The Possible Prenatal Origins of Morbid Obesity

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
Dec 2008
The rapidly developing science of pre-birth psychology is casting a new light on some old problems. One such is morbid obesity, some aspects of which can possibly be explained in the light of prenatal theory. This article sets out the hypothesis that firstly, obesity may represent a self-destructive personal choice. Secondly, there may be a psychological reason why the possibly fatal consequences of that choice are largely ignored by the obese person. Thirdly, the choice and its consequences comprise a style of eating behaviour that seems to re-construct a particular pre-birth experience.

Briere, J. ( 1 992). Child abuse trauma: Theory and treatment of the lasting effects. London: Sage Publications.

Brierly, K. (Director) (2006). The 34 stone teenager (TV documentary). London: Brighter Pictures.

Byrne, S., Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C. (2003). Weight maintenance and relapse in obesity: a qualitative study. International Journal of Obesity, 27(8), 955-962.

Fairburn, C. G. & Brownell, K. D. (Eds.) (2002). Eating disorders and obesity: A comprehensive handbook (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Fall, H. D. (2006). Developmental origins of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity in humans. In M. Wintour-Coghlan & J. Owens (Eds.), Early life origins of health and disease (pp. 8-28). New York: Springer Science+Business Media.

Felitti, V. J. (1993). Childhood sexual abuse, depression, and family dysfunction in adult obese patients: a case control study. Southern Medical Journal, 86, 732-6.

Fernandez-Real, J. M., & Ricart W. (1999) Insulin resistance and inflammation in an evolutionary perspective: the contribution of cytokine genotype/phenotype to thriainess. Diabetologia, 42(11), 1367-74

Foster G. D., Wadden, T. ?., Makris, A. P., Davidson, D., Sanderson, R. S., Allison, D. B. & Kessler, A. (2003). Primary care physicians' attitudes about obesity and its treatment. Obesity Research, 11(10), 1168-1177.

Glinski, J., Wetzler, S., & Goodman, E. (2001). The psychology of gastric bypass surgery. Obesity Surgery, 11(5), 581-8.

Hayton, A. (2000). Food and you: For people with a food problem. St. Albans, England: Wren Publications.

Hayton, A., (2007). Untwinned: Perspectives on the death of a twin before birth. St. Albans, England: Wren Publications.

Heatherton, T. E., & Baumeister, R. E. 1 1991). Binge eating as escape from self-awareness. Psychological Bulletin, 110(1), 86-108.

Joseph, K. S. & Kramer, M. S. (1996) Review of the evidence on fetal and early childhood antecedents of adult chronic disease. Epidemiologic Reviews, 28(2), 158-74.

Landy, H. L., & Keith, L. G. (1998). The vanishing twin: a review. Human Reproduction Update, 4(2), 177-83.

Levi, P. ( 1988). The drowned and the saved. New York: Summit.

Myers, A., & Rosen, J. C. (1999). Obesity stigmatization and coping: Relation to mental health symptoms, body image, and self-esteem. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders, 23(3), 221-230.

Odent, M. (2006). Obesity from a primal health research perspective. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 20(2), 135-141.

Peeters, A., Barendregt, J., Willekens, F., Mackenbach, J. P., Mamun, A. A. L., & Bonneux, L. (2003). Overweight and obesity by middle age are associated with shortened lifespan. Annals of Internal Medicine, 138(1), 1-44.

Piontelli, A. (2002). Twins: From fetus to child. London: Routledge.

Rotter, J., & Diamond, J. (1987). What maintains the frequencies of human genetic diseases? Nature, 329(6137), 289-90.

Turner-Groot, J. T. (2005). Prebirth dynamics in the formatting of relationships & reactive attachment disorders. !Presented at the 16th International Congress of the ISPPM The Anthropology & Psychology of Pregnancy & Birth, Heidelberg, Germany 2-5 June 2005.]

Vallis T. M., & Ross M. A. (1993). The role of psychological factors in bariatric surgery for morbid obesity: Identification of psychological predictors of success. Obesity Surgery, 3(4), 346-359.

Williamson D. F., Thompson T.J., Anda, R. F., Dietz, W. H. & Felitti, V. (2002). Body weight and obesity in adults and self-reported abuse in childhood. International Journal of Obesity, 28(8), 1075-1082.

Woodward, J. (1998). The lone twin. London/New York: Free Association Books.

Yalom, I. D. (1980). Existential psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.

Investigation by Questionnaire Regarding Fetal/Infant Memory in the Womb and/or at Birth

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
Dec 2005

The purpose of this study is to clarify the possession rate of fetal/infant memory in the womb and/or at birth and to validate its characteristic. A total of 1620 answered questionnaires of the 3601 distributed were returned, giving an overall recovery rate of 45.0%. The possession rates of womb and birth memory were 33.0% and 20.7%, respectively. Parents, too, responded with regard to their own memory from birth, and 1.1% appeared possessing such memory.


Chamberlain, D. (1988). Babies remember birth. New York: Ballantine Books.

Chamberlain, D. (1998). The mind of your newborn baby. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Gulpinar, M.A., & Yegen B.C. (2004, Dec). The physiology of learning and memory: role of peptides and stress. Current Protein and Peptide Science, 5(6), 457-473.

Heinrichs, M., Meinlschmidt G., Wippich W., Ehlert U., & Hellhammer D.H. (2004, Oct). Selective amnesic effect of oxytocin on human memory. Physiology and Behavior 30; 83(1), 31-8.

Verny, T., with Weintraub, P. (2002). Pre-parenting nurturing your child from conception. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Verny, T., with Kelly, J., (1981). The secret life of the unborn child. New York: Dell Publishing.

Akira Ikegawa, Administrative Director of Ikegawa Clinic

Send correspondence to Akira Ikegawa, MD, PhD, Administrative Director of Ikegawa Clinic. Address: 2-5-13 Daidou Kanazawa-Ku Yokohama Japan 236-0035. Email:

The Potential Risks of Ultrasound Examinations on Fetal Development

Price: $10.00
Related Content:: 
Publication Date: 
Mar 2007

Ultrasound examinations are a trusted diagnostic procedure in prenatal Healthcare. The benefits of ultrasound are numerous. However, research documents physical risks that must be taken seriously. Although many of these findings are inconclusive, they indicate that ultrasound examinations may not be totally benign. The following is an exploration of the current research available on the effects of ultrasound exposure on fetal development with discussion on potential physical, behavioral and psychological health risks.


Ang, E., Gluncic, V., Duque, Á., Schafer, M., & Rakic, P. (2006). Prenatal exposure to ultrasound waves impacts neuronal migration in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(34), 12903-12910.

Bellieni, C.V., Buonocore, G., Bagnoli, F., Cordelli, D.M., Gasparre, O., Calonaci, F., Filardi, G., Merola, A., & Petraglia, F. (2005). Is an excessive number of prenatal ichnographies a risk for fetal growth? Early Human Development, 81, 689-693.

Campbell, S. (2002). Editorial. Ultrasound Obstetrics and Gynecology, 19, 1-4.

Cigna Healthcare Coverage Position: Ultrasound in pregnancy (including 3D and 4D ultrasound). (2005). Coverage position number: 0142, 1-8.

Hande, M.P., Devi, P., Uma, & Karanth, S. (1993). Effect of prenatal ultrasound exposure on adult behavior in mice. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 15, 433-438.

Ji, E.K., Pretorius, D.H., Newton, R., Uyan, K., Hull, A.D., Hollenbach, K., & Nelson, T.R. (2005). Effects of ultrasound on maternal-fetal bonding: a comparison of two- and three-dimensional imaging. Ultrasound Obstetrics and Gynecology, 25, 473-477.

Kroeger, M. & Smith, L.J. (2004). Impact of birthing practices on breastfeeding: protecting the mother and baby continuum. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett.

Newnham, J.P., Doherty, D., Kendall, G.E., Zubrick, S.R., Landou, L., & Stanley, F.J. (2004). Effects of repeated prenatal ultrasound examinations on childhood outcome up to 8 years of age: Follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Lancet, 364, 2038-44.

Rados, C. (2004). FDA cautions against ultrasound 'keepsake' images. FDA Consumer Magazine, January-February Issue. Retrieved August 12, 2006 from fdac/features/2004/104_images.html

Righetti, P.L., Dell'Avanzo, M., Grigio, M., & Nicolini, U. (2005). Maternal/paternal antenatal attachment and fourth-dimensional ultrasound technique: a preliminary report. British Journal of Psychology 96, 129-137.

Schmid, R.E. (August 7, 2006). Ultrasound may affect fetal brain: Study. Toronto Star. Retrieved August 12, 2005 from pagename=thesta...

Suresh, R., Devi, P., Uma, Ovchinnkov, N., & McRae, A. (2002). Long-term effects of diagnostic ultrasound during fetal period on postnatal development and adult behavior of mouse. Life Sciences, 71, 33-350.

Thomson, P. (2004). The impact of trauma on the embryo and fetus: an application of the diathesis-stress model and the neurovulnerability-neurotoxicity model. Journal of. Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health 79(1), 9-64.

Who says ultrasound is safe? (2004). AIMS Journal. 16 (4). Retrieved August 12, 2006 from