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Predicting the Origins of Post-Partum Depression Through the Use of Mental Representations
Publication Date: 12/1994
Author(s): Paul V Trad

Both the incidence and scope of post-partum affective disorders are more pervasive than previously assumed. Several etiological factors have been implicated but none has fully explained the origins of the condition. This paper proposes that post-partum depression may be predicted from the expectant mother's representations of her own caregiver. Deficits in representational ability may prevent the caregiver from envisioning herself as a competent mother capable of forging an adaptive relationship with the infant.

Claira: A Case Study in Prenatal Learning
Publication Date: 10/1994
Author(s): William B Sallenbach

Historically, most studies on prenatal learning have centered upon contingency reinforcements, habituation responses, and developmental outcomes. Very little research has actually examined the learning process during the prenatal period. This case study examines the behavioral responses of one prenate to an experimental curriculum. Significant responses are noted in regards to movement. The responses appear as an organized pattern which would imply that the prenate is capable of progressing from generality and abstraction to specificity and discernment in the learning process.

Pre- and Perinatal Anthropology III: Birth Control, Abortion and Infanticide in Cross-Cultural Perspective
Publication Date: 10/1994
Author(s): Charles D Laughlin

Although most societies highly value and nurture children, children in many societies may nonetheless be unwanted under certain conditions. Thus, decisions about parental investment, and social control of reproduction and pre- and perinatal survival are not solely a modern phenomenon. Many societies act to limit the incidence of pregnancy, birth and infant survival, and have done so for centuries. These societies have traditional means for controlling birth and for aborting unwanted pregnancies.

The Sentient Prenate: What Every Parent Should Know
Publication Date: 10/1994
Author(s): David B Chamberlain

In the 1980's parents were first introduced in large numbers to the sensitive, perceptive, conscious, and perhaps even cognitive prenate. This paper summarizes the major evidence, including recent research findings, demonstrating that prenates are 1) sensitive and aware, 2) learn and dream, and 3) are social and communicative. Well-designed research programs in prenatal enrichment confirm the intelligence and receptivity of these babies. A closing section describes the special resources now available to parents to enhance prenatal bonding and communication.

The Stork in the Lab: Biological, Psychological, Ethical, Social and Legal Aspects of Third Party Conceptions
Publication Date: 10/1994
Author(s): Thomas R Verny

The proliferation of third party conceptions has answered the prayers of some infertile couples for a child. At the same time it has created a variety of profound biological, ethical, legal, social and psychological problems. In this paper an attempt is made to explore specifically the psychological issues consequent to the use of AI, IVF and surrogate motherhood.

Infant Mortality and Cultural Concepts of Infancy: A Case Study from an Early Twentieth Century Aboriginal Community
Publication Date: 05/1994
Author(s): Tina Moffat

This article explores the impact of infant death on cultural perceptions of infancy. It employs a case study of the Cree-Ojibwa community of Fisher River, Manitoba in the early twentieth century to illustrate how a high risk of infant death can delay the point at which personhood is conferred on an infant. Further to this, the concept of infancy among the Aboriginal community is contrasted with wider Euro-Canadian values concerning the infant mortality rate.

Infant Signaling: An Environmental Stimulus for Maternal Care
Publication Date: 05/1994
Author(s): Joy F Stallings

Decades of research on child development has confirmed that infants use specific behavioral signals to elicit maternal responses. This research has also demonstrated the importance of a fit between maternal and infant behavior for optimal psychological and cognitive development of the infant. There is now evidence from animal behavioral studies that neuroendocrine and hormonal mechanisms mediate this link between infant signaling and maternal responsiveness.

Is Colic a By-product of Exterogestation?
Publication Date: 05/1994
Author(s): Elizabeth H Peters

Colic is a disorder of early infancy marked by excessive amounts of loud, persistent crying. Lesser amounts of crying are considered normal in infants. Neither the crying of colicky infants nor the baseline crying of normal human infants have any homologue in the vocal behavior of other mammalian infants. This human-specific cry continuum may reflect a human-specific discomfort continuum which is function of the general immaturity of human neonates. Such immaturity may be the result of selection for altricial birth forced by cephalo-pelvic incompatibility during birth.

Primate Infants as Skilled Information Gatherers
Publication Date: 05/1994
Author(s): Barbara J King

An evolutionary perspective on human infancy suggests that the active infant, skilled at information-gathering and -prompting from adults, and at coordinating its behavior with that of adults, has been shaped by millions of years of natural selection. Infant monkeys and apes are skilled in these ways because they have to be; adults rarely donate information to them, although the contexts in which they do are likely to have evolutionary significance.

The Effect of Infant Rearing Practices on the Personalities of Children in Egypt
Publication Date: 05/1994
Author(s): Judy H Brink

In a village in Egypt two patterns of infant and child rearing were observed. Uneducated mothers living in extended families used a high contact style of infant rearing and child nurses to produce children who were cooperative, family oriented and highly attached to their mother. Educated women living in nuclear families used a low contact style of infant rearing and adult caretakers to produce children who were ego oriented and able to achieve independently of their family.

How Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Can Transform the World
Publication Date: 03/1994
Author(s): David B Chamberlain

In the 20th century, probably more people have had the experience of birth than in all previous centuries combined. The current rate is almost 10,000 births per hour. In any given nine-month period, there are about 180 million expectant parents going through a unique life-changing experience. Research and therapy focused on the prenatal and perinatal period confirms that pregnancy and birth are formative experiences for both babies and parents. Yet, in the century of maximum birthing, psychological principles and interactions have been radically altered.

Mind Over Body: The Pregnant Professional
Publication Date: 03/1994
Author(s): Robbie Davis-Floyd

This article, based on interviews about pregnancy, birth, childraising, and career with 31 middle-class Anglo women, examines self- and body image as microcosmic mirrors of social relationships and worldview. All interviewees are professionals in positions of power and authority. They tend to see the body as an imperfect tool that the more perfect self should control. They tend to experience pregnancy and birth as unpleasant because they are so out-of-control, and to emphasize the separation of the self from the body and from the fetus growing inside that body.

Working with Pre- and Perinatal Material in Psychotherapy
Publication Date: 03/1994
Author(s): Thomas R Verny

This paper is an attempt at an historical survey of psychotherapies that have successfully accessed pre- and perinatal memories. A variety of ways in which psychotherapists work with material that is felt by the therapist or the client to be linked to pre- or perinatal life are discussed, and certain desirable criteria for the practice of humanistic and rational pre- and perinatal psychotherapy are suggested.

Child Neglect: The Precursor to Child Abuse
Publication Date: 12/1993
Author(s): Philip G Ney

Using questionnaire and interview techniques, 167 children aged 11 to 18, and 213 adults were asked for information on their experiences of physical abuse, physical neglect, verbal abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse. When neglect preceded abuse in children who experienced both, the negative impact on the child's outlook was magnified. Neglect increases a child's susceptibility and vulnerability to abuse. Our data indicates neglect has a greater impact than abuse on a child's selfperception and future outlook.

Clinical Psychology in Terms of Ecumenical Medicine
Publication Date: 12/1993
Author(s): Rudolf Klimek

The aim of medical education is to produce doctors who promote healing in all people. This aim can only be reached by cooperation between medicine and psychology. One role of psychology is to educate physicians as to recent developments in pre- and perinatal psychology. A truly ecumenical medicine will consider all of the factors in the environment of the patient, rather than take a narrow view of physical healing.

Social and Family Pressures on Anxiety and Stress During Pregnancy
Publication Date: 12/1993
Author(s): Kathleen M Kalil

This prospective study focused on the relationships between social support, family, and income pressures on anxiety and stress during pregnancy. Four hundred and thirty-three women elected to participate in a study that included completing a medical/psychosocial questionnaire, the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Jenkins Activity Survey, and stress measures formulated using the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Each participant was assessed once during each trimester of pregnancy.

The Impact of Fetus Visualization on Parents' Psychological Reactions
Publication Date: 12/1993
Author(s): Melita Kovacevic

The intention of this study was to examine the short-term psychological effects on parents, if any, of ultrasound scanning-that is, of fetal visualization. The starting hypothesis was that after visualizing the fetus, parents experience a lower level of stress and anxiety. To test that hypothesis, a quasiexperimental/control type of study was conducted. The subjects, all parents (N = 296), were divided into two groups: an experimental high-feedback group that watched the ultrasound screen, and a low-feedback control group that could not see a screen.

The Relationship of Pre- and Perinatal Psychology to 20th Century Art, Literature and Philosophy
Publication Date: 12/1993
Author(s): Ludwig Janus

Observations in the field of psychotherapy give us every reason to believe that experiences before and during birth remain present in our awareness of our own bodies and in our inner states of experience as a constant background of experience. During external and internal crises and conflict situations, this background experience can be activated in the form of fantasies and emotional states and can then influence images and ideas about ourselves and the world.

Abortion Trauma: Application of a Conflict Model
Publication Date: 10/1993
Author(s): Robert C Erikson

This paper advances the proposition that in carrying out the decision to undergo elective abortion, a woman experiences a potentially traumatizing psychological event. Vignettes from clinical practice illumine the symptoms and development of post-traumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of abortion. A model of psychic trauma is presented to account for the nature of abortion as a traumatic Stressor. It is based on psychoanalytic considerations, with an emphasis on the role of aggressive energy in the reconfiguring of psychic activities following trauma.

Complicated Mourning: Dynamics of Impacted Post Abortion Grief
Publication Date: 10/1993
Author(s): Anne Speckhard

Current estimates are that one in every five women in the United States will have undergone at least one abortion, with 1.4 million abortions occurring annually. Increasingly, long-term stress reactions to abortion have been documented in the research literature. Post Abortion Syndrome (PAS), a variant of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, occurs in women who experience their abortions as traumatic. When the emotional components of the abortion experience are repressed, as in PAS, impacted grief and complicated mourning result.

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