Prenatal and Perinatal Medicine and Psychology Towards Integrated Neurosciences: General Remarks and Future Perspectives

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
Mar 2014

Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine is an interdisciplinary scientific field of research and practice with the scientific focus on prenatal and perinatal conditions of human life. Prenatal period of human life represents a crucial phase in human life during which crucial developmental processes and regulations take place and these serve as adaptation strategies and physiological capabilities for the next postnatal life´s periods.


Agrawai, H.R., Gunderson, J. (2004). Attachment studies with borderline patients: A review. Harvard Rev Psychiatry 12: 94–104. Allen, J.G, Fonagy, P., Bateman, A.W., editors (2008) Neurobiology. In: Mentalizing in Clinical Practice. Washington, London: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. p. 113–146. Blakemore, S.J. (2010). The developing social brain: implications for education. Neuron. 65: 744–747. Burnett, S., Blakemore, S.J. (2009). Functional connectivity during a social emotion task in adolescents and in adults. European Journal of Neuroscience 29: 1294–1301. Camus, M.F., Clancy, D.J., Dowling, D.K. (2012). Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and male ageing. Current Biology 22: 1717–1721. Carbe, Ch., Garg, A., Cai, Z., Li, H., Powers, A., Zhang, X. (2013). An allelic series at the paired box gene 6 (pax6) locus reveals the functional specificity of pax genes. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Downloaded from http: // on April, 2013 Chen, M., Zhang, L. (2011). Epigenetic mechanisms in developmental programming of adult disease. Drug Discovery Today: Disease Models 16(23–24): 1007–1018. doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2011.09.008. Christian, L.M. (2012). Psychoneuroimmunology in pregnancy: Immune pathways linking stress with maternal health, adverse birth outcomes, and fetal development. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 36(1): 350–361. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2011.07.005. Cowan W.M. (1979). The development of the brain. Scientific American 241(3): 113–133. Čatár G., Ondriska F., Mikolášová G. (2011). Congenital infections. International Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Medicine, 23 (Suppl 1): 73–91. De Vries J., Fong B. (2006). Normal fetal motility: an overview. Ultrasound Obstetrics & Gynecology. 27, (6), 701–711,  Dumontheil I., Apperly I., Blakemore S.J. (2010). Online usage of theory of mind continues to develop in late adolescence. Developmental Science 13(2): 331–338. Fagiolini M., Jensen, C.L., Champagne, F.A. (2009). Epigenetic influences on brain development and plasticity. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 19(2): 207–212. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2009.05.009. Fedor-Freybergh, P.G., Maas, L. (2011). Continuity and indivisibility of integrated psychological, spiritual and somatic life processes. International Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Medicine, 23 (Suppl 1): 135–142. Fedor-Freybergh, P.G. (2008). Psychosomatické charakteristiky prenatálneho a perinatálneho obdobia ako prostredia die.a.a. [(Psychosomatic Characteristics of Prenatal and Perinatal Period as the Environment of Infant.) (In Slovak.)] Bratislava: Vysoká .kola zdravotníctva a sociálnej práce sv. Al.bety. p. 3–28. Fedor-Feybergh, P.G. (2011). Editorial International Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Medicine, 23 (Suppl 1): 5–6. Fedor-Freybergh, P.G. (1999). Psychoimmuno-neuroendocrinology: An integrative approach to modern philosophy in medicine and psychology. Neuroendocrinology Letters 20(3–4): 205–213. Fietta, P., Fietta, P., Delsante, G. (2009). Central nervous system effects of natural and synthetic glucocorticoids. Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience 63: 613–622. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2009.02005.x. Fišar, Z., Hroudová, J. (2010). Common aspects of neuroplasticity, stress, mood disorders and mitochondrial functions. Activitas Nervosa Superior Rediviva 52(1): 3–20. Frith, C.D., Frith, U. (2005). Theory of mind. Current Biology 15: R 644–R645. Frith, C.D., Frith, U. (2006). The neural basis of mentalizing. Neuron 50: 531–534. Grant-Beuttler, M., Glynn, L.M., Salisbury, A.L., Davis, E.P., Holliday, C., Sandman, C.A. (2011). Development of fetal movement between 26 and 36-weeks’ gestation in response to vibro-acoustic stimulation. Frontiers in Psychology 350(2): 1–7. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00350. Goel, N., Bale, T.L. (2009). Examining the intersection of sex and stress in modeling europsychiatric disorders. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 21(4): 415–420. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2009.01843.x. Hašto J (2006) Vzťahová väzba, pripútavacie správanie a psychiatria-psychoterapia. [(Attachment, Attachment Behaviour and Psychiatry-Psychotherapy.) (In Slovak with English abstract.)] Psychiatrie, 10(1): 36–40. Haussmann, M.F., Longenecker, A.S., Marchetto, N.M., Juliano, S.A., Bowden, R.M. (2012). Embryonic exposure to corticosterone modifies the juvenile stress response, oxidative stress and telomere length. Proceedings of the Royal Society 279: 1447–1456. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.1913. Hill, M., Cibula, D., Havlíková H., Kancheva, L., Fait, T., Kancheva R, ,. . . Stárka L (2007). Circulating levels of pregnanolone isomers during the third trimester of human pregnancy. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 150: 166–175, doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2006.10.010 Hill, M., Pařízek, A., Jirásek, J.E., Jirkovská, M., Velíková, M., Dušková, M., Klímková, M., . . . . . Stárka L (2010). Is Maternal Progesterone Actually Independent of the Fetal Steroids? Physiological Research 59: 211–224. Hroudová, J., Fišar, Z. (2011). Connectivity between mitochondrial functions and psychiatric disorders. Journal of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience 65: 130–141. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2010.02178.x.

Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine is an interdisciplinary scientific field of research and practice with the scientific focus on prenatal and perinatal conditions of human life. Prenatal period of human life represents a crucial phase in human life during which crucial developmental processes and regulations take place and these serve as adaptation strategies and physiological capabilities for the next postnatal life´s periods.

The Sentient Prenate: What Every Parent Should Know

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
Jan 2011

Abstract: In the 1980’s parents in large numbers were first introduced to the sensitive, perceptive, conscious, and cognitive prenate. This paper summarizes the evidence from major research findings, demonstrating that prenates are 1) sensitive and aware, 2) learn and dream, and 3) are social and communicative. Well-designed experimental programs in prenatal enrichment confirm the intelligence and receptivity of womb babies. A closing section describes the special resources now available to parents who want to deliberately enhance prenatal bonding and communication.


Aivanhov, O. M. (1982). Education begins before birth. (Trans, from French). Santa Clarita, CA: Editions Prosveta; Also see: Aivanhov, O. M. (1969). The role of the mother during gestation.

Ando, Y. & Hattori, H. (1970). Effects of intense noise during fetal life upon postnatal adaptability. J. of the Acoustical Society of America, 47, 1128-1130.

Anand, K J. S. & Aynsley-Green, A. (1985). Metabolic and endocrine effects of surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in the preterm neonate: Are there implications for further improvement in postoperative outcome? Modern Problems of Paediatrics, 23, 143-157.

Anand, K. J. S. & Hickey, P. R. (1987). Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus. New England J. of Medicine, 317, 1321-1329.

Baker, R. A (1978). Technologic intervention in obstetrics. Obstetrics & Gynecology Journal, 5, 2.

Birnholz, J., Stephens, J. C, & Faria, M. (1978). Fetal movement patterns: A possible means of defining neurologic development milestones in utero. American J. Roentology, 130, 537-540.

Birnholz, J. C. (1981). The development of human fetal eye movement patterns. Science, 213, 679-681.

Blass, E. M., Ganchrow, J. R. & Steiner, J. E. (1984). Classical conditioning in newborn humans 2-48 hours of age. Infant Behavior & Development, 7, 223-235.

Blum, T., Dittman, R., Schulz, J. & Walker, J. (1993). Prenatal interventions and human proto development. In T. Blum (Ed.), Prenatal perception, learning and bonding, (pp. 107-132). Berlin & Hong Kong: Leonardo.

Bower, T. G. R. (1992). Recognition of familiar faces by newborns. Infant Behavior & Development, 15(2), 265-269.

Busnel, M-C, Granier-Deferre, C. & Lecanuet, J. P (1992). Fetal audition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 662 (Oct. 20), 118-134.

Butler, N. C. (1989). Infants, pain, and what health care professionals should want to know now: An issue of epistemology and ethics. Bioethics, 3(3), 181-209.

Carlson, D. B. & Labarba, R. C. (1979). Maternal emotionality during pregnancy and reproductive outcome: A review of the literature. Int. Journal of Behavior Development, 2, 343-376.

Carpenter, G (1974). Mother's face and the newborn. New Scientist, 61, 742-744.

Cernoch, J. M. & Porter, R. H. (1985). Recognition of maternal axillary odors by infants. Child Development, 56(6), 1593-1598.

Chamberlain, D. B. (1980). Reliability of birth memories: Evidence from mother and child pairs in hypnosis. Paper presented to the Amer. Soc. of Clinical Hypnosis, Min neapolis, Nov. 15; first published in Journal of American. Academy of Medical Hypnoanalysis, 1(2), 89-98 (1986).

Chamberlain, D. B. (1987). The cognitive newborn: A scientific update. British J. of Psychotherapy 4(1), 30-71.

Chamberlain, D. B. (1988). The mind of the newborn: Increasing evidence of competence. In P. G. Fedor- Freybergh & M.L.V. Vogel (Eds.), Prenatal & perinatal psychology and medicine: Encounter with the unborn (pp. 5-22). Lancaster, UK: Parthenon.

Chamberlain, D. B. (1988). Babies Remember Birth. Los Angeles: J.P Tarcher

Chamberlain, D. B. (1989). Babies remember pain Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 3(4),297-310.

Chamberlain, D. B. (1992a). Is there intelligence before birth? Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 6(3), 217-237.

Chamberlain, D. B. (1992b). Babies are not what we thought: Call for a new paradigm. International J. of Prenatal and Perinatal Studies, 4(2) (Oct), 161-177.

Chamberlain, D. B. (1993). Prenatal intelligence. In T Blum (Ed.), Prenatal perception, learning & bonding (pp. 9-31). Berlin & Hong Kong: Leonardo.

Chayen, B., Tajani, N, Verma, U. L. & Gordon, G (1986). Fetal heart rate changes and uterine activity during coitus. Acta Obstet. Gyn. Scandinauica, 65, 853-855.

Condon, W. & Sander, L. (1974). Synchrony demonstrated between movements of the neonate and adult speech. Child Development, 45, 456-462.

Connolly, J. A & Cullen, J. H. (1983). Maternal stress and the origins of health status. InJ. D. Call, E. Galenson, & R L Tyson, (Eds.), Frontiers of infant psychiatry (pp. 273-281). New York Basic Books.

Cooper, R & Aslin, R. N. (1990). Preference for infant-directed speech in the first month after birth. Child Development, 61(5), 1584-1595.

Correia, I. G. (1987). Communication in the motherly womb. Master's Degree Thesis. Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro.

Correia, I. G., Leader, L.. & Clark, I. (1992). Can television influence fetal behavior? International J. Prenatal and Perinatal Studies, 4, Congress Supplement 1, p. 22.

Cowart, B. J. (1981). Development of taste perception in humans: Sensitivity and preference throughout the life span. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 43-73.

Crowell, D H., Blurton, L. B., Kobayashi, L. R., McFarland, J. L., & Yang, R. K (1976). Studies in early infant learning: Classical conditioning of the neonatal heart rate. Developmental Psychology Monograph, 12(A), 373-397.

David, H. P, Dytrych, Z., Matejcek, Z., & Schuller, V. (1988). Born unwanted: Developmental effects of denied abortion. Prague: Czechoslovak Medical Press; New York: Springer.

DeCasper, A. & Spence, M. (1986). Prenatal maternal speech influences human newborns' perception of speech sounds. Infant Behavior & Development, 9, 133-150.

DeSnoo, K. (1937). Das trinkende kind im uterus. Monatsschrift fur Geburtshilfe & Gyn. 105, 88-97.

Diamond, M. (1989). Enriching heredity: The impact of environment on the anatomy of the brain. New York: Free Press.

Emde, R., McCartney, R. & Harmon, R. (1971). Neonatal smiling in REM states. IV. Premature study. Child Development, 42, 1657-1661.

Feijoo, J. (1981). Le foetus Pierre et le loup: on une approche originale de l'audition prenatale humaine. In E. Herbinet & M-C Busnel (Eds.), L'aube des sens (pp. 199-213). Paris: Stock.

Feldman, Y (1981). The problems of intrauterine anxiety: Its consequences and resolutions. Modern Psychoanalysis, 6, 183-185.

Feldmar, A. (1979). The embryology of consciousness: What is a normal pregnancy? In D. Mall, & W. Watts, (Eds.), The psychological aspects of abortion (pp. 15-24). Washington D. C: Univ. Pub. Amer.

Ferreira, A. J. (1965). Emotional factors in the prenatal environment: A review. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 141(1), 108-118.

Field, T, Woodson, R., Cohen, D, Greenberg, R., Garcia, R., & Collins, K. (1983). Discrimination and imitation of facial expressions by term and preterm neonates. Infant Behavior & Develop. 6, 485-490.

FIRSTART La Escuela en el vientre materno. Ave. Aragon 36 esc. 2fl, 34a, 46021 Valencia, Espana.

Freed, F. (1927). Report of a case of vagitus uterinus. Amer. J. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 14, 87-89.

Freeman, M. (1987). Is infant learning egocentric or duocentric? Was Piaget wrong? Pre& Perinatal Psychology Journal., 2(1), 25-42.

Gabriel, M. (1992). Voices from the womb. Lower Lake, CA: Aslin.

Garland, K. (1978/1992). Physiological effects of neonatal management. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 7(1), 73-84.

Goodlin, R. C. & Schmidt, W (1972). Human fetal arousal levels as indicated by heartrate recordings. American J Ob I Gyn, 114(5), 613-621.

Goodlin, R. C., Schmidt, W, & Creavy, D. C. (1972). Uterine tension and fetal heart rate during maternal orgasm. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 39(1), 125-127.

Goodlin, R. C. (1979). Care of the fetus. New York: Masson

Gottfried, A. W & Gaiter, J. L. (Eds.) (1985). Infant stress under intensive care: Environmental neonatology. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.

Harrison, H. (1987). Pain relief for premature infants. Twins (July-Aug) pp. 10-11.

Harrison, H. (1990). Personal correspondence, Sep. 1, 1990.

Hepper, P. G. (1988). Fetal "soap" addiction. Lancet (Letter), June 11, 1988, 1347-1348.

Hepper, P. G. (1991). An examination of fetal learning before and after birth. Irish J.Psy. 12, 95-107.

Hepper, P G. (1992a). Fetal psychology: An embryonic science. In J. G. Nijhuis (EkI.), Fetal behavior: Developmental and perinatal aspects. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Hepper, P G. (1992b). An interface between psychology and medicine: The antenatal detection of handicap. In R. Klimek, (Ed.), Pre- & Perinatal Psycho-Medicine (pp. 133-138). DWN Dream: Cracow.

Hill, L. M., Piatt, L. D, & Manning, F A. (1979). Immediate effect of amniocentesis on fetal breathing and gross body movement. American J. Ob I Gyn, 135, 689-690.

Hitchcock, D. A., Sutphen, J. H., & Scholly, T. A. (1980). Demonstration of fetal penile erection in utero. Perinatology I Neonatology, 4, 59-60.

Humphrey, T. (1978). Function of the nervous system during prenatal life. In U Stave (Ed.), Physiology of the Perinatal Period, Vol 2. (pp. 751-796). New York: Plenum Medical.

Hunt, E. & Agnoli, F (1991). The Whorfian hypothesis: A cognitive psychology perspective. Psychological Review, 98(3), 377-389.

Ianniruberto, A. & Tajani, E. (1981). Ultrasonographic study of fetal movements. Seminars in Perinatology, 5, 175-181.

Insel, T R., Kinsley, C. H., Mann, P. E., & Bridges, R. S. (1990). Prenatal stress has longterm effects on brain opiate receptors. Brain Research, 511, 93-97.

Kato, T, Takahashi, E., Sawada, K., Kobayashi, N, Watanabe, T, & Ishii, T (1983). A computer analysis of infant movements synchronized with adult speech. Pediatric Research, 17, 625-628.

Kisilevsky, B. S. & Muir, D. W. (1991). Human fetal and subsequent newborn responses to sound and vibration. Infant Behavior & Development, 14(1), 1-26.

Klaus, M. H. & Klaus, P H. (1985). The amazing newborn. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Korner, A. F, Lane, N M., Berry K A, & Rho, J. M. (1990). Sleep enhanced and irritabihty reduced in preterm infants: Differential efficacy of three types of waterbeds. J. Developmental & BehavioralPediatrics, 11(5), 240-246.

Kramer, L. I. & Pierpont, M. E. (1976). Rocking waterbeds and auditory stimuli to enhance growth of preterm infants. J. Pediatrics, 88, 297-299.

Kuhlman, K A., Burns, K A., Depp, R., & Sabbagha, R. E. (1988). Ultrasonic imaging of normal fetal response to external vibratory acoustic stimulation. American J. Ob / Gyn, 158(1), 47 '-51.

Laibow, R. (1988). Prenatal and perinatal experience and developmental impairment. In: P. Fedor-Frey- bergh, & M. L. V. Vogel (Eds.), Prenatal & perinatal psychology & medicine: Encounter with the unborn (pp. 295-308). Lancaster, England: Parthenon.

Laughlin, C. D. (1989). The roots of enculturation: The challenge of pre- and perinatal psychology for ethnological theory and research. Anthropologica, 31, 135-178.

Leader, L. R., Bailie, P, Martin, B. & Vermeiden, E. (1982). The assessment and significance of habituation to a repeated stimulus by the human fetus. Early Human Development, 7, 211-219.

Liley, A W (1972). The foetus as a personality. Australian and New Zealand J. of Psychiatry, 6(2), 99-105.

Lipsitt, L. P. (1969). Learning capacities of the human infant. In R. J. Robinson, (Ed.), Brain and early behavior development in the fetus and infant (pp. 227-249). London: Academic Press.

Luddington-Hoe, S. & Golant, S. (1993). Kangaroo care: The best you can do to help your preterm infant. New York: Bantam.

MacFarlane, A. (1975). Olfaction in the development of social preferences in the human neonate. Parent-Infant Interactions. CIBA Foundation Symposium #33, 103-113.

Madison, L. S., Adubato, S. A. & Madison, J. K., Nelson, R.B., Anderson, R., Erickson, J., Kuss, L., & Goodlin, R.C. (1986). Fetal response decrement: True habituation? J. Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 7(1), 14-20.

Manning, F A, Piatt, L. D. & Lemay, M. (1977). Effect of amniocentesis on fetal breathing movements. British Medical Journal, 2, 1582-1583.

Manrique, B., Contasti, M., Alvarado, M. ?., Zypman, M., Palma, N, Ierrobino, M. T., Ramirez, L, & Carini, D. (1993). Nurturing parents to stimulate their children from prenatal stage to three years of age. In T. Blum (Ed.), Prenatal perception, learning & bonding (pp. 153-186). Berlin : Leonardo.

Marnie, E. (1983/1988). Love Start: Prebirth bonding. Santa Monica, CA.: Hay House.

Meltzoff, A. N & Moore, M. K. (1977). Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science, Oct 7, 75-78.

Meltzoff, A. N (1985). The roots of social and cognitive development: Models of man's original nature. In T M. Field, & NA. Fox (Eds.), Social perception in infants (pp. 130). Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex.

Meltzoff, A N (1990). Towards a developmental cognitive science: The implications of cross-modal matching and imitation for the development of representation and memory in infancy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 608, 1-37.

Mistretta, C. M. & Bradley, R. M. (1975). Taste and swallowing in utero: A discussion of fetal sensory function. British Medical Bulletin, 11, 80-84.

Montagu, A. (1962). Prenatal influences (Chap. 9). Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas.

Moon, C. & Fifer, W. R (1990). Syllables as signals for 2-day-old infants. Infant Behavior & Development, 13(3), 377-390.

Mosser, C. (1989). Effet physiologique des stimulations sonores chez le premature. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Paris XII.

Neldam, S. & Pedersen, J. F (1980). Fetal heart rate response to amniocentesis in early pregnancy. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 8, 209-212.

Nijhuis, J. G. (Ed.) (1992). Fetal behaviour: Developmental and perinatal aspects. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

OMara, R (Ed.) (1993). Circumcision: The rest of the story. Santa Fe, NM: Mothering Magazine.

Owen, M. E. & Todt, E. H. (1984). Pain in infancy: Neonatal reaction to a heel lance. Pain, 20(1), 77-86.

Panneton, R. K. (1985). Prenatal auditory experience with melodies: Effects on postnatal auditory preferences in human newborns. PhD. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro. (Diss. Abstracts B: 3984.)

Panthuraamphorn, C. (1993). Prenatal infant stimulation program. In T Blum (Ed.), Prenatal perception, learning & bonding (pp. 187-220). Berlin & Hong Kong: Leonardo.

Papousek, H. & Papousek, M. (1992). Beyond emotional bonding: The role of preverbal communication in mental growth and health. Infant Mental Health J., 13(1), 43-53.

Peiper, A. (1925). Sinnesemp findungen des kindes vor seinergebert. Monatsschrift fur kinderheilkunde, 29, 237-241; cited in Hepper, P. G. (1989), Foetal learning: Implications for psychiatry? British Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 289-293.

Peleg, D. & Goldman, J. A. (1980). Fetal heart rate acceleration in response to light stimulation as a clinical measure of fetal well-being: A preliminary report. J. Perinatal Medicine, 8(1), 38-41.

Piontelli, A. (1987). Infant observation from before birth. International J. of PsychoAnalysis, 68, 453-463.

Piontelli, A. (1992). From fetus to child: An observational and psychoanalytic study. London and New York: Routledge.

Porter, F L., Miller, R H. & Marshall, R. E. (1986). Neonatal pain cries: Effect of circumcision on acoustic features of perceived urgency. Child Development, 57(3), 790-802.

Porter, R. H. (1991). Human reproduction and the mother-infant relationship: The role of odors. In T. V. Getchell (Ed.), Smell and taste in health and disease (pp. 429-442). New York: Raven Press.

Porter, R. H., Makin, J. W, Davis, L. B. & Christensen, K M. (1992). Breast-fed infants respond to olfactory cues from their own mother and unfamiliar lactating females. Infant Behavior & Development, 25(1), 85-93.

Ray, E. & Martinez, H. (1984). Rational handling of the premature child. Report to UNICEF. New York: UNICEF

Reissland, N (1988). Neonatal imitation in the first hour of life: Observations in rural Nepal. Developmental Psychology, 24(4), 464-469.

Roberts, A B., Griffen, D., Mooney, R, Cooper, D. J., & Campbell, S. (1980). Fetal activity in 100 normal third trimester pregnancies. British J. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 87, 480-484.

Roffwarg, H. P, Muzio, J. N, & Dement, W. C. (1966). Ontogenetic development of the human sleep- dream cycle. Science, 152, 604-619.

Romberg, R (1985). Circumcision: The painful dilemma. So. Hadley, MA Bergin & Garvey.

Ron, M. & Polishuk, W. Z. (1976). The response of the fetal heart rate to amniocentesis. British Journal Ob I Gyn, 83, 768.

Rose, S. A. (1990). Cross-modal transfer in human infants: What is being transferred? Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 608, 38-50.

Rossi, N, Avveduti, P, Rizzo, N. & Lorusso, R. (1989). Maternal stress and fetal motor behavior: A preliminary report. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 3(4), 311-318. See follow up letter, same Journal 4(4), 265-266.

Row, K V. & Drivas, A. (1993). Planned conception and infant functioning at age three months: A cross-cultural study. American J. Orthopsychiatry 63(1), 120-125.

Ryder, G H. (1943). Vagitus uterinus. Ameican. J. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 46, 867-872.

Salapatek, P& Cohen, L. (Eds.) (1987). Handbook of infant perception. Vol I: From sensation to perception. New York: Academic Press.

Sallenbach, W. B. (1993). The intelligent prenate: Paradigms in prenatal learning and bonding. In T Blum (Ed.), Prenatal perception, learning and bonding (pp. 61-106). Hong Kong & Berlin: Leonardo.

Scafidi, F, Field, T Schanberg, S., & Bauer, C. (1990). Massage stimulates growth in preterm infants: A replication, infant Behavior & Development, 13(2), 167-188.

Schleidt, M. & Gensel, C. (1990). The significance of mother's perfume for infants in their first weeks of their life. Ethology & Sociobiology, 11, 145-154.

Schneider, M. L. & Coe, C. L. (1993). Repeated social stress during pregnancy impairs neuromotor development of the primate infant. J. Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 14(2), 81-87.

Schwartz, L. (1980/1991). Bonding before birth: A guide to becoming a family. Boston Sigo Press.

Sexon, W. R., Schneider, P, Chamberlin, J. L., Hicks, M. K, & Sexon, B. (1986). Auditory conditioning in the critically ill neonate to enhance interpersonal relationships. J. of Perinatology, 6, 20-23.

Shahidullah, S. & Hepper, P G. (1992). Hearing in the fetus: Prenatal detection of deafness. International Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Studies, 4 (No. 3/4), 235-240.

Slater, A., Morison, V., & Rose, D. (1984). Habituation in the newborn. Infant Behavior & Development, 7, 183-200.

Slater, A, Mattock, A., Brown, E., & Bremner, J. G. (1991). Form perception at birth: Cohen & Younger (1984) revisited. J. of Experimental Child Psychology, 51(3), 395-406.

Smotherman, W. P. & Robinson, S. R. (1987). Prenatal influences on development: Behavior is not a trivial aspect of fetal life. Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 8(3), 171-176.

Sontag, L. W & Newbery, H. (1940). Normal variations of fetal heart rate during pregnancy. American Journal Ob/Gyn, 40, 449-452.

Sontag, L. (1966). Implications of fetal behavior and environment for adult personalities. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 134, 782-786.

Spelke, E. S., Breinlinger, K., Macomber, J., & Jacobson, K. (1992). Origins of knowledge. Psychological Review, 99(4), 605-632.

Stern, D. (1980). Film. Cited in Sander, L., New knowledge about the infant from current research: Implications for psychoanalysis. J. of American Psychoanalytic Association, 28, 181-198.

Stott, D. H. (1957). Physical and mental handicaps following a disturbed pregnancy. Lancet, 1, 1006-1012.

Tajani, E. & Ianniruberto, A. (1990). The uncovering of fetal competence. In M. Papini, A. Pasquinelh, & E. A. Gidoni (Eds.), Development, handicap, rehabilitation: Practice and theory (pp. 3-8). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Tatzer, E., Schubert, M. T., Timischl, W, & Simbruner, G (1985). Discrimination of taste and preference or sweet in premature babies. Early Human Development, 12, 23-30.

Thiery, M., Yo Lo Sian, A., Vrijens, M. & Janssens, M. (1973). Vagitus uterinus. J. of Obstetrics & Gynecology of the British Commonwealth, 80, 183-185.

Thoman, E. B., Ingersoll, E. W., & Acebo, C. (1991). Premature infants seek rhythmic stimulation, and the experience facilitates neurobehavioral development. J. of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 12(1), 11-18.

Thoman, E. B. (1993). Obligation and option in the premature nursery. Developmental Review, 13(1), 1-30.

Thoman, E. B. & Ingersoll, E. W. (1993). Learning in premature infants. Developmental Psychology, 29(4), 692-700.

Tomatis, A A (1991). The conscious ear. Barrytown, NY: Station Hill Press.

Trevarthen, C. (1974). The psychobiology of speech development. Neuroscience Research Progress Bulletin, 12(4), 570-585.

Trevarthen, C. (1977). Descriptive analysis of infant communicative behavior. In H. R. Shaffer (Ed.), Studies in mother-infant interaction (Ch. 10). N. Y.: Academic Press.

Tronick, E. & Adamson, L. (1980). Babies as people: New findings on our social beginnings. New York & London: Collier Books.

Truby, H. M. (1975). Prenatal and neonatal speech, pre-speech and an infantile speech lexicon. Child Language 1975, a special issue of WORD, 27(1-3).

Van de Carr, F. R. & Lehrer, M. (1986). Enhancing early speech, parental bonding and infant physical development using prenatal intervention in a standard obstetrical practice. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal 1(1), 20-30.

Van de Carr, F. R. & Lehrer, M. (1988). Prenatal University: Commitment to fetal-family bonding and the strengthening of the family unit as an educational institution. Pre&Perinatal Psychology Journal 3(2), 87-102.

Van de Carr, K, Van de Carr, F. R., & Lehrer, M. (1988). Effects of a prenatal intervention program. In P. Fedor-Freybergh & M. L. V Vogel (Eds.), Prenatal & perinatal psychology & medicine: A compre- hensive survey of research and practice, (pp. 489495) Lancaster, England: Parthenon Publishing.

Van de Carr, F R. & Lehrer, M. (1992). The prenatal classroom: A parents guide for teaching your baby in the womb. Atlanta, GA: Humanics Learning.

Van Dongen, L. G. R. & Goudie, E. G. (1980). Fetal movement patterns in the first trimester of pregnancy. British J. OblGyn, 87, 191-193.

Verny, T. with Kelly, J. (1981). The secret life of the unborn child. New York: Summit.

Verny, T. & Weintraub, P. (1991). Nurturing the unborn child: A nine-month program for soothing, stimulating, and communicating with your baby. New York Delacorte Press.

Walton, G E., Bower, N. J., & Bower, T. G R. (1992). Recognition of familiar faces by newborn. Infant Behavior & Development, 15(2), 265-269.

Ward, A. J. (1991). Prenatal stress and childhood psychopathology Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 22(2), 97-110.

Whitelaw, A. (1990). Kangaroo baby care: Just a nice experience or an important advance for preterm infants? Pediatrics, 85(4), 604-605.

Widmer, C. (1979). Postures et movements: Discrimination des personnes chez le bebe de 0 a 6 mois. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of Geneva, Switzerland.

Zuckerman, B., Bauchner, H., Parker, S. & Cabrai, H. (1990). Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy, and newborn irritability. J. of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 11(4), 190-194.

Pain in Childbirth, Maternal Care, and Mind Development: A Review

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
Sep 2010

In recent decades perinatal clinical psychology and infant research has shown how neurological maturation of the newborn and infant brain is due to learning from maternal care: properties of baby’s mind development are conditioned by maternal care, and the baby’s primary mental development conditions the future child and adult mental development. Research has also shown that maternal care may be modulated by childbirth pain. The experience of pain may increase and enrich maternal care, and its suppression may depress the mother’s ability in maternal care.


Battagliarin, G. (1999). Psicoprofilassi e dolore del parto (Psychoprophylaxis and pain of childbirth). In M. Farinet (Ed.), I grandi temi della psicoprofilassi negli anni '90 (The major themes of psychoprophylaxis in the 90s). Milano: Ed. Progetto.

Boncinelli, E. (1999). C'è dolore e dolore (There is pain and pain). Nascere, 3, 5-6.

Charlton, E.J. (2005). Core Curriculum for Professional Education in Pain. Seattle: IASP Press.

Clark, W.C., Yang, J.C., Tsui, S.L., Ng, K.F., & Bennett Clark S. (2002). Unidimensional pain rating scales: a multidimensional affect and pain survey (MAPS) analysis of what they really measure. Pain, 98, 241-247.

De Benedittis, G. (2000). Emozione e dolore. In M.A. Tiengo (Ed.), Il dolore e la mente (Pain and the mind) pp. 17-40. Milano: Springer Italia.

Farinet, M. (1999). I grandi temi della psicoprofilassi negli anni '90 (The major themes of psychoprophylaxis in the 90s). Milano: Ed. Progetto.

Goldstein-Ferber, S., & Feldmann, R. (2005). Delivery pain and the Development of mother-infant Interaction. Infancy, 8(1), 43-62.

Hiltunen, P., Raudaskoski, T., Ebeling, H., & Moilanen, I. (2004). Does pain reliefs during delivery decrease the risk of postnatal Depression? Acta Obstetric Gynecology Scandinavia, 83, 257-261.

Hodnett, E.D. (2002). Pain and women's satisfaction with the experience of childbirth: A systematic review. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 186(5), 160-172

Hofer, M.A. (1983a). The mother-infant interaction as a regulator of infant physiology and behaviour. In L. Rosenblum & H. Moltz (Eds.), Symbiosis in Parent-Offspring Interactions. New York: Plenum.

Hofer, M.A. (1983b). On the relationship between attachment and separation processes in infancy. In R. Plutchik, H. Kellermann (Eds.), Emotion: theory, research and experience. New York: Academic Press.

Hofer, M.A. (1984). Relationships as regulators: a psychobiologic perspective on bereavement. Psychosomatic Medicine, 46, 183-197.

Imbasciati, A. (1986). I grandi temi della ricerca. Vol. II: Istituzioni di psicologia (Major topics of research: Introduction to psychology). Torino: UTET Libreria.

Imbasciati, A. (2004). A theoretical support for transgenerationality Psychoanalytic Psychology, 21, 83-98.

Imbasciati, A. (2005). Psicoanalisi e cognitivismo (Psychoanalysis and cognition). Roma: Armando.

Imbasciati, A. (2006a). Il sistema protomentale (The protomental system). Milano: LED.

Imbasciati, A. (2006b). Constructing a mind: A new basis for psychoanalytic theory. London: Brunner & Routledge.

Imbasciati, A. (2008a). La mente medica (The medical mind). Milano: Springer Verlag.

Imbasciati, A. (2008b). Le cure materne: matrice dello sviluppo del futuro individuo (Maternal care: The development of individual matrix). Nascere, 104, 4-10.

Imbasciati, A. (2010). Cure materne e sviluppo del futuro individuo (Maternal care: The development of future individual matrix). Nascere, 2, 3-10.

Imbasciati, A., & Cena, L. (2010). I bambini e i suoi caregivers (Children and their caregivers). Roma: Borla.

Imbasciati, A., & Dabrassi, F. (2010). Dolore nel parto, cure materne, sviluppo del futuro individuo: ipotesi per la rilevazione di indici predittivi (Pain in childbirth, maternal care, the future development of the individual: A hypothesis for the detection of predictive indicators). Minerva Psichiatrica, in press.

Imbasciati, A., Dabrassi, F., & Cena, L. (2007). Psicologia clinica perinatale (Perinatal Clinical Psychology). Padova: Piccin.

Kanizsa, G. (1961). Cosa si intende per percezione (What is perception). Rivista di psicologia, LV(4), 271-276.

Kanizsa, G. (1980). La grammatica del vedere (The grammar of seeing). Bologna: Il Mulino.

Kumar, S., Tandon, O.P., & Mathur, R. (2002). Pain measurement: a formidable task. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 46, 396-406.

Lieberman, E., & O'Donoghue, C. (2002). Unintended effects of epidural analgesia during labor: a systematic review. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 186, S31-68.

Lowe, N.K. (2002). The nature of labor pain. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 186(5), S16-24.

McCrea, B.H., & Wright, M.E. (1999). Satisfaction in Childbirth and perception of personal control of Pain during labor. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29(4), 877-884.

Mimoun, S., & Maggioni, C. (2003). Trattato di Ostetricia e Ginecologia Psicosomatica (Treaty of pscychosomatic obstretrics and gynecology). Milano: Angeli.

Miraglia, F (1990). Il dolore in travaglio di parto. In M. Farinet (Ed), I grandi temi della psicoprofilassi negli anni '90 (Major themes of psychoprophylaxis in the 90s). Milano: Ed. Progetto.

Murray, A.D., Dolby, R.M., Nation, R.L., & Thomas, D.B. (1981). Effect of epidural Anesthesia on newborn and their mothers. Child Development, 52(1), 71-82.

Musatti, C. (1958). Struttura ed esperienza nella fenomenologia percettiva (Structure and experience in the phemenology of perception). Rivista di psicologia, LII(2), 144-190.

Nakamura, Y., & Chapman, C.R: (2002). Measuring pain: an introspective look at introspection. Consciousness and Cognition, 11, 582-592.

Newton, E.R., Schroeder, B.C., Knape, K.G., & Bennett, B.L. (1995). Epidural analgesia and uterine function. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 85(5), 749-755.

Regalia, A., & Bestetti, A. (2006). Dolore fisiologico, dolore patologico, dolore iatrogeno. Qualità del dolore e esperienza delle donne (Physiological pain, pathological pain, iaotrogenic pain: The quality of pain and the experience of women). In G.B. La Scala, V. Iori, F. Mori, & P.G. Fagandini (Eds.). La normale complessità del venire al mondo (The normal complexity of coming to the world). Milano: Guerini.

Riordan, G., Gross, A., Angeron, J., Krumwiede, B., & Melin, J. (2000). The Effect of Labor Relief medication on neonatal suckling and breast feeding duration. Journal of Human Lactation, 16(7), 7-12.

Schore, A.N. (2003a). Affect disregulation and the disorders of the Self. New York: Norton & Company Ltd.

Schore A.N. (2003b). Affect regulation and the repair of the Self. New York Norton & Company Ltd.

Sepkowski, C., Lester, B., Ostheimer, G., & Brazelton, B. (1992). The effect of maternal epidural Anaesthesia on neonatal behaviour during the first month. Development Medicine & Child Neurology, 34, 1072-1080.

Tiengo, M.A. (2000). Il dolore e la mente (Pain and the mind). Milano: Springer.

Uvnäs-Moberg, K. (1996). Neuroendocrinology of the Mother-Child Interaction. Elsevier Science TEM, 7(4), 126-130.

Walderström, U., Bergman, V., & Vasell, G. (1996). The complexity of labor pain: experiences of 278 women. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetric Gynaecology, 17, 215228.

Nurture of the Brain, Nutritional & Emotional, in the Context of Evolution and the Lifecycle

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
Mar 2010
Controlled trials reveal that, from before conception, nutrient deficits and toxins affect sperm, ovum, and maternal stores, lastingly impairing a child's health and abilities. Deficits, toxins, and stress can inhibit structure and function, and be linked to autism or reduced self-control, possibly with violent tendencies. From the beginning, epigenetic settings are mostly set early for directing development according to current environment. Many are operative in the brain.

Agostoni, C., Trojan, S., Bellu, R., Riva, E., Giovanni, M. (1995). Neurodevelopmental quotient of healthy term infants at 4 months and feeding practice: the role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Pediatric Research, 38(2), 262-266.

Andlin-Sobocki, P., Jonsson, B., Wittchen, H.U., & Olesen, J. (2005). Costs of Disorders of the Brain in Europe. European J Neurology, 22(S-1), 1-27.

Barnes B, (2009). Beautiful Babies: For 30 years, restoring natural fertility and creating happy, healthy babies. Bognor Regis UK: Foresight, The Association for the Promotion of Preconceptional Care.

Birch, E.E., Garfield, S., Castaneda, Y., Hughbanks-Wheaton, D., Uauy, R., & Hoffman, D., (2007). Visual acuity and cognitive outcomes at 4 years of age in a double-blind, randomized trial of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acidsupplemented infant formula. Early Human Development, 83(5), 279-284.

Birch, E.E., Garfield, S., Hoffman, D.R., Uauy, R., Birch, D.G. (2000). A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental development in term infants. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 42(3), 174-181.

Birch, E.E., Hoffman, D.R., Uauy, R., Birch, D.G., & Prestridge, C. (1998). Visual acuity and the essentiality of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in the diet of term infants. Pediatric Research, 44, 201-209.

Boulet, S., Parker, C., & Atrash, H. (2006). Preconception care in international settings Maternal and Child Health Journal, 10(1), 29-35.

Bradley, S.G. & Bennett, N. (1995). Preparation for pregnancy. Scotland: Argyll.

Brenna, T. (2006). Neuroscience: Nutritional factors in neurogenesis and the relative importance of different types of essential fatty acids. Symposium of The Letten and Mother & Child Foundations on Epigenetics in human brain function; 22-23 October.

Bunting, M. (2007). Desperation, babies, and money make for an uncontrolable combination. The Guardian, Jan 15.

Crawford, M., & Marsh, D. (1995). Nutrition and evolution. New Canaan, CT: Keats.

Crawford, M., & Marsh, D. (1989). The driving force (re-issued in 1995 as Nutrition and evolution). New York: Harper & Row.

Crawford, M., Costeloe, K., Doyle, W., Leighfield, M., Lennon, E., & Meadow, N. (1990). Potential diagnostic value of the umbilical artery as a definition of neural fatty acid status of the fetus during its growth, the umbilical artery as a diagnostic tool. Biochemical Society Transactions, 18, 761-766.

Crawford, M., Doyle, W., Williams, G., & Drury, P. (1989). The Role of Fats and EFA's for energy and Cell Structures in the Growth of Fetus and Neonate. In The role of fats in human nutrition. Academic Press: New York. 81-115.

Czeizel, A.E. (1993). Prevention of congenital abnormalities by periconceptional multivitamin supplementation. British Medical Journal, 19.306 (6893), 1645-1648.

Czeizel, A.E. (1995). Folic Acid. In Vitamins in pregnancy and infancy. Annales Nestle, 53, 61-68.

Czeizel, A.E. (2000). Primary prevention of neural-tube defects and some other major congenital abnormalities: recommendations for the appropriate use of folic acid during pregnancy. Paediatrica Drugs, 6, 437-449.

Darwin, C. (1859). Origin of the Species. 1868, London: John Murray.

Davies, M.J., Wang, J.X., & Norman, R.J. (2004). What is the most relevant standard of success in assisted reproduction? Assessing the BESST index for reproduction treatment. Human Reproduction, 19(5), 1049-1051.

Dryden, R. (1978). Before Birth. London: Heinemann.

Doyle, W., Crawford, M., Wynn, A., & Wynn, S. (1990) The Association between Maternal Diet and Birth Dimensions, Journal of Nutritional Medicine, 1(1), 9-17.

Dupin, H., Abraham, J., & Giachetti, I. (1992). Apports nutritionels conseilles' (ANC) pour la population francaise. Tec & Doc Lavoisier.

EAS (2009). EAS Congress Highlights. EAS Congress Bulletin, 131(8)

Erkkila, A., Isotalo, E., Pulkkinen, J., & Haapanen, M.L. (2005). Association between school performance, breast milk intake and fatty acid profile of serum lipids in ten-year-old cleft children. Journal of Craniofacia Surgery, 16(5), 764-769.

Fodor, N. (1949). The Search for the Beloved. NJ: University Books.

Foresight Preconception Care (n.d.). Retrieved from

Gem (2006). Gem K-W and Mineral Club. Retrieved from

Gesch, C.B., Hammond, S.M., Hampson, S., Eves, A., & Crowder, M. (2002). Influence of supplementary vitamins, mineral,s and essential fatty acids on the antisocial behaviour of young adult prisoners. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 181, 22-28.

Gillman. M.W., Barker, D., Bier, D., Cagampang, F., Challis, J., Fall. C., Thornburg, K.L.(2007). Meeting report on the 3rd International Congress on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Pediatric Research, 61(5, Pt 1), 625-629.

Glenville, M., (2006). Health Professionals' Guide to Preconception Care. UK: Foresight,

Glynn, L.M., Wadhwa, P.D., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Chicz-Demet, A., & Sandman, C.A. (2001). When stress happens matters: effects of earthquake timing on stress responsivity in pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 185(3), 779-780.

Glynn, L.M., Wadhwa, P.D., & Sandman, C.A. (2000). The influence of corticotropin-releasing hormone on human fetal development and parturition. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 14(3-4), 243-256.

Golubovsky, M. & Manton, K.G (2005). A three-generation approach in biodemography is based on the developmental profiles and the epigenetics of female gametes. Frontiers in Bioscience, 10, 187-191.

Gomez-Pinilla, F. (2006). Epigenetic influences of dietary factors and environment on cognitive plasticity. Symposium of The Letten and Mother & Child Foundations on Epigenetics in human brain function; Improving nutrition and increasing resistance to infection in fighting the HIV epidemic in Africa. October 22-23.

Guvenc, H., Karatas, F., Guvenc, M., Kunc, S., Aygun, A.B., & Bektas, S. (1995). Low levels of selenium in mothers and their newborns in pregnancies with a neural tube defect. Pediatrics, 95(6), 879-882.

Hart, S., Boylan, L.M., Carroll, S., Musick, Y.A., & Lampe, R.M. (2003). Brief report: breast-fed one-week-olds demonstrate superior neurobehavioral organization. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 28(8), 529-534.

Hibbeln, J.R. (2001). Neurodevelopmental, evolutionary and epidemiological perspectives dietary deficiencies of omega-3 fatty acids in mental health. In Post-Genome: Health implications for research and food policy; A McCarrison Society Conference, The Medical Society of London, September 19.

Hibbeln, J.R., Davis, J.M., Steer, C., Emmett, P., Rogers, I., Williams, C., & Golding, J. (2007). Maternal seafood consumption in pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood: an observational cohort study. Lancet, 369, 578-588.

Hill, M. (2009). Carnegie Stages Large Images. UNSW Embryology

House, S.H. (1999). Primal Integration Therapy - School of Frank Lake. International Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 11(4), 437-457.

House, S.H. (2000). Generating Healthy People: Stages in reproduction particularly vulnerable to xenobiotic hazards and nutritional deficits, Nutrition and Health, 14(3), 147-193.

House, S.H. (2007). Nuturing the brain, nutritionally and emotionally, from before conception to late adolescence. In: Generating Healthy Brains. Nutrition and Health 19.1-2. Bicester UK: AB Academic. (Medline).

House, S.H. (2008). Schoolchildren, maternal nutrition and generating healthy brains: the importance of lifecycle education for fertility, health and peace. Nutrition and Health, 19(4) Bicester UK: AB Academic.

House, S.H. (2010). Epigenetics in Adaptive Evolution and Development: the interplay between evolving species and epigenetic mechanisms. In Handbook of Epigenetics: The New Molecular and Medical Genetics. Editor, Tollefsbol T. Elsevier, AcademicPress.

Kennedy, R., Kingsland, C., Rutherford, A., Hamilton, M., & Ledger, W. (2006). British Fertility Society. Implementation of the NICE guideline - recommendations for national criteria for NHS funding of assisted conception. Human Fertility (Camb), 3, 181-189.

Keverne, E.B., (2007). The significance of genomic imprinting for brain development and behaviour. In: Generating Healthy Brains. Nutrition and Health 19, 1-2.

Kingsbury, K. (2008). Tallying Mental Illness' Costs. Time, May,8599,1738804,00.html

Laasonen, M., Erkkila, A.T., Isotalo, E., Maenpaa, P.K., Pulkkenen, J.J., Virsu, V., & Haapanen, M.L. (2006). Serum lipid fatty acids and temporal processing acuity in children with oral clefts. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 74(4), 263-270.

Lake, F. (1981). Tight Corners in Pastoral Counseling. London: Darton Longman & Todd.

Leaf, A., Leighfield, M., Costeloe, K., & Crawford, M. (1992). Factors affecting long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of plasma choline phosphoglycerides in preterm infants, J Gastro & Nutr, 14, 300-308.

Lipton, B.H. (2001). Nature, Nurture, and Human Development, J Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 16(2), 167-180.

Lucas, A., Morley, R., Cole, T.J., Lister, G. & Leeson-Payne, C. (1992). Breast milk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born preterm. Lancet, 339(8788), 261 264.

McNamara, R., & Carlson, S. (2006). Role of omega-3 fatty acids in brain development and function: potential implications for the pathogenesis and prevention of psychopathology. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 75, 329-349.

MEPS (2005). Household component summary tables. Accessed at eractive.jsp?

Mill, J., Tang, T., Kaminsky, Z., Khare, T., Yazdanpanah, S., Bouchard, L., ..., Petronis, A. (2008). Epigenomic profiling reveals DNA-methylation changes associated with major psychosis. American Journal of Humam Genetics, 82(3), 696-711.

Min, J.K., Breheny, S.A., MacLachlan, V., & Healy, D.L. (2004). What is the most relevant standard of success in assisted reproduction? The singleton, term gestation, live birth rate per cycle initiated: the BESST endpoint for assisted reproduction. Human Reproduction, 19(1), 3-7.

Monk, M. (1995). Epigenetic programming of differential gene expression in development and evolution. Developmental Genetics, 17, 188-197.

Mott, F.J. (1965). The Universal Design of Creation. Edenbridge: Mark Beech.

MRC Vitamin Group (1991). Prevention of neural tube defects, results of the Medical Research Co Vitamin Study Giachetti 1. (1992) Apports nutritionels conseilles' (ANC) pour la population francaise. Tec & Doc Lavoisier. Lancet, 338, 131.

Myers, G.J. & Davidson. P.W. (2007). Maternal fish consumption benefits children's development. The Lancet 369, 537-538.

Nathanielsz, P.W., Berghorn, K.A., Derks, J.B., Giussani, D.A., Docherty, C., Unno, N., Davenport, A., Kutzlers, M., Koenen, S., Visser, G.H., & Nijland, M.J. (2003). Life before birth: effects of Cortisol on future cardiovascular and metabolic function. Acta Paediatrica, 92(7):766-72.

Neuringer, M. & Connor, W.E. (1986). n-3 Fatty acids in the brain and retina, evidence for their essentiality, Nutrition Reviews, 44(9), 285-294.

Odent, M. (1986). Primal Health, London: Century.

Olsen, S.F., Sorensen, J.D., Secher, N.J., Hidegaard, M., Henriksen, T.B., Hansen, H.S., & Grant, A. (1992). Randomized controlled trial of effect of fish oil supplementation on pregnancy duration. Lancet, 339(8800), 1003 1008.

Peerbolte, M. L. (1954). Psychic energy in pre-natal dynamics. Holland: Wassener.

Pembrey M (2006) The ghost in your genes.

Pembrey, M.E, Bygren, L.O., Kaati, G., Edvinsson, S., Northstone, K., Sjostrom, M., & Golding, J. (2006). Sex-specific, male-line transgenerational responses in humans. Eur J Hum Genet, 14(2), 159-166.

Pert, C. (1998). Molecules of emotion. London: Simon and Schuster.

Phylactos, A.C., Leaf, A.A., Costeloe, K. & Crawford, M.A. (1995). Erythrocyte cupric/zinc superoxidedismutase exhibits reduced activity in preterm and low-birthweight infants at birth. Acta Paediatrica 84, 1421-1425.

Piontelli, A. (1992). From fetus to child: An observational and psychoanalytic study. London: Routledge.

Raine, A., Brennan, P. & Mednick, S. A. (1994). Birth complication combined with early maternal rejection at Age 1 year predispose to violent crimes at age 18 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 984-988.

Rajkhowa, M., McConnell, A., & Thomas, G.E (2006). Reasons for discontinuation of IVF treatment: a questionnaire study. Human Reproduction, 21(2), 358-363.

Rayman. M.P. (2002). The argument for increasing selenium intake. Proc Nutr Soc, 61(2), 203-215.

Richardson, A., & Montgomery, P. (2005). The Oxford-Durham study: a randomized, controlled trial of dietary supplementation with fatty acids in children with developmental coordination disorder. Pediatrics, 115(5), 1360-1366.

Ridgway, R. & House, S.H. (2006). The unborn child. London: Karnac.

Rodier, P.M. (2000). The early origins of autism. Scientific American, 282(2), 56-63

Rodier, P., Ingram, J., Tisdale, B., Nelson, S., & Romano, J. (1996). Embryological origin for autism: developmental anomalies of the cranial nerve motor nuclei. J Comp Neurol, 370(2), 247-261.

Sadger, I (1941). Preminary study of the psychic life of the fetus and primary germ. Psychoanalytic Review, 28(3), 333.

Sanders, T.A., & Reddy, S. (1992). The influence of a vegetarian diet on the fatty acid composition of human milk and the essential fatty acid status of the infant. J Pediatrics, 120(4, Pt 2), S71-77.

Seaborn-Jones, G. (1977). Interview with Jean Posey, Self & Society, June.

Sinason, V., Ed. (2002). Attachment, Trauma Working with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Multiplicity. London: Routledge.

Stein, Z., Susser, M., Saenger, G., & Marolla, F. (1975). Famine and Human Development: the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944/45. London: Oxford Univ.

Stockdale, T. (1992). A speculative discussion of some of the problems arising from the use of ammonium nitrate fertilizer on acid soil. Nutrition & Health, 8, 207-222. Letter, 14, 141-142. (2000).

Swartley, W. & Maurice, J. (1978). The birth of primais in wartime Britain. Self & Society, June.

UNCED (1992). Nations of the Earth Report. UNCED national reports summaries. New York: United Nations.

US DHSS Department of Health and Human Services (2009). August 6.

Verny, T.R.,& Weintraub, P. (2002). Tomorrow's baby: The art and science of parenting from conception through infancy. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Wanodyasari, D.A. (2005). The healing power of unconditional love.

Yehuda, R., Engel, S.M., Brand, S.R., Seckl, J., Marcus, S.M., & Berkowitz, G.S. (2005). Transgenerational Effects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Babies of Mothers Exposed to the World Trade Center Attacks during Pregnancy. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(7), 4115-411

Hypothesis: Preeclampsia as a Maternal-Fetal Conflict

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
May 2006

The association of preeclampsia with both high and low birth weight challenges the current belief that reduced uteroplacental perfusion is the unique pathophysiologic process in preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is thus presented from a new perspective, in the framework of maternal/fetal conflict. Interspecies comparisons encourage us to raise new questions concerning the potential for conflict among humans. The spectacular brain growth spurt during the second half of fetal life is a specifically human trait.


Al, M.D., Van Houwelingen, A.C., Badart-Smook, A., Hasaart, T.H., Roumen, F.J., & Hornstra, G. (1995). The essential fatty acid status of mother and child in pregnancy-induced hypertension: A prospective longitudinal study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 172, 1605-1614.

Al, M.D., Van Houwelingen, A.C., & Hornstra, G. (1997). Relation between birth order and the maternal and neonatal docosahexaenoic acid status. Eur J Clin Nutr. 51, 548-553.

Appel, L.J., Miller, E.R., Seidler, A.J., & Whelton, P.K. (1993). Does supplementation of diet with 'fish oil' reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 153, 1429-1438.

Bucher, H.C., Guyatt, G.H., & Cook, R.J., et al. (1996). Effect of calcium supplementation on pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia. JAMA. 275, 1113-1117.

Caritis, S., Sibai, B., Thorn, C., & McLaughlin, S. (1995). Pregnancy effects of non-proteinuric gestational hypertension. SPO Abstracts. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 418, 376.

Carlson, E., & Salem, N. (1991). Essentiality of omega-3 fatty acids in growth and development in infants. In: Simopoulos, A.P., Kifer, R.R., Martin, R.E., & Barlow, S.M., eds. Effects of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Seafoods. World Rev Nutr Diet. 66, 74-86.

Chappell, L.C., seed, P.T., Briley, A.L., Kelly, F.J., & Hunt, B.J., et al. (1999). Effect of antioxidants on the occurrence of pre-eclampsia in women at increased risk: A randomised trial. Lancet. 354, 810-816.

Crawford, M.A., Hassam, A.C., Williams, G., & Whitehouse, W.L. (1976). Essential fatty acids and fetal brain growth. Lancet. I, 452-453.

De Groot, C.J.M., O'Brien, T. J., & Taylor, R.N. (1996). Biochemical evidence of impaired trophoblastic invasion of decidual stroma in women destined to have pre-eclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 175, 24-29.

Duley, L. (1994). Prophylactic fish oil in pregnancy. In: Pregnancy and Childbirth Module. Cochrane Database Systemic Reviews. Review No. 05941. Published through "Cochrane Updates on Disk."

Duley, L., Henderson-Smart, D., Knight, M., & King, J. (2001). Antiplatelet drugs for prevention of pre-eclampsia and its consequences: Systematic review. BMJ. 322, 329-333.

Eclampsia Trial Collaborative Group. (1995). Which anticonvulsant for women with eclampsia? Lancet. 345, 1455-1463.

Feeney, J.C., Tovey, L.A.D., & Scott, J.S. (1977). Influence of previous blood transfusion on incidence of pre-eclampsia. Lancet. II, 874-875.

Haig, D. (1993). Genetic conflicts in human pregnancy. Q Rev Biol. 68, 495-531.

Haig, D. (1996). Altercation of generations: genetics conflicts of pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol. 35, 226-236.

Kesmodel, U., Olsen, S.F., & Salvig, J.D. (1997). Marine n-3 fatty acid and calcium intake in relation to pregnancy induced hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm delivery. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 76, 38-44.

Kiilholma, P., Pakarinen, P., & Gronroos, M. (1984). Copper and zinc in pre-eclampsia. Acio Obstet Gynecol Scand. 63, 629-631.

Kilpatrick, S. (1995). Unlike pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension is not associated with increased neonatal and maternal morbidity except abruptio. SPO abstracts. Am J Obstet Gynecol 419, 376.

Kurki, T., Hiilesmaa, V., Raitasalo, R., Mattila, H., & Ylikorkala, O. (2000). Depression and anxiety linked to pre-eclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 95, 487-490.

Makrides, M., & Gibson, R.A. (2000). Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Am J Clin Nutr. 71(suppl 1), 307S-311S.

Murphy, D.J., Sellers, S., MacKenzie, I.Z., Yudkin, P.L., & Johnson, A.M. (1995). Case-control study of antenatal and intrapartum risk factors for cerebral palsy in very preterm singleton babies. Lancet. 346, 1449-1454.

Naeye, B.M. (1981). Maternal blood pressure and fetal growth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 141, 780-787.

Odent, M. (1995). The primary human disease: An evolutionary perspective. ReVision. 18, 19-21.

Odent, M. (2000). Pre-eclampsia as a maternal - fetal conflict: The link with fetal brain development. International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL) News. 7, 7-10.

Odent, M., McMillan, L., & Kimmel, T. (1996). Prenatal care and sea fish. Ear J Obstet Gynecol. 68, 49-51.

Olsen, S.F., & Secher, N.J. (1990). A possible preventive effect of low-dose fish oil on early delivery and pre-eclampsia: Indications from & 50-year-old controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 64, 599-609.

Olsen, S.F., Sorensen, J.D., & Secher, N.J., et al. (1997). Randomised controlled trial of effect of fish oil supplementation on pregnancy duration. Lancet. 339, 1003-1007.

Robillard, P.Y., Husley, T.C., & Perianiu, J., et al. (1994). Association of pregnancy-induced hypertension with duration of sexual cohabitation before conception. Lancet. 344, 973-975.

Ros, H.S., Cnattingius, S., & Lipworth, L. (1998). Comparison of risk factors for preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in a population-based cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 147, 1062-1070.

Salvig, J.D., Olsen, S.F., & Secher, N.J. (1996). Effects offish oil supplementation in late pregnancy on blood pressure: A randomised controlled trial. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 103, 529-533.

Sanders, T.A.B., & Younger, K.M. (1981). The effect of dietary supplements of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of platelets and plasma choline phosphoglycerides. Br J Nutr. 45, 613-616.

Sarhanis, P., & Pugh, D.H.O. (1992). Resolution of pre-eclampsia following intrauterine death of one twin. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 99, 159-160.

Strickland, D.M., Guzik, O.S., Cox, K., Gant, N.F., & Rosenfeld, C.R. (1986). The relationship between abortion in the first trimester and development of pregnancy-induced hypertension in subsequent pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 154, 146-148.

Symonds, E.M. (1980). Aetiology of pre-eclampsia: A review. J R Soc Med. 73, 871-875.

Velzing-Aarts, F.V., van der His, F.R., van der Dijs, F.P., & Muskiet, F.A. (1999). Umbilical vessels of preeclamptic women have low contents of both n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr. 69, 293-298.

Wang, Y., Kay, H.H., & Killam, A.P. (1991). Decreased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in pre-eclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 164, 812-818.

Williams, M.A. (1995). Risk of pre-eclampsia in relation to elaidic acid (trans fatty acid) in maternal erythrocytes. SPO abstracts. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 436, 380.

Williams, M.A., Zingheim, R.W., King, I.B., & Zebelman, A.M. (1995). Omega-3 fatty acids in maternal erythrocytes and risk of pre-eclampsia. Epidemiology. 6, 232-237.

Xiong, X., Demianczuk, N.N., Buekens, P., & Saunders, L.D. (2000). Association of preeclampsia with high birth weight for age. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 183, 148-155.

Michel Odent, MD, Primal Health Research Centre, London, England

Editor's note: This essay is reprinted with the permission of Michel Odent, Director, Primal Health Research, published in North and South America by Birth Works, Ic., Medford, N.J. Free access to Primal Health Research Data Bank is provided at: Email address for Dr. Odent is:

The Neurological Impact of Preterm and Very Preterm Birth and Influence of IVF Pregnancies on Developmental Outcomes: A Literature Review and Case Study

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
Dec 2005

This article explores the influence on brain development, as well as the neurological and behavioral outcomes, of the preterm and very preterm infant. It also briefly covers the influence of In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF), multiple births, gestational age, and birth weight on development as well as giving a more in depth review of literature that evaluates the impact of preterm birth and very preterm birth on brain development and neurological and behavioral outcomes.


Ajayi-Obe, M., Saeed, N., Cowan, P.M., Rutherford, M.A., & Edwards, A.D. (2000). Reduced development of cerebral cortex in extremely preterm infants. The Lancet, 356(9236), 1162-1165.

Anderson, P. & Doyle, L. (2003). Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born extremely low birth weight or very preterm in the 1990s. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 3264-3272.

Bernasko, J., Lynch, L., Lapinski, R., & Berkowitz, R. (1997). Twin pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive techniques: maternal and neonatal outcomes. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 89(3), 368-372.

Bryan, E. (2003). The impact of multiple preterm births on the family. BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 110(Suppl. 20), 24-28.

Cusson, R. (2003). Factors influencing language development in preterm infants. JOGNN, 32(3), 402-409.

Goldberg, S. & DiVitto, B. (1983). Born too soon. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company.

Grasby, D.O., Esterman, A., & Marshall, P. (2003). Ultrasound grading of cerebral ventricular dilatation in preterm neonates. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 39, 186-190.

Hack, M., Flannery, D., Schluchter, M., Cartar, L., Borawski, E., & Klein, N. (2002). Outcomes in young adulthood for very-low-birth-weight infants. The New England Journal of Medicine, 346(3), 149-157.

Hughes, M., Shults, J., McGrath, J. & Medoff-Cooper, B. (2002). Temperament characteristics of premature infants in the first year of life. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 23(6), 430-435.

Mouradian, L., Als, H., & Coster, W. (2000). Neurobehavioral functioning of healthy preterm infants of varying gestational ages. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 21(6), 408-416.

Olivennes, F., Kadhel, P., Rufat, P., Fanchin, R., Fernandez, H., & Frydman, R. (1996). Perinatal outcome of twin pregnancies obtained after in vitro fertilization: comparison with twin pregnancies obtained spontaneously or after ovarian stimulation. Assisted Reproductive Technology, 66(1), 105-109.

Peterson, B., Anderson, A., Ehrenkranz, R., Staib, L., Tageldin, M., Colson, E., Gore, J., Duncan, C., Makuch, R., & Ment, L. (2003). Regional brain volumes and their later neurodevelopmental correlates in term and preterm infants. Pediatrics, 111(5), 939-948.

Peterson, B., Vohr, B., Staib, L., Cannistraci, C., Dolberg, A., Schneider, K., Katz, K., Westerveld, M., Sparrow, S., Anderson, A., Duncan, C., Makuch, R., Gore, J., & Ment, L. (2000). Regional brain volume abnormalities and long-term cognitive outcome in preterm infants. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(15), 1939-1947.

Stewart, A.L., Rifkin, L., Amess, P.N., Kirkbride, V., Townsend, J.P., Miller, D.H., Lewis, S.W., Kingsley, D.P.E., Moseley, I.F., Foster, O., & Murray, R.M. (1999). Brain structure and neurocognitive and behavioural function in adolescents who were born very preterm. The Lancet, 353, 1653-1657.

Torrioli, M., Frisone, M., Bonvini, L., Luciano, R., Pasca, M., Lepori, R., Tortorolo, G., & Guzzetta, F. (2000). Perceptual-motor, visual and cognitive ability in very low birthweight preschool children without neonatal ultrasound abnormalities. Brain and Development, 22, 163-168.

Wocadlo, C. & Rieger, I. (2000). Very preterm children who do not cooperate with assessments at three years of age: skill differences at five years. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 21(2), 107-113.

Send correspondence to: Mari Fullmer, MA at 3695 La Entrada, Santa Barbara, CA 93105. Email: Ms. Fullmer is a recent graduate of Santa Barbara Graduate Institute.