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Attachment and Self-Understanding: Parenting with the Brain in Mind
Publication Date: 05/2004
Author(s): Daniel J Siegel

This article is an adaptation of a chapter in a text edited by Marci Green and published by Karnac and is based on the ideas explored in The Developing Mind: How relationships and the brain interact to shape who we are (Guilford, 1999) and Parenting from the Inside Out: How a deeper self-understanding can help you raise children who thrive (with Mary Hartzell [2003]). It has been summarized in part in the article, The Mind, the Brain, and Human Relationships (Gynaelcology Forum International, 2003) and published online under the current title by Enneagram Monthly.

Prenatal and Perinatal Complications as Predispositions to Externalizing Behavior
Publication Date: 05/2004
Author(s): Jianghong Liu

There is an increasing body of evidence indicating that prenatal and perinatal factors predispose to externalizing behavior in the offspring. This paper first reviews recent empirical research on prenatal and perinatal complications and externalizing behavior. Brain dysfunction mechanisms are then discussed. It is suggested that (a) birth complications can cause brain damage and (b) brain damage can predispose to antisocial and violent behavior. Finally, the paper argues that prevention strategies using a multidisciplinary approach may help reduce prenatal and perinatal complications.

The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Pregnancy, Labor and Birth
Publication Date: 05/2004
Author(s): Ann Diamond Weinstein, Thomas R Verny

Current estimates of the incidence of childhood sexual abuse range from 12% to 40%, indicating that a significant number of women enter pregnancy, labor and birth with past experiences of trauma. Recent quantitative research results have revealed little significant difference in rates of obstetrical complications and pregnancy outcomes in women reporting histories of childhood sexual abuse and those reporting no history of childhood sexual abuse.

Toward a New Era of Childbirth Education
Publication Date: 05/2004
Author(s): Robert Newman

Awareness may be suppressed in more than 90% of childbirths today, as a basis for the overuse of other medical interventions in the labor and delivery process. Current childbirth education programs offered by the medical establishment support the prevalent use of risky procedures that may impair biological and psychological health. The quality of awareness in the pregnant woman and the womb child may be the most essential value pivotal to needed decisive change in childbirth medicine and education.

Factors Related to Maternal Violence: Longitudinal Research from Prenatal to Age Four
Publication Date: 03/2004
Author(s): Junko Tsujino

A mother's violent behavior toward her child is related to her psychological well-being. Mothers who were violent with their children had been raised by a mother with an inappropriate parenting attitude. Anxiety related to this attitude was also associated with violent maternal behavior. Mothers who demonstrated low level of attachment to their child from the fetus to 4 years of age engaged in violence toward their 4-year-old children. Maternal violence was also associated with decreased bonding with the baby during pregnancy.

Improving Asthma Symptoms in Children by Repairing the Maternal-Infant Bond
Publication Date: 03/2004
Author(s): Antonio Madrid

The mothers of 15 asthmatic children were treated with a therapy that repaired the bonding between their children and them. Twelve children's asthma symptoms improved; of the 10 who were regularly taking medications, 8 no longer needed them. Improvement seemed dependent upon age, with children under 9 having the greatest benefit. All 7 Mexican-American children improved, using a Bilingual Bicultural counselor to treat the mothers.

The Effects of Antepartum Bed Rest on the Pregnant Woman and her Family
Publication Date: 03/2004
Author(s): Holly Ruhlig

Pregnant women have been prescribed bed rest for a variety of reasons: preterm labor, incompetent cervix, high-blood pressure, multiple gestation, placenta previa, and many other patient-specific complications. However, while the prescription of bed rest has become routine, the effectiveness of this potentially harmful treatment is still controversial. Pregnant women that are confined to bed rest are at an increased risk for physical, emotional and economic hardships.

The Importance of Psychosocial Variables in Predicting Low Birth Weight
Publication Date: 03/2004
Author(s): Lewis E Mehl-Madrona

Objective: An analysis of a pre-existing data set of 606 inner city pregnant women collected by the Fetal Alcohol Research Center of Wayne State University School of Medicine in Detroit, Michigan, was conducted to determine if the inclusion of psychosocial variables would improve the prediction of low birth weight.

Communicating with the Mind of a Prenate: Guidelines for Parents and Birth Professionals
Publication Date: 12/2003
Author(s): David B Chamberlain

After a struggle of many decades, the true dimensions of fetal consciousness are emerging, thanks to a growing literature of firsthand reports from parents and abundant observations of life in the womb. In retrospect, scientific views of the sensory, emotional, and mental nature of prenates and newborns, grounded exclusively in a brain-matter paradigm, were grossly inadequate. A new paradigm is replacing it based on baby awareness and knowing.

Conceptualizing Prenatal Attachment: Toward a Multidimensional View
Publication Date: 12/2003
Author(s): Helen McK Doan

In the present paper, several theoretical issues are outlined as important to the understanding of the process of defining prenatal attachment. Each of the issues is related to the available research literature. In the current article, it is emphasized that to understand prenatal attachment, a dynamic, multidimensional approach should be used. Additionally, this paper points to the implications for future research and clinical intervention programs.

KEY WORDS: prenatal attachment, pregnancy, maternal-fetal attachment, cognitive and emotional factors during pregnancy.

Fetal Attachment and Depression: Measurement Matters
Publication Date: 12/2003
Author(s): Gail F Kunkel

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Fetal Attachment (FA) and depression. Condon and Corkindale (1997) have found a relationship between the quality of FA and depression, in women, using the Antenatal Attachment Inventory (AAI; Condon, 1993) to measure FA and four different instruments to measure depression. Previous studies have failed to find a consistent relationship between FA and depression when employing the Fetal Attachment Scale (FAS; Cranley, 1981) to measure FA.

Prenatal Attachment and Other Feelings and Thoughts During Pregnancy in Three Groups of Pregnant Women
Publication Date: 12/2003
Author(s): Anona Zimerman

It has been established that attachment to one's preborn child is often associated with attachment with the child after the birth (Benoit, Parker, & Zeanah, 1997; Muller, 1996; Fuller, 1990). Also attachment between child and primary care giver has been shown to be paramount to the emotional well being of children (Bowlby, 1969; Ainsworth, 1985a). As well, attachment to one's fetus may contribute to lower risk of child abuse (Pollock & Percy, 1999). There has been considerable interest in the past 20 years in antenatal attachment and its correlates.

The Maternal Fetal Attachment Scale: Some Methodological Ponderings
Publication Date: 12/2003
Author(s): Helen McK Doan

The development of Cranley's (1981) Maternal Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS) has stimulated a great deal of research and discussion about the theories, methods and moderating factors affecting prenatal attachment. However, there has been considerable questioning of the validity of the MFAS.

Gender Differences in Parental Reactions to the Birth of a Premature Low Birth Weight Infant
Publication Date: 10/2003
Author(s): Jessica M Lahner

The present study assessed differences in stress responses of mothers and fathers of premature low birth weight infants. The sample consisted of 45 parents, 32 mothers and 13 fathers whose infants ranged in age from six to forty-eight months. At birth, these children's length of gestation ranged from 23-37 weeks, and they weighed between 351-2817 grams. Results indicated that mothers experience more stress symptoms six months after the birth of their premature children than do fathers.

Transpersonal Dimensions in Healing Pre/Perinatal Trauma with EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing)
Publication Date: 10/2003
Author(s): Catherine Anne MacLean

The transpersonal nature of pre/perinatal life enhances healing of trauma from this early time with the use of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR). EMDR has been acclaimed as being an extremely effective therapeutic method for healing trauma (Shapiro, 1997, 2001, 2002). EMDR has also been recognized as having transpersonal potentials associated with its use (Shapiro, 2002; Parnell, 1996, 1997). This article presents three adult cases in which EMDR has assisted healing of pre/perinatal trauma.

Universal Responses to Abortion? Attachment, Trauma, and Grief Responses in Women Following Abortion
Publication Date: 10/2003
Author(s): Anne Speckhard

Twenty-six million legal abortions occur each year worldwide. Of these an unknown percentage of women have adverse psychological sequelae. This article reports on interviews with a nonrandom sample of fifty women regarding reproductive history, abortion experiences and emotional responses in the former Soviet Union country of Belarus, where abortions are often used as a primary form of birth control.

Childbirth Meditation and Advanced Natural Childbirth
Publication Date: 05/2003
Author(s): Robert Newman

Meditation, childbirth meditation, and advanced natural childbirth are defined. The medical paradigm has been expanding, allowing meditation to be seen as an increasing medical and psychological resource in the West. This has resulted in inevitable influence on childbirth. The physiological and psychological benefits of meditation pertaining to pregnant women who meditate are described. Research on the various meditation hormonal benefits and immune enhancement is summarized. The benefits of meditation impacting the labor process are described.

Undisturbed Birth: Nature's Blueprint for Ease and Ecstasy
Publication Date: 05/2003
Author(s): Sarah J Buckley

When a woman labors and gives birth without disturbance, her body produces peak levels of birthing hormones. These include oxytocin, the hormone of love; beta-endorphin, hormone of pleasure and the body's natural analgesic; adrenaline and noradrenaline (epinephrine/norepinephrine) hormones of excitement; and prolactin, the mothering and breastfeeding hormone.

Violence & Pregnancy: A Whole-Self Psychology Perspective
Publication Date: 05/2003
Author(s): Jon R G Turner

This paper focuses on violence as pathology occurring primarily during pregnancy and explains the resulting impact on one's life. It addresses this specific theme, and does not include the violence found in some medical birth procedures, or violence generated by gender. This paper is based upon a presentation by the authors in March 2001, at the OMAEP [World Organization of Prenatal Education] & ANEP [Association of National Prenatal Education] Congress in Puerto la Cruz, Venezuela.

Assisted Reproductive Technology: Psychological Effects on Offspring
Publication Date: 03/2003
Author(s): Tara Maria A Blasco

This paper will briefly describe the Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) techniques used currently, study the psychological impact of ART on the offspring, and consider ways in which more consciousness can be brought to artificial conception.

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