Qualitative

The Best and Worst Time of My Life: The Lived Experience and Meaning of Pregnancy in Women with Mild to Moderate Depression

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Publication Date: 
March 2010
The notion that pregnancy can, for some women, be a time of unhappiness and depression has only recently been recognized in media and by the general public. Although researchers and clinicians have begun to study antenatal depression with regards to prevalence, associated factors, and treatment approaches and outcomes, less is known about women?s lived experience of this phenomenon. A hermeneutic phenomenological study was conducted with six pregnant women who scored 10, 11, or 12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, indicating mild to moderate symptoms of depression.
References: 

Adouard, F., Glangeaud-Freudenthal, N. M. C., & Golse, B. (2005). Validation of the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale in a sample of women with high-risk pregnancies in France. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 8(2), 89-95.

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Arendell, T. (2000). Conceiving and investigating motherhood: The decade's scholarship. Journal of marriage and family, 62(4), 1192-1207.

Armstrong, T. M., & Pooley, J. A. (2005). Being pregnant: A qualitative study of women's lived experience of pregnancy. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 20 (1), 4-24.

Belgaumkar, A. (2001). I'm not alone: Experiences of social support during pregnancy and postpartum among adolescent women. (Masters Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, 2001).

Bender, S. S. (2008). Three cases of adolescent childbearing decision-making: The importance of ambivalence. Adolescence, 43 (172), 861-880.

Bennett, H. A., Einarson, A., Taddio, A., Koren, G., & Einarson, T. R. (2004). Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: Systematic review. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 103, 698-709.

Bowen, A., Stewart, N., Baetz, M., & Muhajarine, N. (2009). Antenatal depression in socially high-risk women in Canada. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 63, 414-416.

Gausia, K., Fisher, C., Aigin, S., & Oosthuizen, J. (2007). Validation of the Bangla version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for a Bangladeshi sample. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 25(4), 308-315.

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A Journey of Love: The Influence of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology on Parent-Child Bonding

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Publication Date: 
October 2007

The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to better understand parents? experiences of bonding with their babies in utero and after birth, and to discover the relevance of a prenatal and perinatal psychology (PPN) based bonding class in this process. Five couples were recruited from prenatal parenting classes in Santa Barbara, CA, and interviewed in person 2-6 months after giving birth.

References: 

Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Barrack, A. C. (2004). [Influence of prenatal and perinatal psychology on parent-child bonding]. Unpublished raw data.

Barrack, A. C. (2005). A journey of love: The influence of prenatal and perinatal psychology on parent-child bonding. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Santa

Barbara Graduate Institute, CA.

Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.

Chamberlain, D. (2003). Communicating with the mind of a prenate: Guidelines for parents and birth professionals. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 18(2), 95-108.

Ciechanowski, P. S., Walker, E. A., Katon, W. J., & Russo, J. E. (2002). Attachment theory: A model for health care utilization and somatization. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 660-667.

Emerson, W. R. (1996). The vulnerable prenate. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 10(3), 125-142.

Hrdy, S. B. (1999). Mother nature: Maternal instincts and how they shape the human species. New York: Ballantine Books.

Karen, R. (1994). Becoming attached. New York: Oxford University Press.

Karmiloff, K., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1999). Everything your baby would ask...if only he or she could talk. New York: Golden Books.

Karr-Morse, R., & Wiley, M. (1997). Ghosts from the nursery: Tracing the roots of violence. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.

Kennell, J. H., & Klaus, M. H. (1984). Mother-infant bonding: Weighing the evidence. Developmental Review, 4, 274-282.

Kitzinger, S. (2003). The complete book of pregnancy and childbirth. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

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Lawrence-Lightfoot, S., & Davis, J. H. (1997). The art and science of portraiture. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Luminare-Rosen, C. (2003). Birth, brain, and bonding: The psychology and science of attachment. Paper presented at the Association for Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, San Francisco, CA.

Lyons-Ruth, K., Easterbrooks, M. A., & Cibelli, D. D. (1997). Infant attachment strategies, infant mental lag, and maternal depressive symptoms: Predictors of internalizing and externalizing problems at age 7. Developmental Psychology, 33(4), 681-692.

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Main, M. (1991). Metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive monitoring, and singular (coherent) vs. multiple (incoherent) models of attachment: Findings and directions for future research. In C. M. Parkes, J. Stevenson-Hinde, & P. Marris (Eds.), Attachment across the life cycle. London: Routledge.

McCarty, W. A. (1996, 2000). Being with babies: What babies are teaching us, an introduction, 1. Santa Barbara, CA: Wondrous Beginnings.

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Panksepp, J. (2001). The long-term psychobiological consequences of infant emotions: Prescriptions for the twenty-first century. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22(1-2), 132-173.

Schore, A. N. (2000). Attachment and the regulation of the right brain. Attachment & Human Development, 2(1), 23-47.

Schore, A. N. (2002). The neurobiology of attachment and early personality organization. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 16(3), 249-263.

Sears, W, & Sears, M. (2001). The attachment parenting book. Boston: Little, Brown.

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Siegel, D. J., & Hartzell, M. (2003). Parenting from the inside out. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam.

Sroufe, L. A., Cooper, R. G., DeHart, G. B., & Marshall, M. (Eds.). (1996). Child development: Its nature and its course (3rd éd.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Taylor, S. J., & Bogdan, R. (1998). Introduction to qualitative research methods (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley.

Trevathan, W. R. (1987). Human birth: An evolutionary perspective. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.

Tsujino, J., Higa, M. O., Eng, D., & Inuihara, T. (2002). Specificity of a mother's attachment to her child using the attachment inventory and factors related to attachment: Longitudinal research from prenatal to age three. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 17(1), 63-84.

van Manen, M. (2002). Orientations in phenomenology. Retrieved July 1, 2004, from http://www.phenomenologyonline.com

Verny, T., & Weintraub, P. (2002). Tomorrow's baby. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Watson, M., & Ecken, L. (2003). Learning to trust. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Willford, R. A. (1998). The impact of prenatal education on parenting. Dissertation Abstracts International. 36(5). (UMI No. 1390160).