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The Varying Behaviors of Fathers in the Prenatal Experience of the Unborn: Protecting, Loving and "Welcoming with Arms Wide Open," vs. Ignoring, Unloving, Competitive, Abusive, Abortion Minded or Aborting
Publication Date: 05/2005
Author(s): John C Sonne

In this paper the author explores varying behaviors of fathers during the prenatal life of the unborn from a psychoanalytic and family system perspective, enriched by studies from the field of prenatal psychology. He suggests broadening the meaning of behavior to encompass communications that are not clearly visible, audible, or tangible, and emphasizes the importance of the communication of affect in assessing whether an expression of caring and love is genuine and sincere.

Transitioning to the West: Gender Attitudes about Contraception and Pregnancy in a Former Soviet Union Country
Publication Date: 05/2005
Author(s): Anne Speckhard

Over the past 70 years former Soviet Union women have had relatively different reproductive lives and histories than their European counterparts. Since the break-up of the Soviet Union those countries that have European roots now have the possibility to transition toward a Western standard of living. Belarus is a country bordering Poland, and in three years time will likely be one of the countries just outside of the European Union borders.

Implications of Perceived Control for Recovery from Childbirth for Unplanned Cesarean, Planned Cesarean, and Vaginal Deliveries
Publication Date: 03/2005
Author(s): Jennifer A Gray

This study examines relationships between perceptions of control, postpartum depression, and physiological symptoms in women who gave birth vaginally or by cesarean. Extrapolating from a cognitive framework, it was hypothesized that women who gave birth by cesarean would exhibit lower levels of perceived control and higher levels of depression and physiological symptoms as compared with women who gave birth vaginally. Results were supportive of the hypotheses, suggesting that it may be helpful to explore ways of assisting women to experience greater control over their childbirth.

Infant Feeding Decisions and Practices in the U.S. and Colombia
Publication Date: 03/2005
Author(s): Angela Ramirez

Infant feeding decisions and practices were examined in a preliminary cross-cultural sample of the U.S. and Colombia using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Transtheoretical Model (TM) (Humphreys, Thompson & Miner, 1998) as a theoretical framework. The sample consisted of 80 participants in the third trimester of pregnancy, 40 were recruited in the U.S. and 40 in Colombia. As hypothesized, breastfeeding rates were significantly higher in Colombia than in the U.S.

Maternal Anxiety During and After Pregnancy and Infant Temperament at Three Months of Age
Publication Date: 03/2005
Author(s): Robert J Coplan

The purpose of the current study was to explore associations between maternal anxiety and infant temperament. Participants (n = 60 women) completed measures of state and trait anxiety during the third trimester of pregnancy and again three months postpartum, as well as an assessment of infant temperament. Maternal trait anxiety predicted infant distress to novelty and limitations, and difficulty soothing. Antenatal state anxiety predicted less infant positive affect and lower attention-span. Postnatal state anxiety was related to infant activity level and distress to limitations.

Post-Institutionalized Adopted Children Who Seek Breastfeeding from their New Mothers
Publication Date: 03/2005
Author(s): Karleen D Gribble

Reports of 32 adopted children who sought breastfeeding from their mothers are presented. Children were 8 months to 12 years at placement and sought breastfeeding from the day of placement to several years after. Some children suckled only a few times whereas others breastfed frequently over a protracted period. Suckling was comforting to children and assisted some in expressing grief over birth mother loss. Mothers felt that breastfeeding assisted in attachment development.

Postpartum Stress Symptoms and Child Temperament: A Follow-Up Study
Publication Date: 03/2005
Author(s): Paola Di Blasio

The aim of this research is to investigate whether postpartum stress symptoms may persist through time and whether these symptoms may he connected to temperamental characteristics of the child. The underlying hypothesis is that child temperament may both affect stress symptom persistence and itself be a stress source for the mother.

Graduation Address Santa Barbara Graduate Institute
Publication Date: 12/2004
Author(s): Allan N Schore

KEY WORDS: Prenatal and perinatal psychology, attachment, neuroscience, emotion, self-regulation, somatic psychology

Malattachment and the Self Struggle
Publication Date: 12/2004
Author(s): Marcy Axness

The author's doctoral dissertation, Malattachment and the Self Struggle, offers an in-depth portrait of intergenerational attachment disruption, its relationship to depression and defensive personality disorders, and approaches to healing-all within the context of the fictional narrative of Pearl, for whom "mothering tears her open, then urges her to wholeness." This excerpt features an explanation of the effects and implications of an attuned attachment relationship between infant and caregiver, casting it as critical developmental nourishment and terming its corruption malattachment; the

On Tyrants as Abortion Survivors
Publication Date: 12/2004
Author(s): John C Sonne

In this paper, an extension of an earlier paper (Sonne, 2002b), the author advances the thesis that murderous sibling rivalry, one of the psychological and social consequences of the threat of being aborted, is a major dynamic operative in "ethnic cleansing," eugenic movements, racial, religious and international conflict, mass murders, serial killings, and sometimes even in marital and parenting behavior.

SHARING SPACE: Obstetrics and Attachment
Publication Date: 12/2004
Author(s): Robert J Oliver

In the last 30 years there has been an increasing amount of psychological investigation into attachment. At the same time there appears in this literature to be a gap in the discussion of what may be the origins of early detachment of the child from his/her caretakers. This article suggests that the beginning lies in obstetrical care in today's highly interventional and technocratic management of pregnancy and childbirth. Specifically, what drives this situation is the attempt of obstetricians and medical professionals to avoid the highly litigious system.

Suicide and Pre-and Perinatal Psychotherapy
Publication Date: 12/2004
Author(s): Shirley A Ward

The relationship between negative events from conception to birth, and suicide, is explored. From extensive experiential work with clients, based on the work of the British psychiatrist Dr. Frank Lake, the author stresses that something else is going on in every death by suicide, that is not visible. Hidden factors relating to suicide have their roots in the pre- and perinatal period, from as far back as conception to the birth itself. Case studies are included and types of suicide correlated to various pre- and perinatal trauma are discussed.

The Impact of Trauma on the Embryo and Fetus: An Application of the Diathesis-Stress Model and the Neurovulnerability-Neurotoxicity Model
Publication Date: 10/2004
Author(s): Paula Thomson

Today embryology and fetal research offers consistent findings that nature and nurture overlap. The relational and environmental world of the mother powerfully influences the development of her embryo and fetus. Early pre- and post-natal experiences, including early trauma, are encoded in the implicit memory of the fetus, located in the subcortical and deep limbic regions of the maturing brain. These memories will travel with us into our early days of infancy and beyond and more importantly, these early experiences set our ongoing physiological and psychological regulatory baselines.

The Nature of Stress due to Terrorism on Pregnant Women and their Offspring
Publication Date: 10/2004
Author(s): Yaara Benitzhak

Current literature demonstrates that stress during pregnancy can have long-term effects on offspring. The purpose of this paper is to examine the possible stress reactions of pregnant women exposed to terrorism. The main focus is on PTSD as the predominant reaction to terrorism and how it affects pregnancy. Conclusions: Although specific research linking terrorism and stress in pregnancy has not been studied/ published, the literature reviewed shows evidence that stress caused by terrorism is acute.

Adaptation and Resilience in Early Life: Implications of the New Developmental Neurobiology for Clinical Practice
Publication Date: 05/2004
Author(s): Michael D Trout

Growing research interest in the connections between early experience and developmental outcome-in combination with technological innovations that have made possible measurement of mental process in a way never before possible-have wiped out the last vestiges of dichotomous (mind-body) thinking, and have opened the way to new understandings about how we become the people we become. This paper summarizes some aspects of the new research in developmental neurobiology, and suggests implications for understanding the behavior of both children and adults.

Attachment and Self-Understanding: Parenting with the Brain in Mind
Publication Date: 05/2004
Author(s): Daniel J Siegel

This article is an adaptation of a chapter in a text edited by Marci Green and published by Karnac and is based on the ideas explored in The Developing Mind: How relationships and the brain interact to shape who we are (Guilford, 1999) and Parenting from the Inside Out: How a deeper self-understanding can help you raise children who thrive (with Mary Hartzell [2003]). It has been summarized in part in the article, The Mind, the Brain, and Human Relationships (Gynaelcology Forum International, 2003) and published online under the current title by Enneagram Monthly.

Prenatal and Perinatal Complications as Predispositions to Externalizing Behavior
Publication Date: 05/2004
Author(s): Jianghong Liu

There is an increasing body of evidence indicating that prenatal and perinatal factors predispose to externalizing behavior in the offspring. This paper first reviews recent empirical research on prenatal and perinatal complications and externalizing behavior. Brain dysfunction mechanisms are then discussed. It is suggested that (a) birth complications can cause brain damage and (b) brain damage can predispose to antisocial and violent behavior. Finally, the paper argues that prevention strategies using a multidisciplinary approach may help reduce prenatal and perinatal complications.

The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Pregnancy, Labor and Birth
Publication Date: 05/2004
Author(s): Ann Diamond Weinstein, Thomas R Verny

Current estimates of the incidence of childhood sexual abuse range from 12% to 40%, indicating that a significant number of women enter pregnancy, labor and birth with past experiences of trauma. Recent quantitative research results have revealed little significant difference in rates of obstetrical complications and pregnancy outcomes in women reporting histories of childhood sexual abuse and those reporting no history of childhood sexual abuse.

Toward a New Era of Childbirth Education
Publication Date: 05/2004
Author(s): Robert Newman

Awareness may be suppressed in more than 90% of childbirths today, as a basis for the overuse of other medical interventions in the labor and delivery process. Current childbirth education programs offered by the medical establishment support the prevalent use of risky procedures that may impair biological and psychological health. The quality of awareness in the pregnant woman and the womb child may be the most essential value pivotal to needed decisive change in childbirth medicine and education.

Factors Related to Maternal Violence: Longitudinal Research from Prenatal to Age Four
Publication Date: 03/2004
Author(s): Junko Tsujino

A mother's violent behavior toward her child is related to her psychological well-being. Mothers who were violent with their children had been raised by a mother with an inappropriate parenting attitude. Anxiety related to this attitude was also associated with violent maternal behavior. Mothers who demonstrated low level of attachment to their child from the fetus to 4 years of age engaged in violence toward their 4-year-old children. Maternal violence was also associated with decreased bonding with the baby during pregnancy.

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