The Resulting Effects of In Utero Attachment on the Personality Development of an Adopted Individual by Tracy L. Carlis

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Publication Date: 
June 2015

Abstract: A newborn separated from his mother at birth and relinquished for adoption is susceptible to a primal wounding. This construct describes the deep psychic scarring and lasting emotional impact of adoption caused by the sudden severing of the in utero bond with the biological mother. The results of the trauma are believed to be substantial and to carry major long-term developmental effects, and yet the nature of those implications remains poorly understood.


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This article investigates how a birthmother’s feelings toward her unborn child might affect her adopted child throughout his or her life.

Essential Clinical Principles For Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology Practitioners

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The burgeoning research in attachment theory, affective neuroscience, polyvagal theory, epigenetics, and trauma treatment has given new directions for the practice of prenatal and perinatal psychology. The authors offer essential fundamentals for the integration of these new principles into clinical practice with individuals and families from pre-conception through adulthood.


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The Potential Effects of Contemplative Practices on the Cultivation of Empathic Attunement in Mothers

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Publication Date: 
October 2012

Recent research across various disciplines, including attachment theory, neuroscience, developmental psychology, and pre and perinatal psychology, suggests the importance of redefining parenting effectiveness to include empathic attunement. In light of this research, the importance of prenatal education and training for mothers in body-centered contemplative practices, due to the resulting potential for the development of empathic attunement and the corresponding impact on the developing mind/brain of their children, is discussed.

Somatically Informed Parent-Prenate Psychotherapy

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Publication Date: 
October 2012

This paper discusses somatically informed parent-prenate counseling/ psychotherapy. It defines and presents the phenomenon called parent-prenate attachment. Further, it reviews the literature on parent-prenate attachment; and also reports on some of the factors that have been found to strengthen, or weaken, the qualities of bonding in this relationship. Finally, the article defines and introduces somatic psychotherapy; and proposes some of the potential ways in which somatic clinical interventions could enhance the practice of parent-prenate psychotherapy.

Maternal Fetal Attachment: Can Acceptance of Fetal Sentience Impact the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Relationship?

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Publication Date: 
October 2012

Research into maternal-fetal attachment is increasing yet has not yielded substantive scientific results due in part to the lack of a clear definition of the word “attachment.” Furthermore, a controversy currently exists in the literature with debate focused on the use of the word “attachment” as referenced by John Bowlby when discussing the maternal-fetal relationship.

A Secure Attachment Base

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Publication Date: 
October 2012

The Mother and Child Reunion Bonding Therapy: The Four Part Repair

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Publication Date: 
March 2012

Repairing the broken bond between a mother and her child is relatively easy when one knows how to do it. The four-stage protocol presented here involves (I) suspecting that there is a bonding problem, (II) searching for the cause, (III) metabolizing the painful feelings, and (IV) creating an alternative birth. The therapy is short, quick, and effective. Eight cases are presented as examples.


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The Role of Shame in Infant Development

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Publication Date: 
January 2011

Shame is a powerful emotion born of implicit mind and with lasting implications. This brief essay explores the source of this experience, including its possible role as an instrument of survival, its relationship to the processes of bonding and attachment, and its developmental aspects.
Key Words: Shame, Attachment, Dysregulation, Mother


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Is Maternal Personality and Coping Style Related to Breech Presentation? Evaluating the Chinese Medicine and Ayurvedic Models of Risk Factors for Breech Presentation

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Publication Date: 
May 2011

We investigated maternal personality characteristics and coping style as potential risk factors for breech presentation in this case-control study. Mothers of cephalic presentation babies (n=72) and mothers of breech presentation babies (n=42) participated in a socio-demographic survey, the State Trait Personality Inventory (STPI), and an in-depth interview. In-depth interview results suggested mothers of breech presentation were more likely to be idealistic, analytical, overextended, and fearful; also less likely to be flexible.


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Huizink, A. C, Robles de Medina, R G, Mulder, E. J. H., Visser, G H. ?., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2003). Stress during pregnancy is associated with developmental outcome in infancy. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 44(6), 810-818.

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Ji, E. S., & Han, H.-R. (2010). The effects of Qi exercise on maternal/fetal interaction and maternal well-being during pregnancy. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 39, 310-318.

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Perinatal Clinical Psychology: Parent-Child Interaction in Primary Care

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
December 2010
Perinatal clinical psychology deals with infant mental development, primary parent-child relationships, and problems related to nurturing and parenting activities of the woman and the couple during the prenatal and neonatal period. Its aims are promoting positive influences and preventing risk elements for the child’s development and for the parents raising the child, thus providing support to primary relationships. Perinatal clinical psychology studies intra-psychic, interpersonal, and trans-generational mental processes.

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