Bonding

The Mother and Child Reunion Bonding Therapy: The Four Part Repair

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Publication Date: 
March 2012

Repairing the broken bond between a mother and her child is relatively easy when one knows how to do it. The four-stage protocol presented here involves (I) suspecting that there is a bonding problem, (II) searching for the cause, (III) metabolizing the painful feelings, and (IV) creating an alternative birth. The therapy is short, quick, and effective. Eight cases are presented as examples.

References: 

Brown, G., Pennington, D., & Madrid, A. (1999). Maternal-Infant Bonding Survey.

Cheek, D. & LeCron, A. (1968). Clinical hypnotherapy. New York: Grune & Stratton.

Feinberg, S. (1988). Degree of maternal infant bonding and its relationship to pediatric asthma and family environments. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Professional School of Psychology, Sacramento, CA.

Klaus, M. & Kennell, J. (1976). Maternal-infant Bonding. St. Louis: M. V. Mosby.

Madrid, A. (2005/2006). Helping children with asthma by repairing maternal-infant bonding problems. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 48(3,2), 199-211.

Madrid, A., Skolek, S., & Shapiro, F. (2006). Repairing failures in bonding through EMDR. Clinical Case Series 5(4): 271-286.

Pennington, D. (1991). Events associated with maternal-infant bonding deficits and severity of pediatric asthma. Professional School of Psychology, Sacramento, CA.

Schwartz, M. (1988). Incidence of events associated with maternal-infant bonding disturbances in a pediatric asthma population. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rosebridge Graduate School, Walnut Creek, CA

Helping Asthmatic Children through Bonding Therapy

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Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
January 2011

Disruptions in maternal-infant bonding are shown to be the mediating variable between maternal distress and the subsequent expression of childhood asthma. When bonding is repaired, it seems that children’s asthmatic symptoms diminish or remit. This study evaluated 16 asthmatic children before and after their mothers were treated with bonding therapy. Fourteen improved on 11 measures, including reduction in STEP classification system and medication use. Thirteen children were able to stop all medications. The links between bonding disruptions,

References: 

Akinbami, L. J., Moorman, J. E., Garbe, P. L., & Sondik,.E. J. (2009). Status of childhood asthma in the United States, 1980-2007. Pediatrics, 123 (Suppl. 3), 131-145. doi: 10. 1542/peds.2008-2233C

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., Text Revision). Washington DC: Author.

Annesi-Maesano, L, Moreau, D., & Strachan, D. (2001). In utero and perinatal complications preceding asthma. Allergy, 56, 491-497. doi:10.1034/j.l3989995.2001.056006491.x

Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561-571.

Brown, G., Pennington, D., & Madrid, A. (1999). Maternal-infant bonding survey. Unpublished survey.

Cassibba, R., van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Bruno, S., & Coppola, G (2004). Attachment of mothers and children with recurrent asthmatic bronchitis. Journal of Asthma, 41(4), 419-431.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, May). Vital signs: Asthma in the U.S. Retrieved from http://wwwcdc.gov/VitalSigns/pdf/2011-05-vitalsigns.pdf

DeFrances,C.J.,Cullen,KA.,&Kozak,L.J. (2007). National hospital discharge survey: 2005 annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data. Vital Health Statistics 23(165), 1-209. Abstract retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18350768

Feinberg, S. (1988). Degree of maternal infant bonding and its relationship to pediatric asthma and family environments (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Professional School of Psychology, San Francisco, CA.

Kero, J., Gissler, M., Gronlund, M. M., Kero, P, Koskinen, R, Hemminki, E., & Isolami, E. (2002). Mode of delivery and asthma-Is there a connection? Pediatric Research, 52(1), 6-11.

Klaus, M. H., & Kennen, J. H. (1976). Maternal-infant bonding. St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby

Klinnert, M. D, Nelson, H. S., Price, M. R., Adinoff, A. D., Leung, D. Y., & Mrazek, D A. (2001, October). Onset and persistence of childhood asthma: Predictors from infancy. Pediatrics, 108(4), E69.

Kozyrskyj, A. L., Mai, X. M., McGrath, P, HayGlass, K. T, Becker, A. B., & MacNeil, B. (2008). Continued exposure to maternal distress in early life increases the risk of childhood asthma. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 177, 142-147. doi:10.1164/rccm.200703-381OC

Kozyrskyj, A. L., Mustard, C. A., & Becker, A B. (2003). Childhood wheezing syndromes and healthcare data. Pediatric Pulmonology, 36, 131-136. doi:10.1002/ppul.l0312

Lange, N. E., Bunyavanich, S., Silberg, J. L., Canino, G., Rosner, B. A., & Celedón, J. C. (2011). Parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in Puerto Rican twins. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 127(3), 734-740.

Lara, M., Rosenbaum, S., Rachelefsky, G., Nicholas, W., Morton, S. C, Emont, S., . . . Weiss, K. B. (2002). Improving childhood asthma outcomes in the United States: A blueprint for policy action. Pediatrics, 109(5), 919-930.

Madrid, A. (2005/2006). Helping children with asthma by repairing maternal-infant bonding problems. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 48(2,3), 199-211.

Madrid, A., Ames, R., Horner, D., Brown, G., & Navarrette, L. (2004). Improving asthma symptoms in children by repairing the maternal-infant bond. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 18(3), 221-231.

Madrid, A., Ames, R., Skolek, S., & Brown, G. (2000). Does maternal-infant bonding therapy improve breathing in asthmatic children? Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 15(2), 90-112.

Madrid, A., Skolek, S., & Shapiro, E (2006). Repairing failures in bonding through EMDR. Clinical Case Series, 5(4), 271-286.

Mantymaa, M., Puura, K., Luoma, L, Salmelin, R., Davis, H., Tsiantis, J., . . . Tamminen, T. (2003). Infant-mother interaction as a predictor of child's chronic health problems. Child: Care, Health and Development, 29(3), 181-191. doi:10.1046/j.l3652214.2003.00330.x

Martin, M. (2004). Asthma epidemic impacts Sonoma County. Sonoma Medicine, 55(1). Retrieved from http://www.scma.org/magazine/?vol=55&num=l

Martinez, F. (2002). Development of wheezing disorders and asthma in preschool children. Pediatrics, 109(2), 362-367.

Mead, V. (2004). A new model for understanding the role of environmental factors in the origins of chronic illness. Medical Hypotheses, 63(6), 1035-1046. doi: 10.10 16/j.mehy.2004.04.014

Milam, J., McConnell, R., Yao, L., Berhane, K., Jerrett, M., & Richardson, J. (2008). Parental stress and childhood wheeze in a prospective cohort study. Journal of Asthma, 45, 319-323. doi: 10. 1080/02770900801930277

Mrazek, D. A., Klinnert, M. D., Mrazek, R, & Macey, T. (1991). Early asthma onset: Consideration of parenting issues. Journal of the of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(2), 277-282. doi: 10. 1097/00004583-199103000-00017

Nafstad, P, Samuelsen, S. O., Irgens, L. M., & Bjerkedal,T. (2003). Pregnancy complications and the risk of asthma among Norwegians born between 1967 and 1993. European Journal of Epidemiology, 18, 755-761. doi: 10. 1023/A 1025395405 101

Pennington, D. (1991). Events associated with maternal-infant bonding deficits and severity of pediatric asthma (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Professional School of Psychology, San Francisco, CA.

Roduit, C, Scholtens, S., de Jongste, J. C, Gerritsen, J., Postma, D. S., Brunekreef, B., . . . Smit, H. A. (2009). Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section. Thorax, 64(2), 107-113. doi: 10. 1 136/thx.2008. 100875

Schwartz, M. (1988). Incidence of events associated with maternal-infant bonding disturbances in a pediatric asthma population (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), Rosebridge Graduate School, Walnut Creek, CA.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). NAEPP expert report: Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma (NIH Publication No. 02-5074). Retrieved fromhttpy/msdh.ms.gov/msdhsite/_static/resources/2100.pdf

Wright, R J., Cohen, S., Carey, V., Weiss, S. T., & Gold, D. R. (2002). Parental stress as a predictor of wheezing in infancy: A prospective birth-cohort study. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 165(S), 358-365.

Wright, R. J., Visness, C. H., Calatroni, A., Grayson, M. H., Gold, D. R., Sandel, M. T., . Gern, J. E. (2010). Prenatal maternal stress and cord blood innate and adaptive cytokine responses in an inner-city cohort. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 182(1), 25-33. doi:10.1164/rccm.200904-0637OC

Prenatal Bonding (BA): A Method for Encountering the Unborn Introduction and Case Study

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Publication Date: 
September 2010

Part I - Introduction: Prenatal Bonding BA (*Bindungsanalyse by Raffai) provides the possibility of creating an intense bonding between mother and fetus, of being witness to the development of the fetus in the womb, to realize early prenatal traumas as well to have the chance for immediate healing. In this respect the method is at the same time an instrument of pre- and perinatal research, an empowerment of bonding between mother and fetus and a great help for giving birth much more easily.

References: 

Emerson, W. (1996/2000). Collected works I and II: The treatment of birth trauma in infants and children and pre- and perinatal regression therapy. Petaluma, CA: Emerson Training Seminars.

Emerson, W. (1997) Birth trauma: The psychological effects of obstetrical interventions.

Petaluma, CA: Emerson Training Seminars.

Emerson, W. (1999). Shock a universal malady. Prenatal and Perinatal Origins of suffering. Petaluma, CA: Emerson Training Seminars

Grof, S. (1985). Beyond the brain: Birth, death, and transcendence in psychotherapy. Albany. NY. State University of New York Press

Hüther, G. (2005). Pränatale Einflüsse auf die Hirnentwicklung (Prenatal influences on brain development). In: Krens, I.& Krens, H. (Hrsg) Grundlagen einer vorgeburtlichen Psychologie (Basics of Prenatal Psychology). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Piontelli, A. (2002). Twins: From fetus to child. London: Routledge.

Raffai, J. (1995), The psychoanalysis of somatic sensations. The prenatal roots of schizophrenia. International Journal of Prenatal and Prenatal Psychology and Medicine, 7(1), 39-42.

Raffai, J. (1997) Mother-child bonding analysis in the prenatal realm. International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 9(4), 407-415

Raffai, J. (1998a). Towards a new psychotherapeutic approach of schizophrenia. Presented at the WPA Symposium, Washington D.C.

Raffai, J. (1998b). Mother-baby bonding analysis: The strange events of a queer world. International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 10(2), 163-173.

Raffai, J. & Hidas, G. (2006). Nabelschnur der Seele (The Soul's Umbilical Cord). Giessen, Germany: Psychosozial-Verlag.

Raffai, J. (2009). Die Tiefendimensionen der Schwangerschaft im Spiegel der Bindungsanalyse (Deeper dimensions of pregnancy in the mirror of Prenatal Bonding BA). In: Blazy, H (Hrsg) Wie wenn man eine innere Stimme hört (As if you hear an inner voice) pp. 41-50. Heidelberg , Germany: Matthes Verlag

Schroth, G. (2009). Bindungsanalyse nach Raffai und Hidas. Eine einführung (Prenatal Bonding (BA) by Raffai and Hidas: An introduction). International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine 22(3-4), 343-347.

The Black Hole: Exploring the Schizoid Personality Disorder, Dysfunction and Deprivation with their Roots in the Pre and Perinatal Period

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Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
December 2008
The relationship between traumatic events from conception to birth and the Schizoid Personality Disorder, Dysfunction and Deprivation is explored. From extensive experiential work with clients, based on the work of the British psychiatrist, Dr. Frank Lake, and her own personal experiences, the author discusses the very painful schizoid personality dysfunctions and deprivations relating to traumas of great severity in the first trimester of life. Loss of bonding and fear of intimacy are explored, along with dissociation and boundaries, seen as learned behaviour in the womb.
References: 

Baker, J. P., Baker, F. & Slayton, T. (1986). Conscious conception: Elemental journey through the labyrinth of sexuality. Berkeley. CA: North Atlantic Books.

Chamberlain, D. (1998). The mind of your newborn baby. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Davies, B. (2002). Journey of the soul. London: Hodder & Stoughton.

Hayton, A. (2003, 2007, 2008V Unpublished material, www.wombtwin.com

Jackins, H. ( 1965). The human side of human beings: The theory of re-evaluation counseling. Seattle, WA: Rational Island Publishers.

Lake, F. ( 1966). Clinical theology. London: DLT.

Lake, F. (1981). Tight corners in pastoral counselling. London: DLT. Reprinted 2005

Levine, P., & Kline, M. (2007). Trauma through a child's eyes: Awakening the ordinary miracle of healing. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Levine. P. with Frederick, A. (1997). Waking the tiger: Healing the trauma: The innate capacity to transform overwhelming experience!' * Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Lyman, B. J. (2005). Prenatal and perinatal psychotherapy with adults: An integrative model for empirical testing. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 20(1), 58-76.

Mauger, B. (2008). Love in a time of broken heart: Healing from within. Dublin: Soul Connections.

Solomon, M. F, & Siegel, D. J. (Eds.) (2003). Healing trauma: Attachment, mind, body, and brain. New York: W. W. Norton and Company.

Ward, S. A. (1999). Birth trauma in infants and children. Journal of PrenafaV and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 73(3-4), 201-12.

Ward, S. A. (2004). Suicide and pre and perinatal psychotherapy. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 19(2), 89-105.

Whitfield, C. (1987). Healing the child within: Discovery and recovery for adult children of dysfunctional families. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications.

Whitfield, C. (1993) Boundaries and relationships: Knowing, protecting and enjoying the self. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications.

Recreating Ourselves: Ground-Breaking Research for a New Humanity

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Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
May 2008

The intention of this paper is to introduce interdisciplinary research challenging the foundations of self-growth fields and leading to the birth of a new humanity. The paper briefly summarizes relevant literature and introduces new adult verbal and nonverbal typologies with origins in four key preverbal developmental stages (conception, prenatal, birth and bonding). Interdisciplinary contributing fields included are embryology, neurobiology, attachment theory, body-centered psychotherapy, somatic psychology, and prenatal and perinatal psychology.

References: 

Caldwell, C. (2001). Bridging prenatal and perinatal psychology with somatic psychology. The Moving Cycle. www.themovingcycle.com/_Articles.htm

English, J. B.(1985). Different doorway: Adventures of a caesarean born. CA: Earth Heart.

Hendricks, G. & Hendricks, K. (1987). Techniques for dealing with prenatal and perinatal issues in therapy: A bodymind perspective. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 1(3), 230-238.

_____ (1991). Radiance: Breathwork, movement & body-centered psychotherapy. Berkeley, CA: Wingbow Press.

_____ (1992). At the speed of life: A new approach to personal change through bodycentered therapy. New York, NY: Bantam Book.

_____ (1999). The conscious heart: A body-centered approach to creating intimacy. In J. Carlson & L. Sperry (Eds.), The intimate couple (pp. 406-420). Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.

Immelmami, K. (1972). Sexual and other long-term aspects of imprinting in birds and other species. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 4, 147-174.

Jacobsen, B., Eklund, G., Hamberger, L. Linnarwsson, D., Sedvall, G. & Valverios, M. (1987). Perinatal origins of adult self-destructive behavior. Acta Psych. Scand.,76(4\ 364-71.

Johncock, P. & Sillito, M. (2006). The power of living genius. Sparks, NV: Fun Unlimited Inc.

Lyman, B. J. (1999). Antecedents to somatoform disorders: A pre-and perinatal psychology hypothesis. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 12(3-4), 247-254.

_____ (2005) Prenatal and Perinatal Psychotherapy with Adults: An Integrative Model for Empirical Testing. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 20(1), 58-76.

Riley, C. D. (1986). Tess: The emotional and physiological effects of prenatal physical trauma. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 1(1), 69-74.

Siegel, D. J. (1999). The developing mind: How relationships and the brain interact to shape who we are. New York: The Gilford Press.

Siegel, D. J. & Hartzell, M. (2003). Parenting from the inside out. New York: Tarcher-Putnam.

Sonne, J. C. (1997). Interpreting the dread of being aborted in therapy. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 11(4), 185-214.

Ward, S. (1999). Birth trauma in infants and children. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 12(3-4), 201-212.

Webster's new collegiate dictionary (8th ed.). (1976). Springfield, MA.

A Journey of Love: The Influence of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology on Parent-Child Bonding

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Publication Date: 
October 2007

The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to better understand parents? experiences of bonding with their babies in utero and after birth, and to discover the relevance of a prenatal and perinatal psychology (PPN) based bonding class in this process. Five couples were recruited from prenatal parenting classes in Santa Barbara, CA, and interviewed in person 2-6 months after giving birth.

References: 

Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Barrack, A. C. (2004). [Influence of prenatal and perinatal psychology on parent-child bonding]. Unpublished raw data.

Barrack, A. C. (2005). A journey of love: The influence of prenatal and perinatal psychology on parent-child bonding. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Santa

Barbara Graduate Institute, CA.

Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.

Chamberlain, D. (2003). Communicating with the mind of a prenate: Guidelines for parents and birth professionals. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 18(2), 95-108.

Ciechanowski, P. S., Walker, E. A., Katon, W. J., & Russo, J. E. (2002). Attachment theory: A model for health care utilization and somatization. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 660-667.

Emerson, W. R. (1996). The vulnerable prenate. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 10(3), 125-142.

Hrdy, S. B. (1999). Mother nature: Maternal instincts and how they shape the human species. New York: Ballantine Books.

Karen, R. (1994). Becoming attached. New York: Oxford University Press.

Karmiloff, K., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1999). Everything your baby would ask...if only he or she could talk. New York: Golden Books.

Karr-Morse, R., & Wiley, M. (1997). Ghosts from the nursery: Tracing the roots of violence. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.

Kennell, J. H., & Klaus, M. H. (1984). Mother-infant bonding: Weighing the evidence. Developmental Review, 4, 274-282.

Kitzinger, S. (2003). The complete book of pregnancy and childbirth. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Klaus, M. H., & Kennell, J. H. (1976). Maternal-infant bonding. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby.

Lawrence-Lightfoot, S., & Davis, J. H. (1997). The art and science of portraiture. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Luminare-Rosen, C. (2003). Birth, brain, and bonding: The psychology and science of attachment. Paper presented at the Association for Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, San Francisco, CA.

Lyons-Ruth, K., Easterbrooks, M. A., & Cibelli, D. D. (1997). Infant attachment strategies, infant mental lag, and maternal depressive symptoms: Predictors of internalizing and externalizing problems at age 7. Developmental Psychology, 33(4), 681-692.

Magid, K., & McKelvey, C. (1987). High risk: Children without a conscience. New York: Bantam.

Main, M. (1991). Metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive monitoring, and singular (coherent) vs. multiple (incoherent) models of attachment: Findings and directions for future research. In C. M. Parkes, J. Stevenson-Hinde, & P. Marris (Eds.), Attachment across the life cycle. London: Routledge.

McCarty, W. A. (1996, 2000). Being with babies: What babies are teaching us, an introduction, 1. Santa Barbara, CA: Wondrous Beginnings.

McCarty, W. A. (2002). The power of beliefs: What babies are teaching us. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 16(4), 341-360.

Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Nathanielsz, P. (1999). Life in the womb: The origin of health and disease. New York: Promethean Press.

Nolan, M. (1997). Antenatal education - where next? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25, 1198-1204.

Panksepp, J. (2001). The long-term psychobiological consequences of infant emotions: Prescriptions for the twenty-first century. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22(1-2), 132-173.

Schore, A. N. (2000). Attachment and the regulation of the right brain. Attachment & Human Development, 2(1), 23-47.

Schore, A. N. (2002). The neurobiology of attachment and early personality organization. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 16(3), 249-263.

Sears, W, & Sears, M. (2001). The attachment parenting book. Boston: Little, Brown.

Siegel, D. J. (1999). The developing mind. New York: Guilford Press.

Siegel, D. J., & Hartzell, M. (2003). Parenting from the inside out. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam.

Sroufe, L. A., Cooper, R. G., DeHart, G. B., & Marshall, M. (Eds.). (1996). Child development: Its nature and its course (3rd éd.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Taylor, S. J., & Bogdan, R. (1998). Introduction to qualitative research methods (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley.

Trevathan, W. R. (1987). Human birth: An evolutionary perspective. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.

Tsujino, J., Higa, M. O., Eng, D., & Inuihara, T. (2002). Specificity of a mother's attachment to her child using the attachment inventory and factors related to attachment: Longitudinal research from prenatal to age three. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 17(1), 63-84.

van Manen, M. (2002). Orientations in phenomenology. Retrieved July 1, 2004, from http://www.phenomenologyonline.com

Verny, T., & Weintraub, P. (2002). Tomorrow's baby. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Watson, M., & Ecken, L. (2003). Learning to trust. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Willford, R. A. (1998). The impact of prenatal education on parenting. Dissertation Abstracts International. 36(5). (UMI No. 1390160).

Violence & Pregnancy: A Whole-Self Psychology Perspective

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Publication Date: 
May 2003

This paper focuses on violence as pathology occurring primarily during pregnancy and explains the resulting impact on one's life. It addresses this specific theme, and does not include the violence found in some medical birth procedures, or violence generated by gender. This paper is based upon a presentation by the authors in March 2001, at the OMAEP [World Organization of Prenatal Education] & ANEP [Association of National Prenatal Education] Congress in Puerto la Cruz, Venezuela.

References: 

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2002). Retrieved from www.aap.org/mediamatters Brekhman, G. I. (2000). The conception of the multiple-level co-ordinated action between the mother and her unborn child: the methodological approach and the methods of research. Ivanovo, Russia:

Fedor-Freybergh, P. G., (1993). Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine: A new approach to primary prevention. Int. J. Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, Vol.5(3): 285-292. Preceeded by Fedor-Freybergh, Peter G., 1983 Psycophysische Gegebenheiten der Perinalzeit aïs Umwalt des Kindes. In: Schindler, S. Zimprich, H. (eds.) Okologie der Perinatalzeit. Stuttgart: Hippocrates, pp.24-49.

Ferenzi, S. (1913). Entwicklungssufen des wirklichkeitssinnes "(Stages in the development of the sense of reality), Int. Zietscrift fur Psychoanalyse 1, 124-138. Transi. 1924 Psycho-Analysis Chapter 8 Maresfield Reprints, London

Fodor, N. (1949). Search for the beloved: A clinical investigation of the trauma of birth and prenatal condition. New York: Hermitage Press.

Freud, S. (1918) History of infantile neurosis, collected papers vol. Ui, 583 Standard Edition.

Graber, G. H. (1924). Die ambivalenz des kindes (The ambiance of children). Vienna: Psychoanalytic Press.

Lipton, B. (2001, Spring). Fathers as genetic engineers. Presented at the World Organization of Prenatal Education (OMAEP) and the Association of National Prenatal Education (ANEP) Congress, Puerto la Cruz, Venezuela.

Lucas, W. B. (1993). Regression therapy: A handbook for professionals. Creek Park, CA: Deep Forest Press.

Peerbolte, M. (1975). Psychic energy in prenatal dynamics: Introduction p. XXXII Wassanaar NL: Servire B. V.

Perry, B.D., Pollard, R., Blakely, Baker, B., & Vigilante, D. (1995). Childhood trauma, the neurobiology of adaptation and use-dependent development of the brain: How states become traits. Infant Mental Health Journal 16(4): 271-291.

Perry, B. D. (1997) Incubated in terror: Neurodevelopmental factors in the cycle of violence, in Children, youth and violence: The search for solutions. J. Osofsky, Ed. pp. 124-148. New York: Guilford Press .

Rank, O. (1924) Dos trauma der geburt und seine bedeutung fur die psychoanalyse (The trauma of birth: Its meaning for psychoanalysis). Vienna: International Psychoanalytic Press English Translation 1952, New York: Brunner.

Schore, A. N. (1996). The experience-dependent maturation of a regulatory system in the orbital cortex and the origin of developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychology, 8: 59-87.

Schore, A. N. (1997) Affect regulation and the origin of the self. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum

Soldera, G. (2002, Summer) The individual life project: A new way of flscovering the unborn child world and potentialities. Journal of Pre- and Perinatal Psychology, Vol. 16(4): 361-376.

Sonne, J. C. (1994a, March) The relevance of the dread of being aborted to models of therapy and models of the mind. Part I: Case examples. The International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 6(1): 67-86. Republished (1995, Spring) Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 9(3):195-219.

Sonne, J. C. (1994b, June). The relevance of the dread of being aborted to models of therapy and models of the mind. Part II: Mentation and communication in the unborn. The International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 6(2): 247-275. Republished (1995, Summer) Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 9 (4): 257-294.

Sonne, J. C. (1996, September). Interpreting the dread of being aborted in therapy. The International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 8(3): 317-339. Republished (1997, Summer) Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal 11(4):185-214.

Sonne, J. C. (2000, Fall) Abortion survivors at Columbine. Journal of Pre- and Perinatal Psychology 15(1):3-22.

Turner, J. R. (1988). Birth, life, and more life: Reactive patterning based on prebirth events. In Fedor-Freybergh, P. G. & Vogel, V. (Eds.), Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine: encounter with the unborn, (pp 309-316). New Jersey: Parthenon.

Turner, J.R. & Turner, T. (1989, October). Birth, life, and more life: Implications of prebirth memory therapy prenatal psychology in the structuring processes of consciousness.© Presented at the 1st German Rebirthing Kongress. University of Osnabruck W. Germany.

Turner, Jon RG (1990) There is no such thing as anger: It is something else! Santa Fe, NM: Life's Streams Books.

Turner, JRG & TGN, (1995) Past life echoes© regression therapy is a key element of Whole -Self, Birth, Life & More Life! Santa Fe, NM: Life's Streams Books

Turner, JR & TGN, (1992). Discovering the emotional DNA: The emotional continuity for the unborn child through prebirth memory therapy. Presentation at the 10* ISPPM International Congress. Cracow, Poland 15-17 May 92.

Turner, J.R. & Turner, T. (1993, Summer). Prebirth memory therapy including prematurely delivered patients. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, Vol. 7(4): 321-332.

Verny, T. (2001, Spring) The birth of violence. Presented at the World Organization of Prenatal Education (OMAEP) and the Association of National Prenatal Education (ANEP) Congress, Puerto La Cruz, Venezuela.

Westermann, S. (1996). Die antwort bist du selbst: Whole-Self ein innerer weg Ryvellus. Seehaupt-Munchen, Germany: Medienverlag.

Westermann, S. (2000). Der elternschlussel (The parent-key) entwickelt (based on) von Whole- Self-Methode nach Turner. Beispliele von Pranatalen Pragungen von Verhalten in Beziehungen. International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 12(1): 221-228.

Jon RG & Troya GN Turner-Groot are pioneers in Prebirth Memory Recovery© and CoFounders & Directors of Whole-Self Discovery & Development Institute, Inc. in Grootebroek, The Netherlands. They have published over 40 papers worldwide. For more information, please see: www.Whole-Self.info