Reflective Functioning

Perinatal Clinical Psychology: Parent-Child Interaction in Primary Care

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
December 2010
Perinatal clinical psychology deals with infant mental development, primary parent-child relationships, and problems related to nurturing and parenting activities of the woman and the couple during the prenatal and neonatal period. Its aims are promoting positive influences and preventing risk elements for the child’s development and for the parents raising the child, thus providing support to primary relationships. Perinatal clinical psychology studies intra-psychic, interpersonal, and trans-generational mental processes.
References: 

Ainsworth, M.S.D. (1979). Infant-mother attachment. American Psychologist, 34, 932-937.

Ainsworth, M.D.S., Bell, S.M., & Stayton, D.J. (1974). Infant-mother attachment and social development socialization as a product of reciprocal responsiveness to signals. In: Richards M.P.M. (Ed.), The integration of a child into a social world. London: Cambridge University Press.

Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M.C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachmentassessed in the strange situation and at home. Hillsdale: Elbaum.

Beebe, B., Lachmann, F., & Jaffe, J. (1997). Mother-infant interaction structures and presymbolic self and object representations. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 2, 1997, 133-182.

Bick, E. (1968). The experience of the skin in early object-relations. London: Tavistock.

Bion, W.R. (1962). Learning from experience. London: Tavistock.

Bion, W.R. (1967). Second Thoughts: Selected Papers on Psychoanalysis. London: Heineman.

Bowlby, J. (1951). Maternal Care and Mental Health: World Health Organization: Monograph Series. Geneva, 1951, 179.

Bowlby, J. ( 1969). Attachment and Loss VoL 1: Attachment. New York Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1973).Attachment and Loss Vol 2: Separation: Anxiety and Anger. New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and Loss. VoL 3: Loss: Sadness and Depression. New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1988a). Dalla teoria dell'attaccamento alla psicopatologia dello sviluppo (From theory to developmental psychopathology). Rivista di Psichiatria, 23, 2, 57-68.

Bowlby, J. (1988b). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.

Brazelton, B.T., & Cramer, B.G. (1990). The earliest relationship. Reading, MA: AddisonWesley Publishing.

Bretherton, L. (1990). Open communication and internal working models: Their role in attachment relationships. In R. Thompson (Ed.), Socioemotional development (Nebraska Symposium, 1987). University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE.

Chamberlain, D.B. (1988). The significance of birth memories. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 2(4), 208-226.

Cena L., Imbasciati A., & Baldoni, F. (2010). La relazione genitore bambino. Dalla psiconalisi infantile ai nuovi modelli evoluzionistici dell'attaccamento (The parentchild relationship: From child psychoanalysis to the new evolutionary perspective of attachment). Milan, Italy: Springer-Verlag.

Cramer, B., & Stern, D.N. (1988). La valutazione dei cambiamenti nella psicoterapia breve madre-bambino (The assessment of changes in brief mother-infant psychotherapy). In Stern D.N., Le interazioni madre-bambino (Mother-Infant Interactions). Milano: Cortina Raffaello.

Crittenden, P.M. (1994). Nuove prospettive sull'attaccamento (New perspectives on attachment). Tr. It. Milano: Guerini, 2003.

Crittenden, P.M. (1995). Attachment and psychopathology. In S. Goldberg, R. Muir, J. Kerr, (Eds.), John Bowlby's attachment theory: Historical, clinical, and social significance, 367-406. New York: The Analytic Press.

Crittenden, P.M. (1997). Pericolo, sviluppo e adattamento (Danger, development, and adaptation). Tr. It. Milano: Masson, 1997.

Crittenden, P.M. (1999). Attaccamento in età adulta. L'approccio dinamico-maturativo all'Aduli Attachment Interview Attachment in adulthood: A dynamic maturational approach to the Adult Attachment Interview). Milan: Cortina.

Crittenden, P.M. (2004). CARE-INDEX. In Lambnischi F., Psicoterapia cognitiva dell'età evolutiva (Developmental Cognitive Psychotherapy). Torino: Boringhieri.

Crittenden, PM. (2008). Il modello dinamico-maturativo dell'attaccamento (The dynamic maturational model of attachment). Milano: Cortina.

De Casper, A.J., & Fifer, W.P. (1980). Of Human bonding: newborns prefer their mother's voices, Science, 208, 1174-1176.

Dipiero, J.A. (1996). Fetal neurobehavioral development. Child Development, 67, 2553-2567.

Field, T. (1995). Infant of depressed mother. Infant behaviour and development, 18, 1-13.

Ferenczi, S. (1927). L'adattamento della famiglia al bambino (The adaptation of the family to the child). In Fondamenti di psicoanalisi (Fundamentals of psychoanalysis), 3. Rimini: Guaraldi, 1974.

Ferenczi, S. (1929). Il bambino mal accolto e la sua pulsione di morte (The child taken ill and his death instinct). In Opere, vol.4 (Works, vol.4). Milano: Cortina, 2002.

Ferenczi, S. (1932). Confusione delle lingue tra adulti e bambini (Confusion of language between adults and children). In Opere, vol.4. Milano: Cortina, 2002.

Fraiberg, S., Adelson, E., & Shapiro, V. (1975). Ghosts in the nursery. A psychoanalytic approach to the problems of impaired infant-mother relationships. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(3), 387-421.

Freud, A. (1949). Osservazioni sullo sviluppo infantile (Observations on child development). In Opere, vol.2 (Works, vol. 2). Tr. It., Torino: Boringhieri, 1991.

Freud, A. (1957). Il contributo dato alla psicoanalisi dall'osservazione diretta dei bambini (The contribution to psychoanalysis from direct observation of children. In Opere, vol.2 (Works, vol.2). Tr. It., Torino: Boringhieri, 1979.

Fonagy, P. (2001). Attachment Theory and Psychoanalysis. New York: Other Press.

Fonagy, P., Steele, H., Moran, G., Steele, M., & Higgitt, A.C. (1991). The capacity for understanding mental states: The reflective self in parent and child and its significance for security of attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 13, 200-216.

Fonagy, P., Steele, H., Moran, G., Steele, M., & Higgitt, A.C. (1992). The integration of psychoanalytic theory and work on attachment: The issue of intergenerational psychic processes. In D. Stern & M. Ammaniti (Eds.) Attachment theory and the psychoanalytic process. London: Whurr Publishers.

Fonagy, P., & Target, M. (1997). Attachment and reflective function: Their role in selforganization. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 677-699.

Fogel, A. (1982). Affect dynamics in early infancy: affective tolerance. In: Field T., Fogel A. (Eds.) Emotion and early interaction. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.

Fox, N.A. (1994). Dynamic cerebral processes underlyng emotion regulation. In Fox N.A. (Ed.) The development of emotion regulation. Biological and behavioural considerations. Monograph of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 152-166.

George, C., Kaplan, N., & Main, M. (1996). The Adult Attachement Interview 3rd Ed. Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam.

Graber, H.G. (1924). Die Ambivalenz des Kindes (The ambivalence of the child). Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag, Leipzig, Wien, Zürich.

Hartmann, H. (1939). Ego Psychology and the Problem of Adaptation. New York, NY: International Universities Press, 1958.

Hofer, M.A. (1994). Hidden regulators in attachment, separation and loss, In: Fox N.A. (Ed.), The development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioural considerations. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 2-3, 192-207.

Ianniruberto, A., & Tajani, E. (1981). Ultrasonographic study of fetal movements. Seminars in Perinatology 5, 175-181.

Imbasciati, A. (1998). Nascita e costruzione della mente (Birth and construction of the mind). Torino: UTET Libreria.

Imbasciati, A. (2005). Psicoanalisi e Cognitivismo. Una nuova teoria per la psicoanalisi (Cognitivism and psychoanalysis: A new theory for psychoanalysis). Roma Armando.

Imbasciati, A. (2006a). Il sistema protomentale (The proto-mental system). Milano: Led.

Imbasciati, A. (2006b). Constructing a mind. London: Brunner-Routledge.

Imbasciati, A. (2008). Le cure materne: matrice dello sviluppo del futuro individuo (Maternal Care: The development of the future individual matrix). Nascere, XXXV, 4-14.

Imbasciati, A., & Cena, L. (1992). La vita psichica primaria (The primary consciousness). Milano: Masson.

Imbasciati, A., & Cena, L. (2010). I bambini e i loro caregivers. Metodi e strumenti per l'osservazione clinica della relazione e per l'intervento (Children and their caregivers: Methods and tools for clinical observation, report, and taking action). Roma: Borla

Imbasciati, A., & Calorio, D. (1981). Il Protomentale (The protomental). Torino: Boringhieri.

Imbasciati, A., Dabrassi, F., & Cena, L. (2007). Psicologia clinica perinatale (Perinatal clinical psychology). Padova: Piccin.

Klein, M. (1932). The psycho-analysis of children. London: Hogarth Press.

Kris, E. (1950). Notes on the development and on some current problems of child psychology. In Selected Papers. New Haven/London: Yale Univ. Press, 1975, 54-79.

Laing, R.D. (1978). I fatti della vita. Sogni, fantasie, riflessioni sulla nascita (The facts of life: Dreams, fantasies, and reflections on birth). Nuovo Politecnico, Einaudi.

Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1990). Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth strange situation. In Greenberg M., Cicchetti D., Cunamings M. (Eds.). Attachement in the preschool years: Theory, research and invention. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Main, M., & Weston, D.R. (1982). Avoidance of the attachment figure in infancy: Descriptions and interpretations. In C.M. Parkes, J. Stevenson-Hinde (Eds.), The place of attachment in human behaviour. New York: Basic Books.

Mancia, M.(1980) Neurofisiologia e vita mentale (Neurophysiology and mental life). Bologna: Zanichelli

Mancia, M. (1981). On the beginning of mental life in the foetus. Int. J. Psychoanal, 62: 351-357.

Manfredi, P., & Imbasciati, I. (2004). Il feto ci ascolta e impara (The fetus hears us and learns). Roma: Borla.

Manzano J., Palacio-Espasa F., & Zilkha, N. (1999). "Les scénarios narcissiques des la parentalité" (Narcisicistic scenarios of parenthood. Tr. It, Scenari della genitorialità. La consultazione genitori-bambino (Scenarios of parenthood: The parent-child consultation). Milano: Cortina, 2001.

Meltzoff, A.N., & Moore, M.K. (1983). Newborn infants imitate adult facial gestures. Child Development, 54, 702-709.

Milani Comparetti, A. (1981). Interpretazione funzionale dei movimenti fetali (Interpretation of functional movements of the fetus). Età Evolutiva, 10, 88-92.

Minkowsky, M. (1928). Neurobiologische Studien am menschlichen foetus (Neurobiological studies on the human fetus). Handbk biol. ArbMeth, 5, 511-618.

Murray, L. (1992). The impact of postnatal depression on infant development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 543-561.

Murray, L., & Trevarthen, C. (1985). Emotional regulation of interactions between two-month-olds and their mothers. In Field T., Fox N. (Eds.). Social Perception in Infants. Ablex: Norwood, 177-197.

Negri, R., Guareschi-Cazzullo, A., Vergani, P., Mariani, S., & Roncaglia, N. (1990). Correlazione tra vita prenatale e formazione della personalità. Studio preliminare attraverso l'osservazione di due gemelli (Correlation between prenatal life and personality formation: Preliminary study through observation of twins). Quaderni di Psicoterapia Infantile, 22, 148-165.

Piontelli, A. (1992). From fetus to child. London: The New Library of Psychoanalysis.

Rascovsky, A. (1977). El psiquismo fetal (The fetal psyche). Buenos Aires: Paidos.

Sameroff, A.J., & Emde, R.N. (1989). Relationships disturbances in early childhood. A developmental approach. New York: Basic Books.

Sander, L.W. (1962). Issue in early mother-child interaction. Journal of American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1, 141-166.

Sander, L.W. (1987). Awareness of inner experience: a system perspective on selfregulatory process in early development. Child Abuse and Neglect, 11, 339-346.

Schacter, D.L. (1992). Understanding implicit memory: A cognitive neuroscience approach. American Psychologist. 47, 559-569.

Schaffer, H.R. (1977). Studies in mother-infant interaction, New York: Academic Press.

Schore, A.N. (1994). Affect regulation and the origin of the self: the neurobiology of emotional development. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Schore, A.N. (2003a). Affect disregulation and disorder of the self. New York: Norton Company.

Schore, A.N. (2003b). Affect regulation and the repair of the self. New York: Norton Company.

Siegel, D.J. (1999). La mente relazionale (The developing mind). Tr. it. Milano: Cortina.

Siegel, D.J. (2001). Toward an interpersonal neurobiology of the developing mind: attachment relationship mindsight and neural integration. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22, 67-94.

Siegel, D.J. (2004). Attachment and self-understanding: Parenting with the brain in mind. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 18(4), 273-286.

Sifneos, P.E., Apfel-Savitz, R., & Frankel, F. H. (1977). The phenomenon of alexitimia. Observation in neuronic and psychosomatic patients. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 28, 47-57.

Spelt, D.K. (1948). The conditioning of the human foetus in utero. Psychological Bulletin, 35.

Spitz, R. (1946). Anaclitic depression. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 2, 313-342.

Spitz, R. (1965). The First Year of Life. New York: International Universities Press.

Sroufe, L.A. (1995). Emotional development: The organization of emotional life in the early years. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Stern, D.N. (1974). Mother and infant at play: The diadyc interaction involving facial, vocal and gaze behaviours. In: Lewis M., Rosemblum L. (Eds.), The Effects of the Infant on its Caregiver. New York: Wiley.

Stern, D.N. (1977). The First Relationship: Infant and Mother. London: Fontana Open Books And Open Books Publishing Ltd.

Stern, D.N. (1983). The early development of shemes of self., of other, and of various experiences of "self with others". In Kaplan S., Lichtenberg J. (Eds.), Reflections on self psychology. New York: International Universities Press.

Stern, D.N. (1985a). The Interpersonal World of the Infant, New York: Basic Books.

Stern, D.N. (1985 b). Affect attunement. In J.D. Call, E. Galenson, R.L. Tyson (Eds.), Frontiers of infant psychiatry: Vol. 2, pp. 3-14. New York: Basic Books.

Stern, D.N. (1991). Maternal representations: a clinical and subjective phenomenological view. Infant Mental Health Journal, 12, 3, 173-185.

Stern, D.N. (1995). The motherhood constellation: A unified view of parent-infant psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.

Stern, D.N., & Ammaniti, M. (1992). Attachment theory and the psychoanalytic process. London: Whurr Publishers.

Trevarthen, C. (1977). Descriptive analyses of infant communicative behavior. In H.R. Schaffer (Ed.), Studies of mother-infant interaction, 227-269. London: Academic Press.

Trevarthen, C. (1979). Communication and cooperation in early infancy: A description of primary intersubjectivity In M. Bullowa (Ed.), Before speech: The beginning of interpersonal communication, 321-347. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Trevarthen, C. (1993). The self born in intersubjectivity. In Neuser, U., (1993) The Perceived Self: Ecological and Interpersonal Sources of Self Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Tronick, E. (2008). Regolazione emotiva. Milano: Cortina.

Tronick, E.Z. (1981). Infant communication intent: The infant's reference to social interaction. In R.E. Stark (Ed.), Language behavior in infancy and early childhood. New York: Elsevier.

Tronick, E.Z., Als, L., Wise, S., & Brazelton, T.B. (1978). The infant's response to entrapment between contradictory messages in face-to-face interaction. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 17, 1-13.

Tronick, E., & Cohn, J.F. (1987). Infant-mother face-to-face interaction: Age and gender differences in coordination and the occurrence of miscoordination. Child Development, 60, 85-92.

Vallino, D. (2009). Fare psicoanalisi con genitori e bambini (Psychoanalysis with parents and children). Roma: Borla.

Winnicott, D.W. (1945). Primitive emotional development. Int. J. Psychoanal., 26, 137-143

Winnicott, D.W. (1958). Collected papers: Through paediatrics to psycho-analysis. London: Tavistock Publications.

Winnicott, D.W. (1960). The theory of the parent-child relationship., Int. J. Psychoanal, 41, 585-595.

Winnicott, D.W. (1965). The family and individual development. London, Tavistock Publications.

The Mother-Baby Prenatal Group: Nurturing Reflective Functioning in a Methadone-Maintenance Clinic

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
March 2008

This paper describes the rationale and curriculum for an attachment-based intervention for pregnant women who attend an outpatient methadone-maintenance clinic. Maternal drug use has been associated with negative prenatal internal representations and problems in mutual regulation after birth. Maternal attachment status during pregnancy has been correlated with subsequent security of infant attachment. Recent studies suggest maternal reflective functioning as a key mediator in attachment.

References: 

Ainsworth, M., Blehar, M. Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ashley, O., Marsden, M., & Brady, T. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29, 19-53.

Bateman, A., & Fonagy, P. (2006). Mentalizing and borderline personality disorder. In J. Allen & P. Fonagy (Eds.), Handbook of mentalization-based treatment (pp. 185-200). West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons.

Beeghly, M., Frank, D., Rose-Jacobs, R., Cabrai, H., & Tronick, E. (2003). Level of prenatal cocaine exposure and infant-caregiver attachment behavior. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 25, 23-38.

Bowlby, J. (1979/2005). The making and breaking of affectional bonds. New York: Routledge.

Bretherton, I. (1985). Attachment theory: Retrospect and prospect. In I. Bretherton & E. Waters (Eds.), Growing points of attachment theory and research. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50 (1-2, Serial No. 209), 3-38.

Cranley, M. (1981). Development of a tool for the measurement of maternal attachment during pregnancy. Nursing Research, 30, 281-284.

Das Eiden, R. (2001). Maternal substance use and mother-infant feeding interactions. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22, 497-511.

Espinosa, M., Beckwith, L., Howard, J, Tyler, R., & Swanson, K. (2001). Maternal psychopathology and attachment in toddlers of heavy cocaine-using mothers. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22, 316-333.

Fonagy, P. (1999). Attachment, the development of the self, and its pathology in personality disorders. In Treatment of personality disorders (chap.5). Retrieved July 28, 2006, from http://www.psychomedia.it/pm/modther/probpsiter/fonagy-2.htm

Fonagy, P., Gergely, G., Jurist, E., & Target, M. (2002). Affect regulation, mentalization, and the development of the self. New York: Other Press.

Fonagy, P., Steele, M., Moran, G., Steele, H., & Higgitt, A. (1993). Measuring the ghost in the nursery: An empirical study of the relation between parents' mental representations of childhood experiences and their infants' security of attachment. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 41, 957-989.

Fonagy, P., Steele, M., Steele, H., Moran, G., & Higgitt, A. (1991). The capacity for understanding mental states: The reflective self in parent and child and its significance for security of attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 12, 201-218.

Fonagy, P., & Target, M. (2005). Commentary: Bridging the transmission gap: An end to an important mystery of attachment research? Attachment & Human Development, 7, 333-343.

Goodman, G., Hans, S., & Bernstein V. (2005). Mother expectation of bother and infant attachment behaviors as predictors of mother and child communication at 24 months in children of methadone-maintained women. Infant Mental Health Journal, 26, 549-569.

Goodman, G., Hans, S., & Cox, S. (1999). Attachment behavior and its antecedents in offspring born to methadone-maintained women. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, 58-69.

Grienenberger, J., Kelly, K., & Slade, A. (2005). Maternal reflective functioning, mother-infant affective communication, and infant attachment: Exploring the link between mental states and observed caregiving behavior in the intergenerational transmission of attachment. Attachment & Human Development, 7, 299-311.

Hans, S. (1999). Demographic and psychosocial characteristics of substance-abusing pregnant women. Clinics in Perinatology, 26, 55-74.

Hesse, E. (1999). The Adult Attachment Interview: Historical and current perspectives. In J. Cassidy & p. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 395-433). New York: The Guilford Press.

Horrigan, T., Schroeder, A., & Schaffer, R. (2000). The triad of substance abuse, violence, and depression are interrelated in pregnancy. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 18, 55-58.

Howell, E., & Chasnoff, I. (1999). Perinatal substance abuse treatment. Findings from focus groups with clients and providers. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 17, 139-148.

Jeremy, R., & Bernstein, V. (1984). Dyads at risk: Methadone-maintained women and their four-month-old infants. Child Development, 55, 1141-1154.

LaGasse, L., Messinger, D., Lester, B., Seifer, R., Tronick, E., Bauer, C., et al. (2003). Prenatal drug exposure and maternal and infant feeding behaviour. Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 88, 391-399.

Lester, B., Boukydis, C.F., & Twomey, J. (2000). Maternal substance abuse and child outcome. In C. Zeanah, Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health (2nd ed., pp. 161-175). New York: The Guilford Press.

Lieberman, A., Padron, E., Van Horn, P., & Harris, W. (2005). Angels in the nursery: The intergenerational transmission of benevolent parental influences. Infant Mental Health Journal, 26, 504-520.

Lyons-Ruth, K., Bronfman, E., & Atwood, G. (1999). A relational diathesis model of hostile-helpless states of mind: Expressions in mother-infant interaction. In J. Solomon & C. George (Eds.), Attachment disorganization (pp. 33-70). New York: The Guilford Press.

Lyons-Ruth, K., Melnick, S., Bronfman, E., Sherry, S., & Llanas, L. (2004). Hostile-helpless relational models and disorganized attachment patterns between parents and their young children: Review of research and implications for clinical work. In L. Atkinson & S. Goldberg (Eds.), Attachment issues in psychopathology and intervention (pp. 65-94). Mahway NJ: Erlbaum.

Main, M. (1998). Adult attachment and infant attachment: Fear, safety, attention and discourse processes. Unpublished manuscript, University of California at Berkley.

Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1990). Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/ disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. In M. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti & E.M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention (pp. 121-160). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Milligan, R., Wingrove, B., Richards, L., Rodan, M., Monroe-Lord, L., Jackson, V., et al. (2002). Perceptions about prenatal care: Views of urban vulnerable groups. BMC Public Health, 2, Article 25. Retrieved March 17, 2007, from www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/2/25

Pajulo, M., Savonlahti, E., Sourander, A., Piha, J., & Helenius, H. (2001). Prenatal maternal representations: Mothers at psychosocial risk. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22, 529-544.

Pajulo, M., Suchman, N., Kalland, M., & Mayes, L. (2006). Enhancing the effectiveness of residential treatment for substance abusing pregnant and parenting women: Focus on maternal reflective functioning and mother-child relationship. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27, 448-465.

Riggs, S., & Jacobvitz, D. (2002). Expectant parents' representations of early attachment relationships: Associations with mental health and family history. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 195-204.

Sadler, L., Slade, A., & Mayes, L. (2006). Minding the baby: A mentalization-based parenting program. In J. Allen & P. Fonagy (Eds.), Handbook of mentalization-based treatment (pp. 271-288). West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons.

Schindler, A., Thomasius, R., Sack, P., Gemeinhardt, B., Kustner, U., & Eckert, J. (2005). Attachment and substance use disorders: A review of the literature and a study in drug dependent adolescents. Attachment & Human Development, 7, 207-228.

Slade, A. (2000). The development and organization of attachment: Implications for psychoanalysis. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 48: 1147-1174.

Slade, A. (2002). Keeping the baby in mind: A critical factor in perinatal mental health. Zero to Three, June/July: 10-16.

Slade, A. (2005). Parental reflective functioning: An introduction. Attachment & Human Development, 7, 269-281.

Slade, A., Grienenberger, J., Bernbach, E., Levy, D., & Locker, A. (2005). Maternal reflective functioning, attachment, and the transmission gap: A preliminary study. Attachment & Human Development, 7, 283-298.

Slade, A., Sadler, L., & Mayes, L. (2005). Minding the baby: Enhancing parental reflective functioning in a nursing/mental health home visiting program. In L. Berlin, Y. Ziv, L. Amaya-Jackson & M. Greenberg (Eds.), Enhancing early attachments: Theory, research, intervention, and policy (p. 152-177). New York: The Guilford Press.

Suchman, N., Mayes, L., Conti, J., Slade, A., & Rounsaville, B. (2004). Rethinking parenting interventions for drug-dependent mothers: From behavior management to fostering emotional bonds. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 27, 179-185.

Suchman, N., McMahon, T., Slade, A., & Luthar, S. (2005). How early bonding, depression, illicit drug use, and perceived support work together to influence drug-dependent mothers' caregiving. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75, 431-445.

Swanson, K., Beckwith, L., & Howard, J. (2000). Intrusive caregiving and quality of attachment in prenatally drug-exposed toddlers and their primary caregivers. Attachment & Human Development, 2, 130-148.

Sweeney, P., Schwartz, R., Mattis, N., & Vohr, B. (2000). The effect of integrating substance abuse treatment with prenatal care on birth outcome. Journal of Perinatology, 20, 219-224.

Sword, W., Niccols, A., & Fan, A. (2004, April 15). "New Choices" for women with addictions: Perceptions of program participants. BMC Public Health, 4, Article 10. Retrieved March 17, 2007, from www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/4/10

van Ijzendoorn, M. (1995). Adult attachment representations, parental responsiveness, and infant attachment: A meta-analysis on the predictive validity of the Adult Attachment Interview. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 387-403.

Zeanah, C., & Barton, M. (1989). Introduction: Internal representations and parent-infant relationships. Infant Mental Health Journal, 10, 135-141.