for a greater understanding of the Bible and of Jewish history and cultural practices are explored.

References: 

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (fourth edition). Washington, DC: Author.

Becker, E. (1997). The denial of death. NY: Free Press Paperbacks.

Birnbaum, A. (1991). Measuring level of ethnic identity: A comparison of two new scales. (Doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey). Dissertation Abstracts International.

Birnbaum, A. (2005a). Jacob's trauma: A study in Biblical clinical psychology. Conservative Judaism, 57(3), 49-76.

Birnbaum, A. (2005b). Israelis' attitudes toward the disengagement plan, perceived risk, and knowledge of Biblical events. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 101,42.

Birnbaum, A. (2005 c). Group EMDR with children and families following the Tsunami in Thailand. Conference of EMDR-Israel Humanitarian Assistance Program, September 16, Ra'anana, Israel.

Birnbaum, A. (2007). Jacob and Joseph: A Biblical case study of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Violence, 14(4), 75-86.

Birnbaum, A. (2008a). Collective trauma and posttraumatic symptoms in the Biblical narrative of ancient Israel. Mental Health, Religion & Culture 11(5), 533-546.

Birnbaum, A. (2008b). Fraternal strife in the Bible. Jewish Bible Quarterly, 36(2), 108-117.

Birnbaum, L. & Birnbaum, A. (in press). Mindful social work: From theory to practice. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Social Work.

Chamberlain, D. B. (2007). Introduction to the birth scene.

http://www.birthpsychology.com/birthscene/index.html#intr o accessed July 12, 2007

Collicutt McGrath, J. (2006). Posttraumatic growth and the origins of early Christianity. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 9(3), 291-306.

Daube, D. (1963). The exodus pattern in the Bible. London: Fab er & Faber.

De Casper, A. & Fifer, W. (1980). Of human bonding: Newborns prefer their mothers' voices. Science, 208, 1174-1176.

De Casper, A. & Spence, M. J. (1986). Prenatal maternal speech influences newborns' perception of speech sounds. Infant Behavior & Development, 9, 133-150.

Edinger, E. F. (1986). The Bible and the psyche: Individuation symbolism in the Old Testament. Toronto: Inner City Books.

Encyclopaedia Judaica. (1971). vol. 8, 766 ff. Jerusalem: Keter.

Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213-218.

Janov, A. (1993). The new primal scream (Y. Waldman, trans.). Tel Aviv: Alpha/ZmoraBitan. (Hebrew; English ed. published 1991)

Jewish Publication Society. (1985). Tanakh - The Holy Scriptures: The new JPS translation according to the traditional Hebrew text. Philadelphia/Jerusalem: Author.

Kierkegaard, S. (1983). Fear and trembling: Repetition. (H.V. Hong & E. H. Hong, Eds. & trans.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Kille, A. D. (2001). Psychological Biblical criticism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Kutz, I. & Altschuler, E. L. (2002). Samson, the Bible, and the DSM/In Reply. Arch ives of General Psychiatry, 59(6), 565-566.

Phinney, J. (1992). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM): A new scale for use with adolescents and young adults from diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 156-176.

Rank, O. (1952). The trauma of birth. NY: Robert Brunner. (First published 1924)

Rank, O. (1964). The myth of the birth of the hero and other writings. (Philip Freund, Ed.). NY: Vintage Books. (First published 1914)

Rollins, W. G. (1999). Soul and psyche: The Bible in psychological perspective. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Rosenbaum, M., Silbermann, A. M., Blashki, A. & Joseph, L. (Eds. and trans., (1946). Pentateuch with Targum Onkelos, haphtaroth and prayers for Sabbath and Rashi's commentary. London: Shapiro, Valentine & Co.

Rotenberg, N. (2004). Beloved doe: Studies in the wisdom of love. Sifrei Hemed Series. Tel Aviv: Yediot Aharonot. (Hebrew)

Shapiro, F. (2001). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: Basic principles, protocols and procedures (2nd edition). NY: Guilford Press.

Spiegel, S. (1967). The last trial. (J. Gol din, trans.). Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America.

Wardi, D. (1990). Memorial candles. Jerusalem: Keter. (Hebrew)

Cesarean Birth Stories

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Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
December 2007

The purpose of this phenomenological study is to better understand the impact and implications of a cesarean birth on later adult behavior patterns. A written survey was designed using Dr. William R. Emerson?s questionnaire The Evaluation of Obstetrical Trauma: A Questionnaire (1997). Forty statements were developed to represent behaviors believed to relate to birth via cesarean section. Four cesarean-born women participated in the study. Each completed the questionnaire and was interviewed by telephone about the statements she thought best applied to her experience.

References: 

Arms, S. (1994). Immaculate deception II: Myth, magic and birth. Berkley, California, Celestial Arts.

Chamberlain, D. (1988). Babies remember birth: And other extraordinary scientific discoveries about the mind and the personality of your newborn. Los Angeles: Tarcher.

Emerson, W. (1997). Birth trauma: The psychological effect of obstetrical interventions. Petaluma, CA: Emerson Training Seminars.

Emerson, W. (1998). Birth trauma: The psychological effects of obstetrical interventions. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 13(1), 11-44.

Emerson, W. (2001). Treating cesarean birth trauma during infancy and childhood. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 15(3), 177-192.

English, J. (1994). Being born caesarean: Physical and psychosocial aspects. International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 6(3), 381-394 .

Goer, H. (1995). Obstetrical myths versus research realities: A guide to the medical literature. London: Bergin & Garvey.

Martin, J. A., Hamilton, B. E., Sutton, P. D., Ventura, S. J., Menacker, E, & Kirmeyer, S. (2006). Births: Final data for 2004. National vital statistics reports, 55(1). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.

McCarty, W. (2002). Keys to healing and preventing foundational trauma: What babies are teaching us. Bridges-ISSSEEM Magazine, 73(4), 8-12.

Verny, T, & Kelly, J. (1981). The secret life of the unborn child. New York: Dell.

Supporting Babies' Wholeness in the 21st Century: An Integrated Model of Early Development

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Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
March 2006

A holonomic holographic integrated model of early development is introduced reflecting clinical findings from prenatal and perinatal psychology as well as current western early development thought.

References: 

Chamberlain, D. (1999a). Reliability of birth memory: Observations from mother and child pairs in hypnosis. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 14(1-2), 19-29. (Originally published in the Journal of the American Academy of Medical Hypnoanalysts, 1(2), 89-98, 1986).

Chamberlain, D. (1999b). The significance of birth memories. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 14(1-2), 65-84.

Dossey, L. (1999). Reinventing medicine: Beyond mind-body to a new era of healing. New York: HarperSanFranciso.

Emerson, W.R. (1998a). Birth trauma: The psychological effects of obstetrical interventions. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 13(1), 11-44.

Emerson, W.R. (1998b). The vulnerable prenate. The International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 10(1), 5-18. (Originally published in 1998, JOPPAH 10(3), 125-142.)

Emerson, W.R. (1999). Pre- and perinatal treatment of children and adults: Collected works II. (Available from Emerson Training Seminars, http://www.emersonbirthrx.com)

Emerson, W.R. (200Ia). Treating cesarean birth trauma during infancy and childhood. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology, 15(3), 177-192.

Emerson, W.R. (200Ib). Treatment of birth trauma in infants and children: Collected works 1. (Available from Emerson Training Seminars, http://www.emersonbirthrx.com)

Hunt, V.V. (1995). Infinite mind: The science of human vibration. Malibu, CA: Malibu Publishing Co.

Lipton, B. (2005). The biology of belief: Unleashing the power of consciousness, matter, and miracles. Santa Rosa, CA: Mountain of Love/Elite Books.

Marcer, P.J. & Schempp, W. (1997). Model of the neuron working by quantum holography. Informatica, 21, 519-534.

Marcer, P.J. & Schempp, W. (1998). The brain as a conscious system. International Journal of General Systems.

McCarty-Wong, W. (1986). Impact of role perception and gender on adjustment to parenthood. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

McCarty, W.A. (1996, 2005). Being with babies: What babies are teaching us, an introduction, 1. Santa Barbara, CA: Wondrous Beginnings Publishing.

McCarty, W.A. (1997, 2006). Being with babies: What babies are teaching us, supporting babies' innate wisdom, 2. Santa Barbara, CA: Wondrous Beginnings Publishing.

McCarty, W.A. (2002). The power of beliefs: What babies are teaching us. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 76(4), 341-360.

McCarty, W.A. (2004, 2005). Welcoming consciousness: Supporting babies' wholeness from the beginning of life-An integrated model of early development (ebook). Santa Barbara, CA: WB Publishing.

McCraty, R., Atkinson, M., & Bradley, R.T. (2004). Electrophysiological evidence of intuition: Part I. The surprising role of the heart. The Journal of Alternative and Complimentary Medicine, 10(1), 133-143.

McCraty, R., Atkinson, M., & Bradley, R.T. (2004). Electrophysiological evidence of intuition: Part 2. A system-wide process. The Journal of Alternative and Complimentary Medicine, 10(2), 325-336.

McTaggart, L. (2002). The field: The quest for the secret of the universe. New York: HarperCollins.

Mendizza, M. & Pearce, J.C. (2004). Magical parent, magical child: The art of joyful parenting. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Mitchell, E. Nature's mind: The quantum hologram. Retrieved November 22, 2003, from http://www.edmitchellapollol4.com/naturearticle.html

Odent, M. (1999). The scientification of love. London: Free Association Books.

Pearce, J.C. (2002). The Biology of transcendence: A blueprint of the human spirit. Rochester, VT: Park Street Press.

Radin, D. (1997), The conscious universe: The scientific truth of psychic phenomena. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco.

Schwartz, G. & Russek, L.G. (1999). The living energy universe. Charlottes ville, VA: Hamptom-Roads Publishing Co.

Somé, Sobonfu E. (1999). Welcoming spirit home: Ancient African teachings to celebrate children and community. Novato, CA: New World Library.

Talbot, M. (1992). The holographic universe. New York: Harper Perennial.

Wade, J. (1996). Changes of mind: A holonomic theory of the evolution of consciousness. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Wade, J. (1998). Physically transcendent awareness: A comparison of the phenomenology of consciousness before birth and after death. Journal of Near-Death Studies. 76(4), 249-275.

Wilber, K. (1982) (Ed.). The holographic paradigm and other paradoxes: Exploring the leading edge of science. Boulder, CO: Shambala Publications.

Wilber, K. (1998). The marriage of sense and soul: Integrating science and religion. New York: Broadway Books.

Wilber, K. (2000). A theory of everything: An integral vision for business, politics, science and spirituality. Boston: Shambala Publications.

Wilber, K. (2000). Integral psychology: Consciousness, spirit, psychology, therapy. Boston: Shambala.

Wilson, T.D. (2002). Strangers to ourselves: Discovering the adaptive unconscious. Cambridge, Mass: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Wong, W.M. (1979). Romanticism of parenthood, expectations of adjustment difficulties and gratification, and knowledge of infants as of components of adjustment to parenthood. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Kentucky, Lexington. (Former name of W.A. McCarty)

Wendy Anne McCarty, PhD, RN, Santa Barbara Graduate Institute

Wendy Anne McCarty, PhD, RN, Co-author, Founding Chair and Faculty, Prenatal and Perinatal Graduate Program, SBGI. Dr. McCarty presents and provides seminars in prenatal and perinatal psychology, Being with Babies, authentic family living, integrative PPN practice, and energy psychology. In her private practice, she works with professionals and families to bring these into their research, education, professional practice, agencies, and family living. Research for Welcoming Consciousness and the Integrated Model was supported through a grant from the New Earth Foundation. Extensive excerpts from Welcoming Consciousness have been incorporated with permission from the author and publisher. Contact information: Website: www.wondrousbeginnings.com. Email: wmccarty@west.net.

Improving Asthma Symptoms in Children by Repairing the Maternal-Infant Bond

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
March 2004

The mothers of 15 asthmatic children were treated with a therapy that repaired the bonding between their children and them. Twelve children's asthma symptoms improved; of the 10 who were regularly taking medications, 8 no longer needed them. Improvement seemed dependent upon age, with children under 9 having the greatest benefit. All 7 Mexican-American children improved, using a Bilingual Bicultural counselor to treat the mothers.

References: 

Brown, G., Pennington, D., & Madrid, A. (1981). The maternal-infant bonding survey. Unpublished Manuscript.

Cheek, D., & LeCron, L. (1968) Clinical hypnotherapy. New York: Grune and Stratton.

Feinberg, Steven. (1988). Degree of maternal infant bonding and its relationship to pediatric asthma and family environments. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Professional School of Psychology, San Francisco.

Horwood, L., Fergesson, D., Hons, B., & Shannon, F. (1985). Social and familial factors in the development of early childhood asthma. Pediatrics, 75: 859-868.

Klaus, M., & Kennell, J. (1976). Maternal-Infant Bonding. St. Louis: Mosby

Klinnert, M., Nelson, H., Price, M., Adinoff, L., Leung, D., & Mrazek, D. (2001). Onset and persistence of childhood asthma: predictors from infancy. Pediatrics, 4, Vol. 108, No. 4., Oct. [On-line]. Available: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/108/4/e69

Madrid, A., Ames, R., Skolek, S., & Brown, G. (2000). Does maternal-infant bonding therapy improve breathing in asthmatic children? Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 15(2), 90-117.

Pennington, D. (1991). Events associated with maternal-infant bonding deficits and severity of pediatric asthma. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Professional School of Psychology, San Francisco.

Schwartz, M. P. (1988). Incidence of events associated with maternal-infant bonding disturbance in a pediatric population. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rosebridge Graduate School, Walnut Creek.

Shapiro, F. (2001). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Basic principles, protocols, and procedures. Second edition. New York: Guilford Press.

Weil, C., Wade, S., Bauman, L., Lynn, H., Mitchell, H., & Lavigne, J. (1999). The relationship between psychosocial factors and asthma morbidity in inner-city children with asthma. Pediatrics, 104: 1274-1280.

Antonio Madrid, Ph.D., Ralph Ames, Ph.D., Denise Horner, M.A., Gary Brown, M.A., and Luz Navarrette, M.A.

Antonio Madrid, Ph.D., Ralph Ames, Ph.D., Denise Horner, M.A., are therapists at the Russian River Counselors, Monte Rio, CA. Gary Brown, M.A., and Luz Navarette, M.A., are teachers at Santa Rosa Junior College, Santa Rosa, CA. Correspondence can be addressed to Antonio Madrid, Ph.D., P.O. Box 519, Monte Rio, CA 95462 or madrid@neteze.com.

This study was sponsored by grants from the Van Strum Foundation and the Sonoma County Children and Families Commission.

APPENDIX A

QUICK REFERENCE MIBS

Physical Separation

* Mother was separated from child at or after birth.

* Mother had a very difficult delivery.

* Child was sick at birth.

* Child was twin or triplet.

* Intensive Care Nursery or incubator.

* Mother was anesthetized at birth.

* Mother was very sick after the birth.

* Mother was separated from child in first month.

* Child was adopted.

* Other separation occurred.

Emotional Separation

* Mother had emotional problems during pregnancy.

* Mother had emotional problems after birth.

* Mother had a death in the family within two years of birth.

* Mother had a miscarriage within two years of birth.

* Mother and father were separated before birth or soon after.

* Mother was addicted to drugs or alcohol at birth.

* Mother moved before or soon after birth.

* Severe financial problems.

* Unwanted pregnancy.

* New romance in mother's life.

* Other event which could have interfered with bonding.