As a victim of infant surgery without anesthesia performed in 1945, I would like to comment Terry T. Monell's compelling article, "Living out the past: Infant surgery prior to 1987," published in JOPPPAH 25(3), 159-172. I agree fully with Monell's description of the consequences of living with the implicit memory of such a trauma. Like Monell, I believe that those "who are suffering the effect of fundamental neurological changes shaping their relationships, world view, and life course . . . have an undeniable right to understand what implicit forces may be corrupting their resilience and impoverishing their potential." My only reservation about the article is that it appears that male infant circumcision is not one of those included in Monell's statistics regarding numbers of individuals in America likely to be affected. It is my belief that circumcised men must be included in estimates of the adult population subjected to early life medical trauma. Doing so would dramatically increase the size of this population from Monell's estimate of 3,562,500 to perhaps a third of the population of the U.S. Circumcision has been so thoroughly 'normalized' in American consciousness that it isn't even thought of as surgery. I think many people consider it a necessary part of the birth process.