The “Nightmare” of Childbirth: The Prevalence and Predominant Predictor Variables for Tokophobia in American Women of Childbearing Age by Kathy E. Greathouse

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Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
Sep 2016

Tokophobia (fear of childbirth) may interfere with a woman’s occupational or academic functioning, domestic and social activities, and even relationships. This study introduced the concept of tokophobia into the American landscape, established a baseline prevalence of tokophobia among 174 American women between the ages of 17 and 45 who had not experienced childbirth, and identified tokophobic predictor variables and demographic variables for tokophobia.

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This study introduced the concept of tokophobia into the American landscape.

Views on Medical and Natural Birth in University Women and Men by Soliday & Mammenga

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Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
Sep 2015

In the U.S. and other industrialized nations, the prevailing childbirth approach has been described as medicalized, a view in which safe birth is characterized as requiring specialized intervention. From the perspective that birth attitudes are largely enculturated, we assessed medical and natural birth attitudes among 1,467 nulliparous university women and men, expecting that pre-parents would endorse medical more strongly than natural birth attitudes. We analyzed data in subgroups categorized by sex, race, and future childbearing plans.

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From the perspective that birth attitudes are largely enculturated, the researchers assessed medical and natural birth attitudes among 1,467 nulliparous university women and men,

Pain in Childbirth, Maternal Care, and Mind Development: A Review

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Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
Sep 2010

In recent decades perinatal clinical psychology and infant research has shown how neurological maturation of the newborn and infant brain is due to learning from maternal care: properties of baby’s mind development are conditioned by maternal care, and the baby’s primary mental development conditions the future child and adult mental development. Research has also shown that maternal care may be modulated by childbirth pain. The experience of pain may increase and enrich maternal care, and its suppression may depress the mother’s ability in maternal care.

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Regalia, A., & Bestetti, A. (2006). Dolore fisiologico, dolore patologico, dolore iatrogeno. Qualità del dolore e esperienza delle donne (Physiological pain, pathological pain, iaotrogenic pain: The quality of pain and the experience of women). In G.B. La Scala, V. Iori, F. Mori, & P.G. Fagandini (Eds.). La normale complessità del venire al mondo (The normal complexity of coming to the world). Milano: Guerini.

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Symptoms of Postpartum PTSD and Expressive Writing: A Prospective Study

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
Oct 2009
Research studies on post-partum PTSD have highlighted that the experience of childbirth can be traumatic in itself because it often involves fear, pain, impotence and non-expressed negative emotions. This study hypothesized that mental processing post-partum emotions, through Pennekaber?s expressive writing (EW) method, can reduce short- and long-term posttraumatic symptoms. The sample was of 242 women (mean age=31.5; SD=4) of whom 120 performed the EW-task and 122 were not asked to write.
References: 

Abramowitz, J. S., Schwartz, S. A., Moore, K M., & Luenzmann, K R. (2003). Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in pregnancy and the puerperium: A review of the literature. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 17, 461-478.

Affleck, G., Tennen, H., & Rowe, J. (1991). Infant in crisis: how parents cope with newborn intensive care and its aftermath. New York: Springer-Verlag.

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Ayers, S., & Pickering, A. D. (2001). Do women get posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth? A prospective study of incidence. Birth, 28(2), 111-118.

Ballard, C. G., Stanley, A. K, & Brockington, I. E (1995). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 525-528.

Beck, A. T, Emery, G. A., & Greenberg, R L. (1985). Anxiety disorders and phobias: A cognitive perspective. New York: Basic Books.

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Bydlowsky, M., & Raul-Duval, A. (1978). Un avatar psychique méconnu de la puepéralité: La névrose traumatic post-obstétricale. Perspectives Psychiatriques, 4, 321-8.

Creedy, D. K. (1999). Postnatal depression and posttraumatic stress disorder: What are the links? Birth, 8, 125-130.

Greedy, D. K, Shochet, I. M., & Horsfall, J. (2000). Childbirth and the development of acute trauma symptoms: Incidence and contributing factors. Birth, 27(2), 104-111.

Czarnocka, J., & Slade, P. (2000). Prevalence and predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 35-41.

DeMier, R. L., Hynan, M. T, Harris, H. B., & MannieUo, R. L. (1996). Perinatal Stressors as predictors of symptoms of posttraumatic stress in mother and infants at high-risk. Journal of Perinatology, 16, 276-280.

Di Blasio, P. & Ionio, C. (2002). Childbirth and narratives: How do mothers deal with their childbirth? Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 17(2), 143-151.

Di Blasio, P. & Ionio, C. (2005). Postpartum stress symptoms and child temperament: A follow-up study. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 19(3), 185-198.

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Lepore, S. (1997). Expressive writing moderates the relation between intrusive thoughts and depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1030-1037.

Matthey, S., Barnett, B., Howie, P., & Kavanagh, D. J. (2003). Diagnosing postpartum depression in mothers and fathers: Whatever happened to anxiety? Journal of Affective Disorders, 74, 139-147.

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Soet, J. E., Brack, G. A., & Dilorio, C. (2003). Prevalence and predictors of women's experience of psychological trauma during childbirth. Birth, 30, 36-46.

van Son, M., Verkerk, G., van der Hart, O., Komproe, L, & Pop, V. (2005). Prenatal depression, mode of delivery and perinatal dissociation as predictors of postpartum posttraumatie stress: An empirical study. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 72,297-312.

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Wijma, K., Wijma, B., & Soderquist, M. A. (1997). Psychometric aspects of the W-DEQ; a new questionnaire for the measurement of fear of childbirth. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetric and Gynecologic, 77(6), 587-597.

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Pregnancy, Childbirth and Postpartum Experiences of Israeli Women in the Negev

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
Oct 2009
This study of 302 Israeli women was a secondary analysis conducted to: (1) examine the associations between negative pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum experiences; (2) determine whether exposure to childhood sexual abuse, domestic violence and fertility problems are related to reproductive experiences and (3) identify among these variables potential predictors of negative childbirth experiences and postpartum depression (PPD). Pregnancy-related fears increased and prior fertility problems decreased the likelihood of negative childbirth experiences.
References: 

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Alehagen, S., Wijma, B., & Wijma, K. (2006). Pear of childbirth before, during, and after childbirth. Acto Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 85(1), 56-62.

Amir, L. H., & Cwikel, J. (2005). Why do women stop breastfeeding? A closer look at 'not enough milk' among Israeli women in the Negev Region. Breastfeeding Review, 3(3), 7-13.

Ballard, C. G., Stanley, A. K., & Brockington, I. P. (1995). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. British Journal of Psychiatry, 766(4), 525-528.

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Bleich, A., Gelkopf, M., & Solomon, Z. (2003). Exposure to terrorism, stress -related mental health symptoms, and coping behaviors among a nationally representative sample in Israel. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 290(5), 612-620.

Bloch, M., Rotenberg, D., Koren, E., & KIien, E. (2006). Risk factors associated with the development of postpartum mood disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, SS(I), 9 -18.

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Cwikel, J., & Barak, N. (2002). The health and welfare of Bedouin Arab women in the Negev. Beer-Sheva: The Center of Women's Heath Studies and Promotion, BenGurion University of the Negev.

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Cwikel, J., & Segal-Engelchin, D. (2005). Implications of ethnic group origin for Israeli women's mental health. Journal of Immigrant Health, 7(3), 133-143.

Dankner, R., Goldberg, R. P., Fisch, R Z., & Crum, R. M. (2000). Cultural elements of postpartum depression: A study of 327 Jewish Jerusalem women. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 45(2), 97-104.

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Eilat-Ts anani, S., A. Merom, Romano, S., Reshef, ?., Lavi, L, & Tabenkin, H. (2006). The effect of postpartum depression on women's consultations with physicians. The Israel Medicine Association Journal, 8(6), 406-10.

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Halbreich, U., & Karkun, S. (2006). Cross-cultural and social diversity of prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms. Journal of Affective Disorders, 91(2), 97-111.

Hauck, Y., Fenwick, J., Downie, J., & Butt, J. (2007). The influence of childbirth expectations on Western Australian women's perceptions of their birth experience. Midwifery, 23(3), 235-247.

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Heimstad, R., Dahloe, R., Laache, L, Skogvoll, E., & Schei, B. (2006). Fear of childbirth and history of abuse: implications for pregnancy and delivery. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 85(4), 435-440.

Heron, J., O'Connor, T., Evans, J., Golding, J., Glover, V. and the ALSPAC Study Team. (2004). The course of anxiety and depression through pregnancy and the postpartum in a community sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, SO(I), 65-73.

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Matthey, S., Henshaw, C., Elliot, S., & Baraett, B. (2006). Variability in use of cut-off scores and formats on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale- implication for clinical and research practice. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 9(6), 300- 315.

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Robertson, E., Grace, S., Wallington, T., & Stewart, D. E. (2004). Antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression: A synthesis of recent literature. General Hospital Pychiatry, 26(4), 289-295.

Saisto, T., & Halmesmaki, E, (2003). Pear of childbirth: A neglected dilemma. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 82(3), 201-208.

Saisto, T., Salmela-Aro, K., Nurmi, J. E., & Halmesmaki, E. (2001). Psychosoeial predictors of disappointment with delivery and puerperal depression: A longitudinal study. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, SO(I), 39-45.

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Soet, J. E., Brack, G. A., & Dilorio, C. (2003). Prevalence and predictors of women's experience of psychological trauma during childbirth. Birth, 30(1), 36-46.

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Childbirth and Narratives: How Do Mothers Deal with Their Child's Birth?

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
Dec 2002

This research focuses on post traumatic stress disorders which arise after childbirth and adds to the literature on psychological post partum diseases. The hypothesis of this study was that psychological expression of negative emotions could reduce the occurrence of stress symptoms after labour and delivery. A group of 64 women with a healthy pregnancy was examined. Half of them were asked to express their emotion experienced during labour and delivery through a written account.

References: 

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th edition). Washington, DC: Author.

Affleck G., Tennen H., Rowe J. (1991). Infant in crisis: how parents cope with newborn intensive care and its aftermath. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Appleby L., Gregoire A., Platz C., Prince M., Kumar R. (1994). Screening women for high risk of postnatal depression. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38, 539-545.

Areias M.E.G., Kumar R., Barros H., Figureiedo E. (1996). Correlates of postnatal depression in mothers and fathers. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 36-41.

Ballard G.G., Stanley A.K., Brockington I.F. (1995). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after Childbirth. British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 525-528.

Bydlowsky M., Raul-Duval A. (1978). Un avatar psychique méconnu de la puepéralité: la névrose traumatic post-obstétricale. Perspectives Psychiatriques, 4, 321-328.

Campbell S.B., Cohon J.F. (1991). Prevalence and correlates of postpartum depression in first time mothers. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(4), 594-599.

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The authors thank Dott. Eugenic Vignati, Health Master of Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento in Milan, for his approval and support of this study, and the medical and nursing staff of Clinica Mangiagalli, in particular, Dott.ssa Cristina Maggioni, gynaecologist, for their help and collaboration. Correspondence to: Paola Di Blasio, C.R.T.I., Dipartimento di Psicologia, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo Gemelli, 1, 20123 Milano, Italy. Email: pdiblasi@mi.unicatt.it