Children

A Journey of Love: The Influence of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology on Parent-Child Bonding

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Publication Date: 
October 2007

The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to better understand parents? experiences of bonding with their babies in utero and after birth, and to discover the relevance of a prenatal and perinatal psychology (PPN) based bonding class in this process. Five couples were recruited from prenatal parenting classes in Santa Barbara, CA, and interviewed in person 2-6 months after giving birth.

References: 

Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Barrack, A. C. (2004). [Influence of prenatal and perinatal psychology on parent-child bonding]. Unpublished raw data.

Barrack, A. C. (2005). A journey of love: The influence of prenatal and perinatal psychology on parent-child bonding. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Santa

Barbara Graduate Institute, CA.

Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.

Chamberlain, D. (2003). Communicating with the mind of a prenate: Guidelines for parents and birth professionals. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 18(2), 95-108.

Ciechanowski, P. S., Walker, E. A., Katon, W. J., & Russo, J. E. (2002). Attachment theory: A model for health care utilization and somatization. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 660-667.

Emerson, W. R. (1996). The vulnerable prenate. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 10(3), 125-142.

Hrdy, S. B. (1999). Mother nature: Maternal instincts and how they shape the human species. New York: Ballantine Books.

Karen, R. (1994). Becoming attached. New York: Oxford University Press.

Karmiloff, K., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1999). Everything your baby would ask...if only he or she could talk. New York: Golden Books.

Karr-Morse, R., & Wiley, M. (1997). Ghosts from the nursery: Tracing the roots of violence. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.

Kennell, J. H., & Klaus, M. H. (1984). Mother-infant bonding: Weighing the evidence. Developmental Review, 4, 274-282.

Kitzinger, S. (2003). The complete book of pregnancy and childbirth. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Klaus, M. H., & Kennell, J. H. (1976). Maternal-infant bonding. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby.

Lawrence-Lightfoot, S., & Davis, J. H. (1997). The art and science of portraiture. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Luminare-Rosen, C. (2003). Birth, brain, and bonding: The psychology and science of attachment. Paper presented at the Association for Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, San Francisco, CA.

Lyons-Ruth, K., Easterbrooks, M. A., & Cibelli, D. D. (1997). Infant attachment strategies, infant mental lag, and maternal depressive symptoms: Predictors of internalizing and externalizing problems at age 7. Developmental Psychology, 33(4), 681-692.

Magid, K., & McKelvey, C. (1987). High risk: Children without a conscience. New York: Bantam.

Main, M. (1991). Metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive monitoring, and singular (coherent) vs. multiple (incoherent) models of attachment: Findings and directions for future research. In C. M. Parkes, J. Stevenson-Hinde, & P. Marris (Eds.), Attachment across the life cycle. London: Routledge.

McCarty, W. A. (1996, 2000). Being with babies: What babies are teaching us, an introduction, 1. Santa Barbara, CA: Wondrous Beginnings.

McCarty, W. A. (2002). The power of beliefs: What babies are teaching us. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 16(4), 341-360.

Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Nathanielsz, P. (1999). Life in the womb: The origin of health and disease. New York: Promethean Press.

Nolan, M. (1997). Antenatal education - where next? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25, 1198-1204.

Panksepp, J. (2001). The long-term psychobiological consequences of infant emotions: Prescriptions for the twenty-first century. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22(1-2), 132-173.

Schore, A. N. (2000). Attachment and the regulation of the right brain. Attachment & Human Development, 2(1), 23-47.

Schore, A. N. (2002). The neurobiology of attachment and early personality organization. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 16(3), 249-263.

Sears, W, & Sears, M. (2001). The attachment parenting book. Boston: Little, Brown.

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Siegel, D. J., & Hartzell, M. (2003). Parenting from the inside out. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam.

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Tsujino, J., Higa, M. O., Eng, D., & Inuihara, T. (2002). Specificity of a mother's attachment to her child using the attachment inventory and factors related to attachment: Longitudinal research from prenatal to age three. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 17(1), 63-84.

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Improving Asthma Symptoms in Children by Repairing the Maternal-Infant Bond

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Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
March 2004

The mothers of 15 asthmatic children were treated with a therapy that repaired the bonding between their children and them. Twelve children's asthma symptoms improved; of the 10 who were regularly taking medications, 8 no longer needed them. Improvement seemed dependent upon age, with children under 9 having the greatest benefit. All 7 Mexican-American children improved, using a Bilingual Bicultural counselor to treat the mothers.

References: 

Brown, G., Pennington, D., & Madrid, A. (1981). The maternal-infant bonding survey. Unpublished Manuscript.

Cheek, D., & LeCron, L. (1968) Clinical hypnotherapy. New York: Grune and Stratton.

Feinberg, Steven. (1988). Degree of maternal infant bonding and its relationship to pediatric asthma and family environments. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Professional School of Psychology, San Francisco.

Horwood, L., Fergesson, D., Hons, B., & Shannon, F. (1985). Social and familial factors in the development of early childhood asthma. Pediatrics, 75: 859-868.

Klaus, M., & Kennell, J. (1976). Maternal-Infant Bonding. St. Louis: Mosby

Klinnert, M., Nelson, H., Price, M., Adinoff, L., Leung, D., & Mrazek, D. (2001). Onset and persistence of childhood asthma: predictors from infancy. Pediatrics, 4, Vol. 108, No. 4., Oct. [On-line]. Available: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/108/4/e69

Madrid, A., Ames, R., Skolek, S., & Brown, G. (2000). Does maternal-infant bonding therapy improve breathing in asthmatic children? Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 15(2), 90-117.

Pennington, D. (1991). Events associated with maternal-infant bonding deficits and severity of pediatric asthma. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Professional School of Psychology, San Francisco.

Schwartz, M. P. (1988). Incidence of events associated with maternal-infant bonding disturbance in a pediatric population. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rosebridge Graduate School, Walnut Creek.

Shapiro, F. (2001). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Basic principles, protocols, and procedures. Second edition. New York: Guilford Press.

Weil, C., Wade, S., Bauman, L., Lynn, H., Mitchell, H., & Lavigne, J. (1999). The relationship between psychosocial factors and asthma morbidity in inner-city children with asthma. Pediatrics, 104: 1274-1280.

Antonio Madrid, Ph.D., Ralph Ames, Ph.D., Denise Horner, M.A., Gary Brown, M.A., and Luz Navarrette, M.A.

Antonio Madrid, Ph.D., Ralph Ames, Ph.D., Denise Horner, M.A., are therapists at the Russian River Counselors, Monte Rio, CA. Gary Brown, M.A., and Luz Navarette, M.A., are teachers at Santa Rosa Junior College, Santa Rosa, CA. Correspondence can be addressed to Antonio Madrid, Ph.D., P.O. Box 519, Monte Rio, CA 95462 or madrid@neteze.com.

This study was sponsored by grants from the Van Strum Foundation and the Sonoma County Children and Families Commission.

APPENDIX A

QUICK REFERENCE MIBS

Physical Separation

* Mother was separated from child at or after birth.

* Mother had a very difficult delivery.

* Child was sick at birth.

* Child was twin or triplet.

* Intensive Care Nursery or incubator.

* Mother was anesthetized at birth.

* Mother was very sick after the birth.

* Mother was separated from child in first month.

* Child was adopted.

* Other separation occurred.

Emotional Separation

* Mother had emotional problems during pregnancy.

* Mother had emotional problems after birth.

* Mother had a death in the family within two years of birth.

* Mother had a miscarriage within two years of birth.

* Mother and father were separated before birth or soon after.

* Mother was addicted to drugs or alcohol at birth.

* Mother moved before or soon after birth.

* Severe financial problems.

* Unwanted pregnancy.

* New romance in mother's life.

* Other event which could have interfered with bonding.