Pregnancy

The Effects of Prenatal Yoga on Birth Outcomes: A Systematic Review of the Literature

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Importance There are limited data to demonstrate the potential impact of prenatal yoga on birth outcomes such as maternal comfort, labor duration, and infant gestational age and weight.
Objective To examine the published evidence on prenatal yoga, identify the gaps in this field of study, and to explore avenues for further research.

References: 

References

Beddoe, A. E., Lee, K. A., Weiss, S. J., Kennedy, H. P., & Yang, C. P. (2010). Effects of mindful yoga on sleep in pregnant women: A pilot study. Biological Research for Nursing, 11(4), 363-370.
Beddoe, A. E., Yang, C. P., Kennedy, H. P., Weiss, S. J., & Lee, K. A. (2009). The effects of mindfulness-based yoga during pregnancy on maternal psychological and physical distress. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecological, & Neonatal Nursing, 38, 310-319.
Bijlani, R. L., Vempati, R. P., Yadav, R. K., Ray, R. B., Gupta, V., Sharma, R., . . . Mahapatra, S. C. (2005). A brief but comprehensive lifestyle education program based on yoga reduces risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 11, 267-274.
Chung, S. C., Brooks, M. M., Rai, M., Balk, J. L., & Rai, S. (2012). Effects of sahaja yoga meditation on quality of life, anxiety, and blood pressure control. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 18(6), 589-596.
Chuntharapat, S., Petpichetchian, W., & Hatthakit, U. (2008). Yoga during pregnancy: Effects on maternal comfort, labor pain, and birth outcomes. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 14, 105-115.
Collins, C. (1998). Yoga: Intuition, preventative medicine, and treatment. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecological, & Neonatal Nursing, 27, 563-568.
Curtis, K., Weinrib, A., & Katz, J. (2012). Systematic review of yoga for pregnant women: Current status and future directions. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012 doi:10.1155/2012/715942
Doran, F., & Hornibrook, J. (2013). Women's experiences of participation in a pregnancy and postnatal group incorporating yoga and facilitated group discussion: A qualitative evaluation. Women and Birth, 26, 82-86.
Field, T., Diego, M., Hernandez-Reif, M., Medina, L., Delgado, J., & Hernandez, A. (2012). Yoga and massage therapy reduce prenatal depression and prematurity. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 16, 204-209.
Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Diego, M., Figueiredo, B., Schanberg, S., & Kuhn, C. (2006). Prenatal cortisol, prematurity, and low birth weight. Infant Behavior and Development, 29, 268-275.
Guarracino, J. L., Savino, S., & Edelstein, S. (2006). Yoga participation is beneficial to obesity prevention, hypertension control, and positive quality of life. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 21(2), 108-113.
Javnbakht, M., Kenari, R. H., & Ghasemi, M. (2009). Effects of yoga on depression and anxiety of women. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 15, 102-104.
Kochanek, K. D., Kirmeyer, S. E., Martin, J. A., Strobino, D. M., & Guyer, B. (2012). Annual summary of vital statistics: 2009. Pediatrics, 129, 338-348.
Kristal, A. R., Littman, A. J., Benitez, D., & White, E. (2005). Yoga practice is associated with attenuated weight gain in healthy, middle-aged men and women. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 11(4), 28-33.
Kurki, T., Hiilesmaa, V., Raitasalo, R., Mattila, H., & Ylikorkala, O. (2000). Depression and anxiety in early pregnancy and risk for preeclampsia. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 95(4), 487-490.
Lee, K. A., & Gay, C. L. (2004). Sleep in late pregnancy predicts length of labor and type of delivery. American Journal of Obstetric and Gynecology, 191, 2041-2046.
Mancuso, R. A., Schetter, C. D., Rini, C. M., Roesch, S. C., & Hobel, C. J. (2004). Maternal prenatal anxiety and corticotropin-releasing hormone associated with timing of delivery. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 762-769.
Mulder, E. J. H., Robles de Medina, P. G., Huizink, A. C., Van den Bergh, B. R. H., Buitelaar, J. K., & Visser, G. H. A. (2002). Prenatal maternal stress: Effects on pregnancy and the (unborn) child. Early Human Development, 70, 3-14.
Muzik, M., Hamilton, S. E., Rosenblum, K. L., Waxler, E., & Hadi, Z. (2012). Mindfulness yoga during pregnancy for psychiatrically at-risk women: Preliminary results from a pilot feasibility study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, , 1-6. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2012.06.006
Narendran, S., Nagarathna, R., Narendran, V., Gunasheela, S., & Nagendra, H. R. R. (2005). Efficacy of yoga on pregnancy outcome. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 11(2), 237-244.
Rakhshani, A., Maharana, S., Raghuram, N., Nagendra, H. R., & Venkatram, P. (2010). Effects of integrated yoga on quality of life and interpersonal relationship of pregnant women. Quality of Life Research, 19, 1447-1445.
Rakhshani, A., Nagarathna, R., Mhaskar, R., Mhaskar, A., Thomas, A., Gunasheela, S. (2012).
The effects of yoga in prevention of pregnancy complications in high-risk pregnancies: A randomized controlled trial. Preventative Medicine. 55(4), 333-340.
Satyapriya, M., Nagendra, H. R., Nagarathna, R., & Padmalatha, V. (2009). Effect of integrated yoga on stress and heart rate variability in pregnant women. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 104, 218-222.
Saunders, T. A., Lobel, M., Veloso, C., & Meyer, B. A. (2006). Prenatal maternal stress is associated with delivery analgesia and unplanned cesareans. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 27(3), 141-146.
Smith, C., Hancock, H., Blake-Mortimer, J., & Eckert, K. (2007). A randomised comparative trial of yoga and relaxation to reduce stress and anxiety. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 15, 77-83.
Smith, J. A., Greer, T., Sheets, T., & Watson, S. (2011). Is there more to yoga than exercise? Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 17(3), 22-29.
Sun, Y., Hung, Y., Chang, Y., & Kuo, S. (2010). Effects of a prenatal yoga programme on the discomforts of pregnancy and maternal childbirth self-efficacy in Taiwan. Midwifery, 26, 31-36.
Vempati, R. P., & Telles, S. (2002). Yoga-based guided relaxation reduces sympathetic activity judged from baseline levels. Psychological Reports, 90, 487-494.
Vieten, C., & Astin, J. (2008). Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention during pregnancy on prenatal stress and mood; results of a pilot study. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 11, 67-74.
Weinstock, M. (2005). The potential influence of maternal stress hormones on development and mental health of the offspring. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 19, 296-308.
Yang, C. C. H., Chao, T. C., Kuo, T. B. J., Yin, C. S., & Chen, H. I. (2000). Preeclamptic pregnancy is associated with increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic control of HR. American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 278, 1269-1273.

Prenatal Exposure to Synthetic Oxytocin: Risk to Neurodevelopment?

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Publication Date: 
October 2012

The neurodevelopmental risks of prenatal exposure to synthetic Oxytocin (OXT) during childbirth are relatively unexplored; however, it seems plausible that lifelong consequences could occur. This article expounds upon a pilot study (Kurth & Haussmann, 2011) that posited an association between prenatal OXT exposure and childhood onset of ADHD, suggesting neurodevelopmental disorders may be a consequence of this exposure. Study results, conclusions, and speculative impressions are discussed1.

Thinking the Unthought

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Publication Date: 
July 2012

Some psychoanalytic researches are reviewed here to give an overview of how ideas on prenatal life and psychoanalytic ideas on ego-formation got tentatively together during the last century and the first years of the new century. There is a large bow to Ferenczi who published his long paper Thalassa in 1924 after about ten years of thoughts on it that were shared by Maiello, Hidas and Raffai, and Wilheim. Certainly this bow is incomplete. However, we can see how prenatal life becomes more relevant in psychoanalytic research, too.

References: 

Bianchedi, E.T. de, Antar, L.R., Biancheci, D.M. de, Cortinas, L. P., Neborak, S., Kaplan, A. G., de, … Oelsner, R. (1999). Pre-natals/post-natals: The total personality: A memory of the future / The future of psychoanalysis. Retrieved from http://www.sicap.it/~merciai/bion/papers/bianc2.htm
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Blazy, H. (2006). Dreizehn yahre nach Piontelli “From Fetus to Child.” (Thirteen years after Piontelli From fetus to child) International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 18(1-4), 92-103.
Caruso, I. (1973). Die Bedeutung des pränatalen seelenlebens für die persönlichkeitsentwicklung (The importance of prenatal life for personality development). In Graber, Kruse: Vorgeburtliches Seelenleben (Prenatal Mental Life). Goldmann Medizin Bd. 9038, 65-72.
Ferenczi, S. (1924) Versuch einer genitaltheorie (Attempt at a theory of genitality). In: Balint, M., (Ed) (1972). Schriften zur Psychoanalyse II (Writings on psychoanalysis II), 317-400. Frankfort: S. Fischer.
Ferenczi, S. (1929). Das unwillkommene lind und sein todestrieb (The unwelcome child and his death instinct). In Bausteine zur Psychoanalyse III (Blocks for psychoanalysis III) (1964), 446-452. Bern: Huber.
Freud, S. (1926/1959). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety. New York, London: W.W. Norton.
Gidoni, E.A. (1985) Die continuität zwischen fetalen und postnatalen verhaltensmustern (The continuity between fetal and postnatal behaviour). In Milani Comparetti (Ed). Von der behandlung der krankheit zur sorge um hesundheit: Konzept einer am kind orientierten gesundheitsförderung (Of treating the disease of concern to health: On child-oriented concept of health promotion), 57-64.
Grolnick, S.A., Barking, L., & Muensterberger, W. (1988). Reality and Fantasy: Transitional objects and Phenomena. New York: Jason Aronson.
Grotstein, J.S., (Ed). (1981). Do I dare disturb the universe? A memorial to Wilfred R. Bion. London: Karnac.
Hidas, G. & Raffai, J. (2006). Nabelschnur der seele (Umbilical cord of the soul). Frankfort: Psychosozial-Verlag.
Maiello, S. (2003) Die Bedeutung pränataler auditiver Wahrnehmung und Erinnrerung für die psychische Entwicklung.- eine psychoanalytische Pespektive (The importance of prenatal auditory perception for mental development: A psychoanalytic perspective). In Nöcker-Ribaupierre, M. (Ed), Hören – Brücke ins Leben (Listen – bridge to life). Gottengen: Van den Hoeck & Ruprecht.
Meistermann-Seeger E (1986) Fokaltraining (Brief therapy). Munich: Verlag für angewandte Wissenschaften.
Von Lüpke, H. (1997) Das leben beginnt mit kommunikation: Zur continuität menschlicher entwicklung (Life begins with communication: On the continuity of human development). Wege zum Menschen 49(5), 272-28.
Wilheim, J. (1993). The establishment of early prenatal matrices. Paper given at the 6th International Conference of PPPANA
Wilheim, J. (1995). Unterwegs zur geburt. Eine Brücke zwischen dem Biologischen und dem Psychischen (On the way to birth: A bridge between the biological and mental). Heidelberg: Mattes Verlag
Wilheim, J. (2008). The trauma of conception. In Primitive mental states: A psychoanalytic exploration of the origins of meaning, VanBuren, J., & Alhanti, S. (eds). London: Taylor and Francis.
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Winnicott, D.W. (1961). The effect of psychotic parents on emotional development of the child. British Journal of Psychiatric Social Work, 6(1).
Winnicott, D.W. (1992). Birth Memories, Birth Traumata, and Anxiety. International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 4(1-2), 17-34.

Pregnancy as a Feminine Initiation

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Publication Date: 
July 2012
Pregnancy as a feminine initiation becomes conscious to a woman when she engages with her pregnant imagination through dreams, art, emotions, and somatic changes. If the woman acknowledges her emotional and psychological reactions arising from core archetypal patterns, a “conscious pregnancy” occurs. Three stages of the initiation are outlined: Gateway, Attending, and Passage. Focusing on the Attending stage, three key psychological components are explored: shadow, syzygy, and simultaneity. Viewing the prenatal psyche through C.G.
References: 

Abt, R., Bosch, I., MacKrell, V. (2000). Dream child: Creation and new life in dreams of pregnant women. Switzerland: Daimon Verlag.
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Barone-Chapman, M. (2007). The hunger to fill an empty space: An investigation of primordial affects and meaning-making in the drive to conceive through repeated use of ART. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 52, 479-501.
Barone-Chapman, M. (2011). Pregnant pause: Procreative desire, reproductive technology and narrative shifts at midlife. In Jones, R.A. (Ed.), Body, mind and healing after Jung, 174-191). London: Routledge.
Beane Rutter, V.(1993/2009). Changing woman: feminine psychology re-conceived through myth and experience. New Orleans, LA: Spring Journal Books.
Beane Rutter, V. (2011). Saffron offering and blood sacrifice: Transformation mysteries in Jungian analysis. In Beane Rutter, V. & Singer, T. (Ed.). Ancient Greece, Modern psyche archetypes in the making, 39-83. New Orleans, LA: Spring Journal Books.
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Chodrow, J. (1997). Jung on active imagination. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Côté-Aresenault, D., Brody, D., & Dombeck M. (2009). Pregnancy as a rite of passage: liminality, rituals and communitas. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 24(2), 69-87.
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Jung, C.G. (1998). Jung’s Seminar on Nietzsche’s Zarathustra. (Jarrett, J. Ed.) New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
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Swan-Foster, N. (1989). Images of pregnant women: art therapy as a tool for transformation. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 16(4), 283-292.
Swan-Foster, N. (2010). Pregnancy as a feminine initiation. Unpublished thesis for the Inter-Regional Society of Jungian Analysts.
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The Pre & Perinatal Origins of Childhood and Adult Diseases and Personality Disorders

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Publication Date: 
March 2012

This paper will explore the effects on the unborn and newborn child of psychological stress, depression, and other relevant maternal factors in the pre and perinatal period. Particular attention will be paid to the effects of stress on the organization and function of the fetal brain, on neurohormones, the immune system, personality evolution, as well as on the development of many childhood and adult diseases.

References: 

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Brennan, PA., Grekin, E.R., Mortensen, E.L., & Mednick, SA. (2002). Relationship of maternal smoking during pregnancy with criminal arrest and hospitalization for substance abuse in male and female adult offspring. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(1), 48-54.

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Field, T., Diego, M., Dieter, J. Hernandez-Reif, M., Schanberg, S., Kuhn, C, Kuhn, C, ... Bendell, D. (2004). Prenatal depression effects on the fetus and the newborn. Infant Behaviour and Development, 27, 216-229.

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Hampton, T. (2004). Fetal environment may have profound long-term consequences for health. JAMA, 25;292(11), 1285-1286.

Hay, D.F., Pawlby, S., Waters, CS., Perra, O., & Sharp, D (2010). Mothers' antenatal depression and their children's antisocial outcomes. Child Development, 81(1), 149-165.

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Is Maternal Personality and Coping Style Related to Breech Presentation? Evaluating the Chinese Medicine and Ayurvedic Models of Risk Factors for Breech Presentation

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Publication Date: 
May 2011

We investigated maternal personality characteristics and coping style as potential risk factors for breech presentation in this case-control study. Mothers of cephalic presentation babies (n=72) and mothers of breech presentation babies (n=42) participated in a socio-demographic survey, the State Trait Personality Inventory (STPI), and an in-depth interview. In-depth interview results suggested mothers of breech presentation were more likely to be idealistic, analytical, overextended, and fearful; also less likely to be flexible.

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Overcoming Somatic and Psychological Difficulties: New Experiences from an Integrated Linkage of Obstetrics and Psychotherapy

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Publication Date: 
May 2010

In recent years it has been shown that an integrated linkage of gynecology, obstetrics, and psychotherapy resulted in an astoundingly low rate of premature births among the pregnant women cared for. Many physical problems in pregnancy should be regarded within the entirety of physical and emotional processes.

References: 

Clifford, K., Rai, R., & Regan, L. (1997). Future pregnancy outcome in unexplained recurrent first trimester miscarriage, Human Reproduction, 12 (2), 387-9

Lidell, H.S., Pattison, N.S., & Zanderigo, A. (1991). Recurrent miscarriage - outcome after supportive care in early pregnancy, Austrialian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 31, 320-22, 1991

Linder, R., Ed. (1994). Haus- und Praxisgeburten (Homebirths and MD office births), Mabuse-Verlag, Frankfurt.

Linder, R., Klarck, S., Eds. (1996). Hausgeburten, Praxisgeburten, Geburtshäuser, Entbindungsheime (Homebirths, MD office births, birthing centers and maternity hospital births), Mabuse-Verlag, Frankfurt 1996.

Linder, R., (1997). Psychosoziale Belastung und Frühgeburt: Erfahrungen mit einem psychosomatischen Konzept in der Praxis (Stress and prematurity: experiences with a psychosomatic approach in practice). Archives of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 260(1-4), 71-78.

Linder, R., (2006). How women can carry their unborn babies to term -The prevention of premature birth through psychosomatic methods, Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology & Health, 20(4), 293 - 304.

Linder, R., Ed. (2008). Liebe, Schwangerschaft, Konflikt und Lösung - Erkundungen zur Psychodynamik des Schwangerschaftskonflikts (Love, pregnancy, conflict and resolution - Explorations of the psychodynamics of pregnancy conflict), Mattes Verlag, Heidelberg

Stray-Pederson, B., & Stray-Pedersen, S. (1984). Etiologic factors and subsequent reproductive performance in 195 couples with a prior history of habitual abortion, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 148, 140-146

Mary the Dawn: Ancient European Symbols of Fertility and Pregnancy for Pedagogical Purposes

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Publication Date: 
December 2009
In this paper, I will trace Ancient European Symbols of Pregnancy and Fertility from pre-history to early Christian times. Whether ancient female images represented goddesses or not, is not under discussion here. I will explore the possibility that symbols of pregnancy and fertility take on a purpose beyond self-expression, art, or worship and suggest the plausibility of pedagogical purposes in a pre-literate world. By including symbols, I also hope to show how some the roots of our modern alphabet go back to pre-history, and speak of the sacred sciences of birth.
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Amissah, E. (2008, November 8). West African Images used for pre and perinatal issues . (W. Taylor, Interviewer).

Ansa, T E. (2008, November 21). Ghane se folk traditions. (W Taylor, Interviewer)

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Pregnancy, Childbirth and Postpartum Experiences of Israeli Women in the Negev

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
October 2009
This study of 302 Israeli women was a secondary analysis conducted to: (1) examine the associations between negative pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum experiences; (2) determine whether exposure to childhood sexual abuse, domestic violence and fertility problems are related to reproductive experiences and (3) identify among these variables potential predictors of negative childbirth experiences and postpartum depression (PPD). Pregnancy-related fears increased and prior fertility problems decreased the likelihood of negative childbirth experiences.
References: 

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Alehagen, S., Wijma, B., & Wijma, K. (2006). Pear of childbirth before, during, and after childbirth. Acto Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 85(1), 56-62.

Amir, L. H., & Cwikel, J. (2005). Why do women stop breastfeeding? A closer look at 'not enough milk' among Israeli women in the Negev Region. Breastfeeding Review, 3(3), 7-13.

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Heaman, M., Gupton, A., & Gregory, D. (2004). Factors influencing pregnant women's perceptions of risk. The American Journal of Maternal /Child Nursing, 29(20), 111-116.

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Melender, H-L. (2002). Experiences of fears associated with pregnancy and childbirth: A study of 329 pregnant women. Birth, 29(2), 101-111.

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Nielsen Rorman, D., Videbech, P., Hedegaard, M., Dalby Salvig, J., & Secher, N. J. (2000). Postpartum depression; Identification of women at risk. British Journal of Obsterics and Gynaecology, 107(10), 1210-1217.

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Rich-Edwards, J. (2002). A Ufe course approach to women's reproductive health. In D. Kuh & R. Hardy (Eds.), A life course approach to women's health (pp. 23-43). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Robertson, E., Grace, S., Wallington, T., & Stewart, D. E. (2004). Antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression: A synthesis of recent literature. General Hospital Pychiatry, 26(4), 289-295.

Saisto, T., & Halmesmaki, E, (2003). Pear of childbirth: A neglected dilemma. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 82(3), 201-208.

Saisto, T., Salmela-Aro, K., Nurmi, J. E., & Halmesmaki, E. (2001). Psychosoeial predictors of disappointment with delivery and puerperal depression: A longitudinal study. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, SO(I), 39-45.

Sheiner, E., Levy, A., Tehilla, S. M., Silverberg, D., Katz, M., & Mazor, M. (2004). Maternal obesity as an independent risk factor for caesarean delivery. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 78(3), 196-201.

Soet, J. E., Brack, G. A., & Dilorio, C. (2003). Prevalence and predictors of women's experience of psychological trauma during childbirth. Birth, 30(1), 36-46.

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Tuohy, A., & McVey, C. (2008). Experience of pregnancy and delivery as predictors of postpartum depression. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 73(1), 43 - 47.

Verkerk, G. J., Pop, V. J., Van son, M. J., & Van Heck, G. L. (2003). Prediction of depression in the postpartum period: a longitudinal follow-up study in high-risk and low-risk women. Journal of Affective Disorders, 77(2). 159-166.

Wiener, K L., Parry, B. L., & Piontek, C. M (2002). Postpartum depression. The New England Journal of Medicine, 347(3), 194-199.

A History of the Theory of Prenatal Attachment

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
May 2009
John Bowlby?s theory of human attachment has become widely applied across disciplines and across the stages of human development. This discussion explores the evolution of an application of Bowlby?s theory to the experience of pregnancy, from both maternal and paternal perspectives.
References: 

Ainsworth, M. D., & Wittig, B. A. (1969). Attachment and exploratory behavior of oneyear-olds in a strange situation, in B. M. Ross (Ed.), Determinants of infant behavior (VoL 4, pp. 113-136). London: Methuen.

Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & WaU, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum

Balint, M. (1959). Thrills and repression. London: Hogarth Press.

Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61 , 226-243.

Beck, C. T. (1999). Available instruments for research on prenatal attachment and adaptation to pregnancy. MCN, American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 24(1), 25-32.

Benedek, T. (1959). Parenthood as a developmental phase: A contribution to the libido theory. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 7(JuI), 389-417.

Benedek, T. (1958). Psychological aspects of pregnancy and parent-child relationships, in S. Liebman (Ed.), Emotional Problems in Childhood (pp. 1-16). Oxford, England: Iippincott.

Bibring, G. L. (1959). Some considerations of the psychological processes in pregnancy. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 14, 113-121.

Bibring, G. L., Dwyer, T. R, Huntington, D. S., & Valenstein, A. F. (1961). A study of the psychological processes in pregnancy and of the earliest mother-child relationship. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 16, 9-72.

Blumberg, N. L. (1980). Effects of neonatal risk, maternal attitude, and cognitive style on early postpartum adjustment. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89(2), 139-150.

Borelli, J. L., & David, D. H. (2004). Attachment theory and research as a guide to psychotherapy practice. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 23, 257-287.

Bowlby, J. (1958). The nature of the child's tie to his mother. International Journal of Psycho- Analysis, 39, 350-373.

Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss Volume I: Attachment. New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and Loss Volume II: Separation: Anxiety and Anger. New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Boyce, P., Condón, J., Wilson, J. P., & Raphael, B. (2000). Traumatic childbirth and the role of debriefing. In B. Raphael and J. P. Wilson (Eds.), Psychological debriefing: Theory, practice and evidence (pp. 272-280). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Brandon, A. R., Trivedi, M. H., Hynan, L. S., Miltenberger, P. D., Labat, D. B., Rifkin, J. B., et al. (2008). Prenatal depression in women hospitalized for obstetric risk. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69, 635-643.

Bretherton, I. (1992). The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, 28, 759-775.

Bretherton, I., & Waters, E. (1985). Attachment theory: Retrospect and prospect. In Growing Points of Attachment Theory and Research. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development (pp. 3-35).

BushneU, I. W, Sai, R, & Mullin, J. T. (1989). Neonatal recognition of the mother's face. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 7(1), 3-15.

Cannella, B. L. (2005). Maternal-fetal attachment: an integrative review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 50(1), 60-8.

Carson, K., & Virden, S. (1984). Can prenatal teaching promote maternal attachment? Practicing nurses test Carter-Jessop's prenatal attachment intervention. Health Care for Women International, 5(5-6), 355-69.

Carter-Jessop, L. (1981). Promoting maternal attachment through prenatal intervention. MCN, American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 6, 107-112.

Condon, J. T. (1985). The parental-foetal relationship: A comparison of male and female expectant parents. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 4(4), 271-284.

Condon, J. T. (1986). Management of established pathological grief reaction after stillbirth. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143(8), 987-992.

Condon, J. T. (1993). The assessment of antenatal emotional attachment: Development of a questionnaire instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 66, 167-183.

Condon, J. T., & Corkindale, C. (1997). The correlates of antenatal attachment in pregnant women. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 70, 359-372.

Cranley, M. S. (1979). The impact of perceived stress and social support on maternal-fetal attachment in the third trimester. University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.

Cranley, M. S. (1981a). Development of a tool for the measurement of maternal attachment during pregnancy. Nursing Research, 30, 281-284.

Cranley, M. S. (1981b). Roots of attachment: The relationship of parents with their unborn. Birth Defects: Original Article Series, 17(6), 59-83.

Cranley, M. S. (1992). A critical review of prenatal attachment research. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice, 6(1), 23-26.

Crowell, J., & Waters, E. (2005). Attachment Representations, Secure-Base Behavior, and the Evolution of Adult Relationships: The Stony Brook Adult Relationship Project. [References].

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Doan, H. M., & Zimerman, A. (2003). (Conceptualizing prenatal attachment Toward a multidimensional view Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 18(2), 109-129.

Farber, B. A., Lippert, R. A., & Nevas, D. B. (1995). The therapist as attachment figure. Psychotherapy, 32, 204-212.

Feeney, J. A., Noller, R, & Patty, J. (1994). Assessing adult attachment. In M. B. Sperling & W H. Berman (Eds.), Attachment in adults: Clinical and developmental perspectives (pp. 128-152). New York: Guilford.

Fifer, W P. (2002). The fetus, the newborn, and the mother's voice. In J. Gomes-Pedro, J. K. Nugent, J. G. Young, & T. B. Brazelton (Eds.). The infant and the family in the twenty-first century (pp. 79-85). New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Fonagy, P., Steele, H., & Steele, M. (1991). Maternal representations of attachment during pregnancy predict the organization of infant-mother attachment at one year of age. Child Development, 62, 891-905.

Fowles, E. (1996). Relationships among prenatal maternal attachment, presence of postnatal depressive symptoms, and maternal role attainment. Journal of Society of Perinatal Nursing, 1, 75-82.

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