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Singing Lullabies to Unborn Children: Experiences in Village Vilamarxant, Spain
Publication Date: 10/1996
Author(s): Rosario N Rozada Montemurro

When pregnant women of the village of Vilamarxant, Spain, began singing for two hours a week, they discovered a cascade of psychological benefits including emotional expression, tension relief, and a powerful group solidarity. As they clapped and tapped musical rhythms with their hands and feet, learning folk songs and lullabies, their babies seemed to be joining in their fun. Two older mothers who were scheduled for Caesareans gave birth spontaneously and confidently.

The Emotional Experience of the Fetus: A Preliminary Report
Publication Date: 10/1996
Author(s): Pier Luigi Righetti

From the observation of the bonding behavior that the newborn shows even during the first hours of life, the high degree synchronization and transaction that he shows during interaction with his mother, and the capability that many mothers have of immediately establishing a relationship with him, we can arrive at the conclusion that bonding after birth, described by many authors as a separate entry, is really the continuation of the intrauterine contact that began long before.

Use of the Telephone and Hypnosis in Reversing True Preterm Labor at 26 Weeks: The Value of Ideomotor Questioning in a Crisis
Publication Date: 05/1996
Author(s): David B Cheek

A physician with a history of four previous spontaneous abortions stopped the progression of preterm labor and gave birth to a healthy baby at term. Repeated troubled dreams are the cause of painful Braxton Hicks contractions. These are innocuous until an alarmed mother breaks off telepathic communications to her fetus. This starts a sequence of events beginning with expulsive labor, rupture of membranes and birth of a compromised baby. Preterm birth is preventable. The process can be reversed.

The Inheritance of Life Events: A Synopsis of Time Will Tell
Publication Date: 03/1996
Author(s): Averil Earnshaw

What were your parents doing at this age? Time will tell.

Build Babies, Not Jails
Publication Date: 12/1995
Author(s): Thomas R Verny

It takes much neglect, rejection, humiliation, physical maltreatment and sexual abuse to transform a tiny, trusting, innocent human being into a callous, cruel and vicious person. This paper examines some of the factors that lead to the development of the violent personality from conception on. It is suggested that the answer to violence is not state violence. The answer is conscious pre and postnatal parenting supported by social institutions, laws and practices which attend to the needs of pregnant parents, particularly, the disadvantaged. Our motto should be: BUILD BABIES NOT JAILS.

Early Use of Psychotherapy in Prevention of Preterm Labor: The Application of Hypnosis and Ideomotor Techniques with Women Carrying Twin Pregnancies
Publication Date: 10/1995
Author(s): David B Cheek

Conscious and unconscious fears appear to be the cause of preterm labor. These can be discovered and removed during brief telephone communications using hypnosis and ideomotor techniques at any time from the onset of painful Braxton Hicks to the irreversible situation where cervical dilatation has exceeded four centimeters or the membranes have ruptured. Two examples are offered to demonstrate the methods successfully used to help two women carry their twins to viability.

Why Do Babies Cry?
Publication Date: 10/1995
Author(s): Aletha Solter

This paper discusses the baffling phenomenon of extensive crying in infants for unknown reasons, frequently referred to as "colic." Traditional explanations based on gastrointestinal, allergenic, and psychosocial factors are discussed, and evidence supporting a stress-release theory of infant crying is presented. The various sources of stress during infancy are reviewed, and appropriate caregiving responses to crying are discussed.

Behavioral Reactions of Preterm and Low-Birthweight Infants to a Program of Tactile Stimulation
Publication Date: 05/1995
Author(s): Áine de Róiste

The behavioral reactions were monitored of a group of premature and low-birthweight infants (mean gestational age at stimulation was 37 weeks) in a special care baby unit to two sessions of the Tac-Tic program of stroking. Arm and leg movements were found to be the most frequent reactions and a striking similarity occurred between maternal and paternal stroking, in the pattern and frequency of infant reactions elicited. No significant differences were found in the type or number of reactions elicited by strokes of different bodily areas (head, trunk or limb).

The Relevance of the Dread of Being Aborted to Models of Therapy and Models of the Mind, Part II: Mentation and Communication in the Unborn
Publication Date: 05/1995
Author(s): John C Sonne

This paper explores the question of mentation and communication in the unborn using data from neurology, pediatrics, obstetrics, biochemistry, embryology, animal research, ultrasound studies, infant development, studies of autism, linguistics, kinesics, patient reports, family system theory, and studies of primitive mental states. It also includes a discussion on the pertinence of polysema and semiosis, non-verbal knowing, time sense, and the ambient prenatal psychological family to an understanding of prenatal experience.

Relationships Among Stress, Anxiety, Type A, and Pregnancy-Related Complications
Publication Date: 03/1995
Author(s): Kathleen M Kalil

The relationships among stress, state and trait anxiety, Type A personality and antepartum and postpartum health of women and their fetuses/infants were analyzed. A medical/psychosocial questionnaire and two inventories were mailed to each participant (n = 433) during each trimester of pregnancy. Medical records were reviewed to ascertain health problems. Type A and state anxiety were not as strongly related to maternal or fetal/infant complications as were stressor number, stressor intensity, or trait anxiety. Also, the predictors were generally stronger in the latter stages of pregnancy.

The Relevance of the Dread of Being Aborted to Models of Therapy and Models of the Mind, Part I: Case Examples
Publication Date: 03/1995
Author(s): John C Sonne

This paper describes how marked positive changes occurred in two male patients when feelings of dread of tunnels, bridges and interpersonal relationships were found to be transferential derivatives of an underlying dread of being aborted and a wish to be aborted. Both of these men had a proneness to act out by sanctioning the abortion of their own and others' unborn children.

Chains of Grief: The Impact of Perinatal Loss on Subsequent Pregnancy
Publication Date: 12/1994
Author(s): Gayle Peterson

This paper identifies women who are at greater potential for medical complications in their pregnancies due to post traumatic stress resulting from previous perinatal loss. The loss may have been suffered by the woman herself during a past pregnancy or she may have inherited heightened anxiety from perinatal loss experienced by her mother. In the latter case, the unresolved grief is transmitted from mother to daughter, affecting physiological, emotional and behavioral patterns in the next generation. Pregnancy presents an opportunity for healing.

How to Maximize Human Potential at Birth
Publication Date: 12/1994
Author(s): Chairat Panthuraamphorn

Building on a successful program of prenatal stimulation previously reported, obstetrical routines were altered to provide more continuity with the womb environment. The paper reports both the rationale and specific procedures employed. The goal of the program was to treat the newborn as a person, minimize discomfort during birth and avoid conditions of possible stress and anxiety. Gentle stimulation included eye-to-eye contact, smiles, skin-to-skin touch, soothing voices, early breastfeeding, and enjoyable relations between mother, father, and child.

Predicting the Origins of Post-Partum Depression Through the Use of Mental Representations
Publication Date: 12/1994
Author(s): Paul V Trad

Both the incidence and scope of post-partum affective disorders are more pervasive than previously assumed. Several etiological factors have been implicated but none has fully explained the origins of the condition. This paper proposes that post-partum depression may be predicted from the expectant mother's representations of her own caregiver. Deficits in representational ability may prevent the caregiver from envisioning herself as a competent mother capable of forging an adaptive relationship with the infant.

Claira: A Case Study in Prenatal Learning
Publication Date: 10/1994
Author(s): William B Sallenbach

Historically, most studies on prenatal learning have centered upon contingency reinforcements, habituation responses, and developmental outcomes. Very little research has actually examined the learning process during the prenatal period. This case study examines the behavioral responses of one prenate to an experimental curriculum. Significant responses are noted in regards to movement. The responses appear as an organized pattern which would imply that the prenate is capable of progressing from generality and abstraction to specificity and discernment in the learning process.

Pre- and Perinatal Anthropology III: Birth Control, Abortion and Infanticide in Cross-Cultural Perspective
Publication Date: 10/1994
Author(s): Charles D Laughlin

Although most societies highly value and nurture children, children in many societies may nonetheless be unwanted under certain conditions. Thus, decisions about parental investment, and social control of reproduction and pre- and perinatal survival are not solely a modern phenomenon. Many societies act to limit the incidence of pregnancy, birth and infant survival, and have done so for centuries. These societies have traditional means for controlling birth and for aborting unwanted pregnancies.

The Sentient Prenate: What Every Parent Should Know
Publication Date: 10/1994
Author(s): David B Chamberlain

In the 1980's parents were first introduced in large numbers to the sensitive, perceptive, conscious, and perhaps even cognitive prenate. This paper summarizes the major evidence, including recent research findings, demonstrating that prenates are 1) sensitive and aware, 2) learn and dream, and 3) are social and communicative. Well-designed research programs in prenatal enrichment confirm the intelligence and receptivity of these babies. A closing section describes the special resources now available to parents to enhance prenatal bonding and communication.

The Stork in the Lab: Biological, Psychological, Ethical, Social and Legal Aspects of Third Party Conceptions
Publication Date: 10/1994
Author(s): Thomas R Verny

The proliferation of third party conceptions has answered the prayers of some infertile couples for a child. At the same time it has created a variety of profound biological, ethical, legal, social and psychological problems. In this paper an attempt is made to explore specifically the psychological issues consequent to the use of AI, IVF and surrogate motherhood.

Infant Mortality and Cultural Concepts of Infancy: A Case Study from an Early Twentieth Century Aboriginal Community
Publication Date: 05/1994
Author(s): Tina Moffat

This article explores the impact of infant death on cultural perceptions of infancy. It employs a case study of the Cree-Ojibwa community of Fisher River, Manitoba in the early twentieth century to illustrate how a high risk of infant death can delay the point at which personhood is conferred on an infant. Further to this, the concept of infancy among the Aboriginal community is contrasted with wider Euro-Canadian values concerning the infant mortality rate.

Infant Signaling: An Environmental Stimulus for Maternal Care
Publication Date: 05/1994
Author(s): Joy F Stallings

Decades of research on child development has confirmed that infants use specific behavioral signals to elicit maternal responses. This research has also demonstrated the importance of a fit between maternal and infant behavior for optimal psychological and cognitive development of the infant. There is now evidence from animal behavioral studies that neuroendocrine and hormonal mechanisms mediate this link between infant signaling and maternal responsiveness.