Life: How Experience in the Womb Can Affect Our Lives Forever

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Publication Date: 
March 2009

ABSTRACT:?Until we re-direct our focus earlier, we shall never solve these human problems.? Dr. Arthur Janov explains this position in his article and describes how the psychophysiological effects of events that occur during the first nine months influence the lifespan. Clearly focusing on the womb is a shift in his Primal theory. This change proposes the importance of healing prenatal imprints to more clearly see their widespread cumulative and enduring effects. ?It means that how the birth trauma is played out, and reacted to, depends on earlier life circumstances?womb-life.?

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Nyberg, K., Buka, S. L., & Lipsitt, L. P. (2000). Perinatal medication as a potential risk factor for adult drug abuse in a North American cohort. Epidemiology, 11(6), 715-716.

Phillips, D. I. W., & Jones, A. (2006). Fetal programming of autonomic and HPA function: do people who were small babies have enhanced stress responses? Journal of Physiology, 572(1), 45-50.

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The Possible Prenatal Origins of Morbid Obesity

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Publication Date: 
December 2008
The rapidly developing science of pre-birth psychology is casting a new light on some old problems. One such is morbid obesity, some aspects of which can possibly be explained in the light of prenatal theory. This article sets out the hypothesis that firstly, obesity may represent a self-destructive personal choice. Secondly, there may be a psychological reason why the possibly fatal consequences of that choice are largely ignored by the obese person. Thirdly, the choice and its consequences comprise a style of eating behaviour that seems to re-construct a particular pre-birth experience.
References: 

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The Interactional Model of Maternal-Fetal Attachment: An Empirical Analysis

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Publication Date: 
October 2008

An Interactional Model of Maternal-Fetal Attachment was empirically studied to analyze contributions of fetal characteristics and psychoanalytic and ecological components. Ninety-nine women during their third trimester were administered questionnaires about themselves, their environment, and their fetus to identify predictors of maternal-fetal attachment. Whether the woman knew the fetus? gender and fetal age were the best predictors of the strength of maternal-fetal attachment.

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Doan, H. McK. & Zimerman, A. (2003). Conceptualizing prenatal attachment: toward a multidimensional view. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 18(2), 109-129.

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Prenatal Attachment and Postnatal Infant Sleep

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Related Content:: 
Publication Date: 
October 2008

This study examined the relationship between maternal prenatal attachment and postnatal infant sleep. Ninety first-time pregnant mothers, between 35 and 40 gestational weeks, completed the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (M?ller, 1989), which consists of 21 items and assesses the mother?s prenatal attachment to her fetus. After the birth of their infant, the mothers charted their infant?s sleep for three consecutive 24-hour periods when the infant was 1 week and 3 months old, using the Sleep/Activity Record (Barnard, 1999).

References: 

Anders, T. F. (1994). Infant sleep, nighttime relationships, and attachment. Psychiatry, 57, 11-21.

Anders, T. F., Goodlin-Jones, B. L., & Sadeh, A. (2000). Sleep disorders. In C. H. Zeanah (Ed.), Handbook of Infant Mental Health (2nd ed., pp. 326-338). New York: Guilford Press.

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Anisfeld, E., & Lipper, E. (1983). Early contact, social support, and mother-infant bonding. Pediatrics, 72(1), 79-83.

Barnard, K. E. (1999). Beginning rhythms: The emerging process of sleep wake behaviors and self-regulation. Seattle: NCAST, University of Washington.

Benoit, D., Parker, K. C., & Zeanah, C. H. (1997). Mothers' representations of their infants assessed prenatally: Stability and association with infants' attachment classification. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(3), 307-313.

Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H., Boucher, C., & Minde, K. K. (1992). Sleep disorders in early childhood: Association with insecure maternal attachment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31(1), 86-93.

Condon, J. T. (1993). The assessment of antenatal emotional attachment: Development of a questionnaire instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 66, 167-183.

Condon, J. T., & Corkindale, C. (1997). The correlates of antenatal attachment in pregnant women. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 70, 359-372.

Cranley M. S. (1981). Development of a tool for the measurement of maternal attachment during pregnancy. Nursing Research, 30(5), 281-284.

Escallier, L. A. (1995). Prenatal predictors of colic: Maternal-fetal attachment, maternal state anxiety and maternal hope. Unpublished Dissertation, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY.

Field, T. (1995). Infants of depressed mothers. Infant Behavior and Development, 18, 1-13.

Fleming, A. S., Ruble, D. N., Flett, G. L., & Van Wagner, V. (1990). Adjustment in first-time mothers: Changes in mood and mood content during the early postpartum months. Developmental Psychology, 26(1), 137-143.

Fuller, J. R. (1990). Early patterns of maternal attachment. Health Care for Women International, 11, 433-446.

Gaffney K. F. (1986). Maternal-fetal attachment in relation to self-concept and anxiety. Maternal-Child Nursing Journal, 15(2), 91-101.

George, C., Kaplan, N., & Main, M. (1985). The Adult Attachment Interview. Unpublished manuscript, University of California: Berkley.

Ingerson, E. W., & Thoman, E. B. (1999). Sleep/wake states of preterm infants: Stability, developmental change, diurnal variation, and relations with caregiving activity. Child Development, 70(1), 1-10.

Jones, N. A., Field, T., Fox, N. A., Lundy, B., & Davalos, M. ( 1997). EEG activation in 1-month-old infants of depressed mothers. Development and Psychopathology 9, 491-505.

Keener, M. A., Zeanah, C. H., & Anders, T. F. (1988). Infant temperament, sleep organization, and nighttime parental interventions. Pediatrics, 81(6), 762-771.

Kemp, V. H., & Page, C. K. (1987). Maternal prenatal attachment in normal and high-risk pregnancies. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 16, 179-184.

Koniak-Griffin, D. (1988). The relationship between social support, self-esteem, and maternal-fetal attachment in adolescents. Research in Nursing & Health, 11, 269-278.

Leifer, M. (1977). Psychological changes accompanying pregnancy and motherhood. Genetic Psychological Monographs, 95, 55-96.

Levy-Shiff, R., Dimitrovsky, L., Shulman, S., & Har-Even, D. (1998). Cognitive appraisals, coping strategies, and support resources as correlates of parenting and infant development. Developmental Psychology, 34(6), 1417-1427.

Lindgren, K. (2001). Relationships among maternal-fetal attachment, prenatal depression, and health practices in pregnancy. Research in Nursing & Health, 24, 203-217.

Mercer, R. T., Ferketich, S., May, K., DeJoseph, J., & Sollid, D. (1988). Further exploration of maternal and paternal fetal attachment. Reseach in Nursing and Health, 11, 89-95.

Müller, M. E. (1992). A critical review of prenatal attachment research. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice: An International Journal, 6(1), 5-26.

Müller, M. E. (1993). Development of the prenatal attachment inventory. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 15(2), 199-215.

Müller, M. E. (1996). Prenatal and postnatal attachment: A modest correlation. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 25, 161-166.

Müller, M. E., & Ferketich, S. (1992). Assessing the validity of the dimensions of prenatal attachment. Maternal-Child Nursing Journal, 20(1), 1-10.

Rubin, R. (1984). Maternal identity and the maternal experience. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Sher, A. (2001). Attachment and sleep: A study of night waking in 12 -month-old infants. Developmental Psychobiology, 38, 274-285.

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Siddiqui, A., Hägglöf, B., & Eisemann, M. (1999). An exploration of prenatal attachment in Swedish expectant women. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 17(4), 369-380.

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Tikotzky L., & Sadeh, A. (2001). Sleep patterns and sleep disruptions in kindergarten children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30(4), 581-591.

Trad, P. V. (1991). Adaptation to developmental transformations during the various phases of motherhood. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 19(3), 403-421.

Wachter, M. P. K. (2002). Psychological distress and dyadic satisfaction as predictors of maternal-fetal attachment. Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago.

Zachariah, R. (1994). Maternal-fetal attachment: Influence of mother-daughter and husband-wife relationships. Research in Nursing and Health, 17, 37-44.

Zeanah, C. H., Benoit, D., Hirshberg, L., Barton, M. L., & Regan, C. (1994). Mothers' representations of their infants are concordant with infant attachment classifications. Developmental Issues in Psychiatry and Psychology, 1, 1-14.

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Role of Maternal Reflective Ability for Substance Abusing Mothers

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Publication Date: 
October 2008

This paper reports on a study designed to explore factors contributing to better outcomes for substance abusing pregnant and parenting women in residential treatment, and, as a result, contribute to better outcomes for their children. The setting was three live-in units focusing in supporting both abstinence from substances and mother-child relationship. Participants were 18 mother-baby pairs in treatment from perinatal phase to 4 months of child's age.

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Recreating Ourselves: Ground-Breaking Research for a New Humanity

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Publication Date: 
May 2008

The intention of this paper is to introduce interdisciplinary research challenging the foundations of self-growth fields and leading to the birth of a new humanity. The paper briefly summarizes relevant literature and introduces new adult verbal and nonverbal typologies with origins in four key preverbal developmental stages (conception, prenatal, birth and bonding). Interdisciplinary contributing fields included are embryology, neurobiology, attachment theory, body-centered psychotherapy, somatic psychology, and prenatal and perinatal psychology.

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The Alchemical Dance of Mother and Infant: A Blueprint for Co-Creative Dyadic Unity During the Prenatal and Perinatal Period

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Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
October 2007

This theoretical dissertation considered the biological and psychologicalimportance of the dance between mother and infant from conception through the bonding period. It proposed a unifying dance metaphor of pre- and perinatal motherinfant alchemical dance to provide a psychological term describing their first organizing co-creative dynamics. The process of alchemical dance is postulated to be Nature?s blueprint for the initial creational unfolding of human development.

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The Factor Structure of the Cambridge Worry Scale in Early Pregnancy

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October 2005

The current study sought to establish the psychometric properties of the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in early pregnancy to determine the potential clinical usefulness of the sub-scales that comprise this measure. The CWS was administered to 129 women during early pregnancy at the antenatal booking clinic. Factor analysis revealed support for the socio-medical, health, socio-economic and relationships subscale domains. The CWS sub-scales were observed to assess dimensions distinct to those of anxiety and depression.

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Jomeen, J. & Martin, C.R. (20046). Is the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) a reliable screening tool in early pregnancy? Psychology and Health, in press.

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Martin, C.R., Tweed, A.E. & Metcalfe, M.S. (2004). A psychometric evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients diagnosed with end-stage renal disease. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 51-64.

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O'Connor, T.G., Heron, J., Golding, J., Beveridge, M., it Glover, V. (2002). Maternal antenatal anxiety and children's behavioural/emotional problems at 4 years: report form the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 502-508.

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Rubertsson, C., Waldenstrom, U. & Wickberg, B. (2003). Depressive mood in early pregnancy: Prevalence and women at risk in a national Swedish sample. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 21, 113-123.

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Julie Jomeen and Colin R. Martin

Department of Health Studies, University of Leeds, United Kingdom

Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China.

Send correspondence to: Professor Colin R. Martin, Faculty of Medicine, The Nethersole School of Nursing, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Esther Lee Building, Chung Chi College, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. Tel: +852 2609 8172. Fax: 4852 2603 5269. E-mail: colinmartin@cuhk.edu.hk

Tobacco Abuse in Pregnancy

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Publication Date: 
December 2002

Nicotine Tobacum with its 4,000 additives remains the most injurious addiction to the pregnant woman and her baby. At the discovery of being pregnant 60% of women will quit and 40% will continue throughout the pregnancy. For those 40% tobacco's chemicals will be absorbed into mother's blood, and the baby will be bathed in these toxins. There will be 144,000 spontaneous abortions (approximately 14.6% of all pregnancies), a weight deficit of almost one pound, a loss of 50 I.Q. points in the baby, and affective disorders programmed in the innocent fetus.

References: 

Baker, T.B., et al. (1999). Hooked on a feeling. Sc. News. 155, 395.

Brennan, P.A., Gerkin, E.R., & Mednick, S.A. (1999). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult male criminal outcomes. Arch. Gen. Psych. 56, 215-219.

Dwyer, T. (1999). SIDS linked to fetal exposure to maternal smoking. Am. J. Epidem. 149: 593-602.

Excite Health (1999). Tobacco use-smoking and smokeless tobacco. Internet, p. 6.

Ferguson, D.M. (1999). Editorial comment: Prenatal smoking and anti-social behavior. Arch. Gen. Psych. 56, 223-224.

Ferguson, D.M., Woodard, L.J., & Horwood, L.J. (1998). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and psychiatric adjustment in late adolescence. Arch. Gen. Psych. 55, 721-727.

Gruenwald, J., Brendler, T., & Jaenicke, C. (1998). PDR [Physicians Desk Reference] Nicotiana Tabacum. New Jersey: Medical Economics Comp.

Hammond, E.G. (1961). Smoking in relation to physical complaints. Arch. Envir. Health, 3, 28-46.

Hanrahan, J.P., Mascola, M., McGreevey, S., Van Yunaicus, H., Tagar, I.B., & Speizer, F.E. (1998). 10-year study of Cotinine as marker for tobacco use. Am. J. P. H.

Harmon, C. (1994). Prenatal fetal monitoring. In D.K. James, P.J. Steer, L.P. Weiner, & B. Gonik (Eds.) High Risk Pregnancy. W.B. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Co.

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James, D.K., Steer, P.J., Weiner, L.P., & Gonik, B. (Eds.) (1994). High Risk Pregnancy. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co.

Kasmel, W.B. (1987). Metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease in women: Farmington study. Am. Heart J. 114, 413-419.

Kline, J., Stein, Z.A., Susser, M., & Warburton, N. (1977). Smoking: a risk factor for spontaneous abortion. New England Journal of Medicine, 297, 793-796.

Mascola, M.A., Van Vunakis, H., & Tager, LB. (1998). Breast-feeding may be a significant source of infant's exposure to tobacco products. Am. J. P. H. June.

Meyer, M., & Tonascia, R. (1977). Maternal smoking, pregnancy complications, preterm rupture of the bag of waters before 34 weeks and perinatal mortality. Am. J. Ob/G 128, 494.

Millberger, S., Biederman, J., Faraone, S.V., Chen, L., & Jones, J. (1996). Is maternal smoking during pregnancy a risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children? Am. J. Psych. 153, 1138-1142.

Nathanielsz, P.W. (1999). Life in the womb: the origin of health and disease. Ithaca, New York: Promethean Press.

Rosh, D., Andrew, J., & Kiristal, A. (1990). Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy: adiposity, social class and perinatal outcome in Cardiff Wales (1965-1977). Am. J. Perinatology 7, 391-326.

Rotarian (editorial) (1999). Young smokers lighting up in record numbers. The Rotarian. May. p. 12.

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Socol, M.L., Mennig, F.A., Mirata, V., & Drusin, M.L. (1982). Maternal smoking causes fetal hypoxia: epidemological evidence. Am. J. ObG 142, 114-218.

Stirrat, G. (1994), Recurrent miscarriage. In D.K. James, P.J. Steer, L.P. Weiner, & B. Gonik (Eds.) High Risk Pregnancy. W.B. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Co.

Thompson, C. (1993-1998). How the anti-smokers lie about neonatal costs and smoking. Smoker's Rights Action Group, Sc. News, Internet site.

Wakschlag, L.S., Lahey, B.B., Loeber, R., Green, S.M., Gordon, R.A., & Leventhal, B.L. (1997). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of conduct disorders in boys. Arch. Gen. Psych. 54, 670-676.

Williams, M.A., Mittendorf, R., Lisbern, E., Monson, P.R., Schoenbaum, S.C., & Genest, D.R., (1991). Cigarette smoking during pregnancy in relation to placenta previa. Am J. ObG 165, 28-32.

Robert J. Oliver, M.D., Ph.D.

Robert J. Oliver, M.D., Ph.D. is a retired Obstetrician and Gynecologist. Also a Sexologist/Gestalt Psychotherapist, he currently resides hi Arizona. Correspondence about this article may be sent to 3734 East 4th Street, Tucson, Arizona 85716. Email: docroliver@aol.com.

The Origin of Anxiety: A Synopsis

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Publication Date: 
December 2002

For thousands of years, in all developed societies throughout the world, mothers have been separated from their babies-as an emotional adaptation to a life of alienation. The first advanced civilizations which can relate this to us are the Sumerians-and their successors the Babylonians. Five thousand years ago they developed the cuneiform writing system and then recorded the oldest stories in the world. I understand their mythology as the 'great dreams' of these peoples.

References: 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Renggli, Franz 1974: Angst und Geborgenheit. Soziokulturelle Folgen der Mutter-Kind Beziehung im ersten Lebensjahr. Ergebnisse aus Verhaltensforschung, Psychoanalyse und Ethnologie. Hamburg. (*Anxiety and security. Socio-cultural consequences of the mother-child relationship in the first year. Findings from behavioral research, psychoanalysis and ethnology.)

Renggli, Franz 1992: Selbstzerstorung aus Verlassenheit. Die Pest als Ausbruch einer Massenpsychose im Mittelalter. Zur Geschichte der friihen Mutter-Kind Beziehung. Hamburg. (*Self-destruction due to Abandonment. The Plague as an eruption of a mass psychosis in the Middle Ages. On the history of the early mother-child relationship).

Renggli, Franz 2000: Der Sonnenaufgang als Geburt eines Babys. Der pranatale Schlussel zur agyptischen Mythologie. Eine Hommage an den hollandischen Religionshistoriker Bruno Hugo Stricker. (**The sunrise as the birth of a baby. The prenatal key to Egyptian mythology. Homage to the Dutch historian of religion Bruno Hugo Stricker.) In: The International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, Band 12:365-82.

Renggli, Franz 2001: Der Ursprung der Angst, antike Mythen und das Trauma der Geburt. Dusseldorf. (*The origin of anxiety, ancient myths and the trauma of birth.)
Renggli, Franz 2002: Tracing the Roots of Panic to Prenatal Trauma. In Brooke Warner (Editor): Panic: Origins, Insight and Treatment. Berkeley, California, North Atlantic Books.
Franz Renggli, Ph.D.

This paper is the first synopsis in English in which the author, Franz Renglli, introduces the major themes of his scholarly work published in German in 2001: Der Ursprung der Angst, antike Mythen und das Trauma der Geburt (The Origin of Anxiety, Ancient Myths and the Trauma of Birth). The German edition was published in Dusseldorf. Correspondence to: Dr. Franz Renggli, psychoanalyst and body psychotherapist, Nonnenweg 11, 4055 Basel, Switzerland. Email: the_nyfelers@bluewin.ch.

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