PTSD

Symptoms of Postpartum PTSD and Expressive Writing: A Prospective Study

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
October 2009
Research studies on post-partum PTSD have highlighted that the experience of childbirth can be traumatic in itself because it often involves fear, pain, impotence and non-expressed negative emotions. This study hypothesized that mental processing post-partum emotions, through Pennekaber?s expressive writing (EW) method, can reduce short- and long-term posttraumatic symptoms. The sample was of 242 women (mean age=31.5; SD=4) of whom 120 performed the EW-task and 122 were not asked to write.
References: 

Abramowitz, J. S., Schwartz, S. A., Moore, K M., & Luenzmann, K R. (2003). Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in pregnancy and the puerperium: A review of the literature. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 17, 461-478.

Affleck, G., Tennen, H., & Rowe, J. (1991). Infant in crisis: how parents cope with newborn intensive care and its aftermath. New York: Springer-Verlag.

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-Text Revision (4th ed.; DSM-IV TR). Washington, DC: Author.

Ayers, S. (2004). Delivery as a traumatic event: Prevalence, risk factors, screening & treatment for postnatal posttraumatic stress. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology, 47(3), 552-567.

Ayers, S., & Pickering, A. D. (2001). Do women get posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth? A prospective study of incidence. Birth, 28(2), 111-118.

Ballard, C. G., Stanley, A. K, & Brockington, I. E (1995). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 525-528.

Beck, A. T, Emery, G. A., & Greenberg, R L. (1985). Anxiety disorders and phobias: A cognitive perspective. New York: Basic Books.

Beck, C. T. (2004). Birth trauma: In the eye of the beholder. Nursing Researches, 53, 28-35.

Briere, J., Weathers, E, & Runtz, M (2005). Is dissociation a multidimensional construct? Data from the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(3), 221-231.

Bydlowsky, M., & Raul-Duval, A. (1978). Un avatar psychique méconnu de la puepéralité: La névrose traumatic post-obstétricale. Perspectives Psychiatriques, 4, 321-8.

Creedy, D. K. (1999). Postnatal depression and posttraumatic stress disorder: What are the links? Birth, 8, 125-130.

Greedy, D. K, Shochet, I. M., & Horsfall, J. (2000). Childbirth and the development of acute trauma symptoms: Incidence and contributing factors. Birth, 27(2), 104-111.

Czarnocka, J., & Slade, P. (2000). Prevalence and predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 35-41.

DeMier, R. L., Hynan, M. T, Harris, H. B., & MannieUo, R. L. (1996). Perinatal Stressors as predictors of symptoms of posttraumatic stress in mother and infants at high-risk. Journal of Perinatology, 16, 276-280.

Di Blasio, P. & Ionio, C. (2002). Childbirth and narratives: How do mothers deal with their childbirth? Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 17(2), 143-151.

Di Blasio, P. & Ionio, C. (2005). Postpartum stress symptoms and child temperament: A follow-up study. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 19(3), 185-198.

Fones, C. (1996). Posttraumatic stress disorder occurring after painful childbirth. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184, 195-196.

Harlbreich, U. (2005). The association between pregnancy processes, prêterai delivery, low birth weight and post partum depression. The need for interdisciplinary integration. American Journal of Obstetric and Gynecologic, 193, 1312-1322.

Hathaway, S. R., & McKinley, J. C. (1995). MMPI-2. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2. Firenze: OS. (Original work published 1989)

Hynan, M. T. (1998). The perinatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) questionnaire (PPQ). In R. Wood & C. P. Zalaquette (Eds.), Evaluating stress: A handbook of resources (vol. 2). London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.

Lepore, S. (1997). Expressive writing moderates the relation between intrusive thoughts and depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1030-1037.

Matthey, S., Barnett, B., Howie, P., & Kavanagh, D. J. (2003). Diagnosing postpartum depression in mothers and fathers: Whatever happened to anxiety? Journal of Affective Disorders, 74, 139-147.

McMahon, C., Barnett, B., Kowalenko, N., & Tennant, C. (2001). Postnatal depression, anxiety and unsettled infant behavior. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 581-588.

Menage, J. (1993). Posttraumatic stress disorders in women who have undergone obstetric and or gynecological procedures: A consecutive series of 30 cases of PTSD. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 11, 221-228.

Pancheri, P., & Sirigatti, S. (1995). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - 2. Firenze: OS.

Pennebaker, J. W. (1985). Traumatic experience and psychosomatic disease: Exploring the roles of behavior, obsession and confiding. Canadian Psychology, 26, 82-95.

Pennebaker, J. W. (1999). Tradurre in parole le esperienze traumatiche: Implicazioni per l'abuso infantile e per il mantenimento della salute. Psicologia della salute, 2, 32-48.

Pennebaker, J. W., & Beali, S. K. (1986). Confronting a traumatic event: Toward and understanding of inhibition and disease. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 274-281.

Pennebaker, J. W., Kielcolt-Glaser, J. K., & Glaser, R. (1988). Disclosure of traumas and immune function: Health implication for psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 239-245.

Quinnel, F. A., & Hynan, M. T. (1999). Convergent and discriminant validity of perinatal PTSD questionnaire (PPQ). Journal of Traumatic Stress, 72(1), 193-199.

Shear, M. K., & Mammen, O. (1995). Anxiety disorders in pregnant and postpartum women. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 31, 693-703.

Soet, J. E., Brack, G. A., & Dilorio, C. (2003). Prevalence and predictors of women's experience of psychological trauma during childbirth. Birth, 30, 36-46.

van Son, M., Verkerk, G., van der Hart, O., Komproe, L, & Pop, V. (2005). Prenatal depression, mode of delivery and perinatal dissociation as predictors of postpartum posttraumatie stress: An empirical study. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 72,297-312.

Wegner, D., Schneider, D., Carter, S., & White, T. (1987). Paradoxical aspects of thought suppression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 5-13.

Wenzel, A., Haugen, E. N., Jackson, L. C., & Brendle, J. R. (2005). Anxiety symptoms and disorders at eight weeks postpartum. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 295-311.

White, T., Matthey, S., Boyd, K, & Barnett, B. (2006). Postnatal depression and post-traumatic stress after childbirth: Prevalence, course and co-occurrence. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 24(2), 107 - 120.

Wijma, K., Wijma, B., & Soderquist, M. A. (1997). Psychometric aspects of the W-DEQ; a new questionnaire for the measurement of fear of childbirth. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetric and Gynecologic, 77(6), 587-597.

Wijma, K., Wijma, B., & Zar, M. (1998). Psychometric aspects of the W-DEQ; a new questionnaire for the measurement of fear of childbirth. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetric and Gynecologic, 19, 84-97.

Collective Birth Trauma in the Ancient Biblical History of Israel

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
May 2008

This article attempts to apply Rank?s concept of individual birth trauma to the history of ancient Israel as depicted in the Bible. The birth of the Jewish people as reviewed in the relevant Biblical texts demonstrates recurrent and significant traumata at individual, family, and large-scale collective levels, indicating that the early Israelites did experience collective birth trauma. Ramifications of this for a greater understanding of the Bible and of Jewish history and cultural practices are explored.

References: 

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (fourth edition). Washington, DC: Author.

Becker, E. (1997). The denial of death. NY: Free Press Paperbacks.

Birnbaum, A. (1991). Measuring level of ethnic identity: A comparison of two new scales. (Doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey). Dissertation Abstracts International.

Birnbaum, A. (2005a). Jacob's trauma: A study in Biblical clinical psychology. Conservative Judaism, 57(3), 49-76.

Birnbaum, A. (2005b). Israelis' attitudes toward the disengagement plan, perceived risk, and knowledge of Biblical events. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 101,42.

Birnbaum, A. (2005 c). Group EMDR with children and families following the Tsunami in Thailand. Conference of EMDR-Israel Humanitarian Assistance Program, September 16, Ra'anana, Israel.

Birnbaum, A. (2007). Jacob and Joseph: A Biblical case study of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Violence, 14(4), 75-86.

Birnbaum, A. (2008a). Collective trauma and posttraumatic symptoms in the Biblical narrative of ancient Israel. Mental Health, Religion & Culture 11(5), 533-546.

Birnbaum, A. (2008b). Fraternal strife in the Bible. Jewish Bible Quarterly, 36(2), 108-117.

Birnbaum, L. & Birnbaum, A. (in press). Mindful social work: From theory to practice. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Social Work.

Chamberlain, D. B. (2007). Introduction to the birth scene.

http://www.birthpsychology.com/birthscene/index.html#intr o accessed July 12, 2007

Collicutt McGrath, J. (2006). Posttraumatic growth and the origins of early Christianity. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 9(3), 291-306.

Daube, D. (1963). The exodus pattern in the Bible. London: Fab er & Faber.

De Casper, A. & Fifer, W. (1980). Of human bonding: Newborns prefer their mothers' voices. Science, 208, 1174-1176.

De Casper, A. & Spence, M. J. (1986). Prenatal maternal speech influences newborns' perception of speech sounds. Infant Behavior & Development, 9, 133-150.

Edinger, E. F. (1986). The Bible and the psyche: Individuation symbolism in the Old Testament. Toronto: Inner City Books.

Encyclopaedia Judaica. (1971). vol. 8, 766 ff. Jerusalem: Keter.

Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213-218.

Janov, A. (1993). The new primal scream (Y. Waldman, trans.). Tel Aviv: Alpha/ZmoraBitan. (Hebrew; English ed. published 1991)

Jewish Publication Society. (1985). Tanakh - The Holy Scriptures: The new JPS translation according to the traditional Hebrew text. Philadelphia/Jerusalem: Author.

Kierkegaard, S. (1983). Fear and trembling: Repetition. (H.V. Hong & E. H. Hong, Eds. & trans.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Kille, A. D. (2001). Psychological Biblical criticism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Kutz, I. & Altschuler, E. L. (2002). Samson, the Bible, and the DSM/In Reply. Arch ives of General Psychiatry, 59(6), 565-566.

Phinney, J. (1992). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM): A new scale for use with adolescents and young adults from diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 156-176.

Rank, O. (1952). The trauma of birth. NY: Robert Brunner. (First published 1924)

Rank, O. (1964). The myth of the birth of the hero and other writings. (Philip Freund, Ed.). NY: Vintage Books. (First published 1914)

Rollins, W. G. (1999). Soul and psyche: The Bible in psychological perspective. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Rosenbaum, M., Silbermann, A. M., Blashki, A. & Joseph, L. (Eds. and trans., (1946). Pentateuch with Targum Onkelos, haphtaroth and prayers for Sabbath and Rashi's commentary. London: Shapiro, Valentine & Co.

Rotenberg, N. (2004). Beloved doe: Studies in the wisdom of love. Sifrei Hemed Series. Tel Aviv: Yediot Aharonot. (Hebrew)

Shapiro, F. (2001). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: Basic principles, protocols and procedures (2nd edition). NY: Guilford Press.

Spiegel, S. (1967). The last trial. (J. Gol din, trans.). Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America.

Wardi, D. (1990). Memorial candles. Jerusalem: Keter. (Hebrew)

Childbirth and Narratives: How Do Mothers Deal with Their Child's Birth?

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
December 2002

This research focuses on post traumatic stress disorders which arise after childbirth and adds to the literature on psychological post partum diseases. The hypothesis of this study was that psychological expression of negative emotions could reduce the occurrence of stress symptoms after labour and delivery. A group of 64 women with a healthy pregnancy was examined. Half of them were asked to express their emotion experienced during labour and delivery through a written account.

References: 

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th edition). Washington, DC: Author.

Affleck G., Tennen H., Rowe J. (1991). Infant in crisis: how parents cope with newborn intensive care and its aftermath. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Appleby L., Gregoire A., Platz C., Prince M., Kumar R. (1994). Screening women for high risk of postnatal depression. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38, 539-545.

Areias M.E.G., Kumar R., Barros H., Figureiedo E. (1996). Correlates of postnatal depression in mothers and fathers. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 36-41.

Ballard G.G., Stanley A.K., Brockington I.F. (1995). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after Childbirth. British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 525-528.

Bydlowsky M., Raul-Duval A. (1978). Un avatar psychique méconnu de la puepéralité: la névrose traumatic post-obstétricale. Perspectives Psychiatriques, 4, 321-328.

Campbell S.B., Cohon J.F. (1991). Prevalence and correlates of postpartum depression in first time mothers. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(4), 594-599.

DeMier R.L., Hynan M.T., Harris H.B., Manniello R.L. (1996). Perinatal Stressors as predictors of symptoms of posttraumatic stress in mother and infants at high-risk. Journal of Perinatology, 16, 276-280.

Di Blasio P. (2001). Rievocare e raccontare eventi traumatici,. Maltrattamento e abuso all'infanzia, 3(1), 59-82.

Fones C. (1996). Posttraumatic stress disorder occuring after painful childbirth. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184, 195-196.

Gotlib I.H., Whiffen V.E., Wallace P.M., Mount J.H. (1991). Prospective investigation of postpartum depression: factors involved in onset and recovery, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(2): 122-132.

Hynan M.T. (1998). The perinatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) questionnaire (PPQ), in Wood R., Zalaquette C.P. (eds.) Evaluating Stress : A handbook of resources (vol. 2). London: Lanham, Md, The Scarecrow Press, Inc.

Kruckman L., Smith S. (1998). An introduction to postpartum illness. Postpartum Support International (www.iup.edu/an/postpartum/momhelp.html).

Manage J. (1993). Posttraumatic stress disorders in women who have undergone obstetric and or gunecological procedures: A consecutive series of 30 cases of PTSD. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 11, 221-8.

O'Hara M.W. (1987). Post-partum "blues", depression, and psychosis: a review. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetric and Gynaecology, 7, 205-227.

O'Hara M.W., Zekoski E.M., Phillipps L.H., Wright E.J., (1990). Controlled prospective study of postpartum mood disorders: comparison of childbearing and nonchilbearing women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 3-15.

Pancheri P., Sirigatti S. (1995). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2. Firenze: Organizzazioni Speciali.

Pennebaker J.W. (1985). Traumatic experience and psychosomatic disease: exploring the roles of behavior, obsession and confiding. Canadian Psychology, 26, 82-95.

Pennebaker J.W., Beall S.K. (1986). Confronting a traumatic event: toward and understanding of inhibition and disease. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 274-281.

Pennebaker J.W., Kielcolt-Glaser J.K., Glaser R. (1988). Disclosure of traumas and immune function: health implication for psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 239-245.

Pennebaker J.W. (1989). Confession, inhibition and disease, in Berkowitz (eds.). Advances in experimental social psychology. New York: Academic Press.

Pennebaker J.W. (1999). Traduire in parole le esperienze traumatiche: implicazioni per 1'abuso infantile e per il mantenimento della salute (Tr. it. di Francesco Casatello). Psicologia della Salute, 2, 32-48.

Prezza M., Di Mauro D., Giudici M.G., Violani C., Vaccari S., Faustini F. (1984). Studio longitudinale sulla disforia post parto, in Montemagno U., Zichella L. (eds.). Psicosomatica ginecologica ed ostetrica. Bologna: Monduzzi.

Quinnel F.A., Hynan M.T. (1999). Convergent and discriminant validity of perinatal PTSD questionnaire (PPQ). Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12(1), 193-199.

Reynolds J.L. (1997). Post-traumatic stress disorders after childbirth: the phenomenon of traumatic birth. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 156, 831-835.

Rossi N., Bassi L., Delfino M.D. (1992). Atteggiamento psicologico verso la gravidanza ed adattamento emotivo successive al parto. Archivio di Psicologia, Neurologia e Psichiatria, 53(3), 337-355.

Stein G., (1982). The Maternity Blues, in Brockington I.F., Kumar R., Motherhood and mental illness. New York: Grune & Stratton.

Wegner D., Schneider D., Carter S., White T. (1987). Paradoxical aspects of thought suppression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 5-13.

Wijma K., Wijma B., Soderquist M.A. (1997). Posttraumatic Stress Disorders after childbirth: a cross sectional study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11(6), 587-597.

Wijma K., Wijma B., Zar, M. (1998). Psychometric aspects of the W-DEQ; a new questionnaire for the measurement of fear of childbirth. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetric and Gynecologic, 19, 84-97.

The authors thank Dott. Eugenic Vignati, Health Master of Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento in Milan, for his approval and support of this study, and the medical and nursing staff of Clinica Mangiagalli, in particular, Dott.ssa Cristina Maggioni, gynaecologist, for their help and collaboration. Correspondence to: Paola Di Blasio, C.R.T.I., Dipartimento di Psicologia, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo Gemelli, 1, 20123 Milano, Italy. Email: pdiblasi@mi.unicatt.it

Post-traumatic Symptomatology in Parents with Premature Infants: A Systematic Review of the Literature

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
March 2007

The emotional distress resulting from the experience of giving birth to a preterm infant (gestational age < 37 weeks) and the subsequent neonatal unit hospitalisation may be a traumatic experience for parents. In the present systematic literature review, studies on parental posttraumatic symptomatology following birth of a premature infant were reviewed. A total of 5 studies were identified. All studies reviewed found that posttraumatic symptomatology is quite common in parents or primary caregivers of premature infants. However, methodological weaknesses of relevant studies (e.g.

References: 

Affleck, G., Tennenn, H., & Rowe, J. (1991). Infants in crisis: How parents cope with newborn intensive care and its aftermath. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Allen, E.C., Manuel, J.C., Legault, C., Naughton, M.J., Pivor, C., & O'Shea, T.M. (2004). Perception of child vulnerability among mothers of former premature infants. Pediatrics, 113, 267-73.

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Beck, A.T., Rush, A.J., Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy for depression. New York: Guilford.

Blake, D., Weathers, F., Nagy, L., Kaloupek, D., Klauminzer, G., Charney, D., & Keane T (1990). Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Boston: National Center for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

Buckley, T.C., Blanchard, E.B., & Neil, W.T. (2000). Information processing and PTSD: A review of the empirical literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 1041-1065.

Campbell, D.E. & Fleischman, A.R. (2001). Limits of viability: Dilemmas, decisions, and decision makers. American Journal of Perinatology, 18, 117-128.

Costeloe, K., Gibson, A.T., Marlow, N., & Wilkinson, A.R. (2000). The EPICure Study: Outcome to discharge from hospital for infants born at the threshold of viability. Pediatrics, 106, 659-671.

Crockenburg, S. (1987). Support for adolescent mothers during the postnatal period: Theory and research. In C.F.Z. Boukydis (Ed.), Research on support for parents and infants in the postnatal period. Norwood, NJ: Abdex.

Drewett, R., Blair, P., Emmett, P., & Emond, A. (2004). Failure to thrive in the term and preterm infants of mothers depressed in the postnatal period: A population-based birth control study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 359-366.

Droogan, J. & Cullum, N. (1998). Systematic reviews in nursing. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 35, 13-22.

Foa, E.B., Ehlers, A., Clark, D.M., Tollin, D.F., & Orsillo, S.M. (1999). The Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI): Development and validation. Psychological Assessment, 11, 303-314.

Holditch-Davis, D., Bartlett, T.R., Blickman, A.L., & Shandor Miles, M. (2003). Posttraumatic stress symptoms in mothers of premature infants. JOGNN, 32, 161-171.

Horowitz, M., Wilner, N., & Alvarez, W. (1979). Impact of Event Scale: A measure of subjective stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41, 209-218.

Jotzo, M. & Poets, C.F. (2005). Helping parents cope with the trauma of premature birth: An evaluation of a trauma-preventive psychological intervention. Pediatrics, 115, 915-919.

Kersting, A., Dorsch, M., Wesselmann, U., et al. (2004). Maternal posttraumatic stress response after the birth of a very low-birth-weight infant. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57, 473-476.

Kuckelman Cobb, A. & Nelson Hagemaster, J. (1987). Ten criteria for evaluating qualitative research proposals. Journal of Nursing Education, 26, 138-142.

Martin, J.A., Hamilton, B.E., Sutton, P.O., Venture, S.J., et al. (2003). Births: Final data for 2002. National Vital Statistics Reports, 52. Hyattsville, MD: National Centre for Health Statistics.

Mays, N. & Pope, C. (2000). Qualitative Research in Health Care: Assessing Quality in Qualitative Research. British Medical Journal, 320, 50-52.

McKim, E.M. (1993). The information and support needs of mothers of premature infants. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 8, 233-244.

Meek, N.E., Fowler, S.A., Claflin, K, & Rasmussen, L.B. (1995). Mothers' perceptions of their NICU experience 1 and 7 months after discharge. Journal of Early Intervention, 19, 288-301.

Meyer, E.G., Coll, C.T.G., Seifer, R., Ramos, A., Kilis, E., & Oh, W. (1995). Psychological distress in mothers of preterm infants. Developmental and Behavioural Pediatrics, 16, 412-417.

Moehn, D.G. & Rossetti, L. (1996). The effects of neonatal intensive care on parental emotions and attachment. Infant-Toddler Intervention: The Transdisciplinary Journal, 6, 229-246.

Nixon, R.D.V., Resick, P.A., & Nishith, P. (2004). An exploration of comorbid depression among female victims of intimate partner violence with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 82, 315-320.

Petrou, S., Mehta, Z., Hockley, C., Cook-Mozaffari, P., Henderson, J., & Goldacre, M. (2003). The impact of a preterm baby on hospital inpatient admissions and costs during the first 5 years of life. Pediatrics, 112, 1290-1297.

Petrou, S., Sach, T., & Davidson, L. (2001). The long-term costs of preterm babies and low birth weight: results of a systematic review. Child: Health Care and Development, 27, 97-115.

Pierrhumbert, B., Nicole, A., Muller-Nix, C., Forcada-Guex, M., & Ansermet, F. (2005). Parental post-traumatic reactions after premature birth: Implications for sleeping and eating problems in the infant. Archives of Disease in Childhood and Fetal and Neonatal Education, 88, 400-404.

Quinnell, F.A. & Hynan, M.T. (1999). Convergent and discriminant validity of the Perinatal PTSD Questionnaire (PPQ): A preliminary study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 193-199.

Raeside, L. (1997). Perceptions of environmental stressors in the neonatal unit. British Journal of Nursing, 6, 914-923.

Stroup, D.F., Berlin, J.A., Morton, S.C., Olkin, L, Williamson, G.D., Rennie, D., Moher, D., Becker, B.J., Sipe, T.A., & Thacker, S.B. (2000). Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology. Journal of the American Medical Association, 283, 2008-2012.

Tedstone, J.E. & Tarrier, N. (2003). Posttraumatic stress disorder following medical illness and treatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 409-448.

Tommys Charity O, Available at http://www.tommys.org. Accessed July 2005.

Wereszczak, J., Shandor Miles, M., & Holditch-Davis, D. (1997). Maternal recall of the neonatal intensive care unit. Neonatal Network, 16, 33-10.

Yehuda, R. (2002). Clinical relevance of biologic findings in PTSD. Psychiatric Quarterly, 73, 23-33.

Zlotnick, C., Rodriguez, B.F., Weisberg, R.B., Bruce, S.E., Spencer, M.A., Culpepper, L., & Keller, M.B. (2004). Chronicity in posttraumatic stress disorder and predictors of the course of posttraumatic stress disorder among primary care patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 153-159.