Development

The Impact of Developmental Trauma on Human Evolution

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Publication Date: 
September 2010

This article presents an expanded paradigm for understanding the pervasive impact of subtle parent-child interactions that cause experiences of shock, trauma, and stress during the first three years of life. Drawn from quantitative, qualitative, applied evidence-based practice, case formulation research methods, and a comprehensive review of related research, it uses the term “developmental trauma” to describe these early experiences. The article also places shock, trauma, and stress on a continuum and charts their impact on the development of individuals, couples, and families.

References: 

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Mines, S. (2003). We're all in shock: How overwhelming experiences can shatter you and what you can do about it. Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Page Books.

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Weinhold, B. (2000). Building a Community of Kindness: A Community Organizer's Guide to the Kindness Campaign. Asheville, NC: CICRCL Press.

Weinhold, B. (2006a). Spreading Kindness Vols. 1, 2 & 3. Asheville, NC: CICRCL Press.

Weinhold, B. (2006b). Kind Beginnings. Asheville, NC: CICRCL Press.

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Weinhold, B. & Weinhold, J. (1992, 2004, 2008b). The flight from intimacy. Novato, CA: New World Library.

Weinhold, B. & Weinhold, J. (1993, 2003). Counseling families. Denver, CO: Love Publishing

Weinhold, B. & Weinhold, J. (2000, 2009). Conflict resolution: The partnership way. Denver, CO: Love Publishing.

Weinhold, J. & Weinhold, B. (2011). Healing developmental trauma: A systems approach to counseling individuals, couples and families. Denver: Love Publishing.

Nurture of the Brain, Nutritional & Emotional, in the Context of Evolution and the Lifecycle

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March 2010
Controlled trials reveal that, from before conception, nutrient deficits and toxins affect sperm, ovum, and maternal stores, lastingly impairing a child's health and abilities. Deficits, toxins, and stress can inhibit structure and function, and be linked to autism or reduced self-control, possibly with violent tendencies. From the beginning, epigenetic settings are mostly set early for directing development according to current environment. Many are operative in the brain.
References: 

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The Development of Sensory Systems During the Prenatal Period

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Publication Date: 
March 2007

This paper will examine the anatomy and physiology of the development of the seven senses in utero. On the basis of this knowledge clinicians will be better able to promote more peaceful as well as enriched prenatal environments and plan interventions for children at risk for later developmental difficulties.

References: 

Anand, J.S. & Hickey, P.R. (1987). Pain and its effect on the developing fetus. New England Journal of Medicine, 377(21), 1321-1329.

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Hartman, D. & Zimberoff, D. (2002). Memory access to our earliest influences. Journal of Heart-Centered Therapies, 5(2), 3-63.

Hill, S., DeBellis, M., Keshavan, M., Lowers, L., Shen, S., & Pitts, T. (2001). Right amygdala volume in adolescent and young adult offspring from families at high risk for developing alcoholism, Biological Psychiatry, 49, 894-905.

Kandel, E., Schwartz, J., & Jessel, T. (2000). Principles of Neural Science. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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Lecanuet, J., Granier-Defeere, C., & Busnel, M. (1995). Human fetal auditory perception. In Fetal Development: A Psychobiological Perspective. Lecanuet, J., Pifer, W., Krasnegor, N., & Smotherman, W. (Eds.), Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 239-262.

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Smotherman, W. (1995). Tracing developmental trajectories into the prenatal period. In J.P. Lecanuet, Krasnegor, W., Norman, A., & Smotherman, W. (Eds.), Fetal Development: A Psychological Perspective. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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The Potential Risks of Ultrasound Examinations on Fetal Development

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Publication Date: 
March 2007

Ultrasound examinations are a trusted diagnostic procedure in prenatal Healthcare. The benefits of ultrasound are numerous. However, research documents physical risks that must be taken seriously. Although many of these findings are inconclusive, they indicate that ultrasound examinations may not be totally benign. The following is an exploration of the current research available on the effects of ultrasound exposure on fetal development with discussion on potential physical, behavioral and psychological health risks.

References: 

Ang, E., Gluncic, V., Duque, Á., Schafer, M., & Rakic, P. (2006). Prenatal exposure to ultrasound waves impacts neuronal migration in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(34), 12903-12910.

Bellieni, C.V., Buonocore, G., Bagnoli, F., Cordelli, D.M., Gasparre, O., Calonaci, F., Filardi, G., Merola, A., & Petraglia, F. (2005). Is an excessive number of prenatal ichnographies a risk for fetal growth? Early Human Development, 81, 689-693.

Campbell, S. (2002). Editorial. Ultrasound Obstetrics and Gynecology, 19, 1-4.

Cigna Healthcare Coverage Position: Ultrasound in pregnancy (including 3D and 4D ultrasound). (2005). Coverage position number: 0142, 1-8.

Hande, M.P., Devi, P., Uma, & Karanth, S. (1993). Effect of prenatal ultrasound exposure on adult behavior in mice. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 15, 433-438.

Ji, E.K., Pretorius, D.H., Newton, R., Uyan, K., Hull, A.D., Hollenbach, K., & Nelson, T.R. (2005). Effects of ultrasound on maternal-fetal bonding: a comparison of two- and three-dimensional imaging. Ultrasound Obstetrics and Gynecology, 25, 473-477.

Kroeger, M. & Smith, L.J. (2004). Impact of birthing practices on breastfeeding: protecting the mother and baby continuum. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett.

Newnham, J.P., Doherty, D., Kendall, G.E., Zubrick, S.R., Landou, L., & Stanley, F.J. (2004). Effects of repeated prenatal ultrasound examinations on childhood outcome up to 8 years of age: Follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Lancet, 364, 2038-44.

Rados, C. (2004). FDA cautions against ultrasound 'keepsake' images. FDA Consumer Magazine, January-February Issue. Retrieved August 12, 2006 from http://fda.gov/ fdac/features/2004/104_images.html

Righetti, P.L., Dell'Avanzo, M., Grigio, M., & Nicolini, U. (2005). Maternal/paternal antenatal attachment and fourth-dimensional ultrasound technique: a preliminary report. British Journal of Psychology 96, 129-137.

Schmid, R.E. (August 7, 2006). Ultrasound may affect fetal brain: Study. Toronto Star. Retrieved August 12, 2005 from http://www.thestar.com/NASApp/cs/ContentServer? pagename=thesta...

Suresh, R., Devi, P., Uma, Ovchinnkov, N., & McRae, A. (2002). Long-term effects of diagnostic ultrasound during fetal period on postnatal development and adult behavior of mouse. Life Sciences, 71, 33-350.

Thomson, P. (2004). The impact of trauma on the embryo and fetus: an application of the diathesis-stress model and the neurovulnerability-neurotoxicity model. Journal of. Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health 79(1), 9-64.

Who says ultrasound is safe? (2004). AIMS Journal. 16 (4). Retrieved August 12, 2006 from http://www.airms.org.uk/Journal/Voll6No4/ultrasound.htm