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Communicating with the Mind of a Prenate: Guidelines for Parents and Birth Professionals
Publication Date: 12/2003
Author(s): Author: David B Chamberlain

After a struggle of many decades, the true dimensions of fetal consciousness are emerging, thanks to a growing literature of firsthand reports from parents and abundant observations of life in the womb. In retrospect, scientific views of the sensory, emotional, and mental nature of prenates and newborns, grounded exclusively in a brain-matter paradigm, were grossly inadequate. A new paradigm is replacing it based on baby awareness and knowing.

Conceptualizing Prenatal Attachment: Toward a Multidimensional View
Publication Date: 12/2003
Author(s): Author: Helen McK Doan

In the present paper, several theoretical issues are outlined as important to the understanding of the process of defining prenatal attachment. Each of the issues is related to the available research literature. In the current article, it is emphasized that to understand prenatal attachment, a dynamic, multidimensional approach should be used. Additionally, this paper points to the implications for future research and clinical intervention programs.

KEY WORDS: prenatal attachment, pregnancy, maternal-fetal attachment, cognitive and emotional factors during pregnancy.

Fetal Attachment and Depression: Measurement Matters
Publication Date: 12/2003
Author(s): Author: Gail F Kunkel

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Fetal Attachment (FA) and depression. Condon and Corkindale (1997) have found a relationship between the quality of FA and depression, in women, using the Antenatal Attachment Inventory (AAI; Condon, 1993) to measure FA and four different instruments to measure depression. Previous studies have failed to find a consistent relationship between FA and depression when employing the Fetal Attachment Scale (FAS; Cranley, 1981) to measure FA.

Prenatal Attachment and Other Feelings and Thoughts During Pregnancy in Three Groups of Pregnant Women
Publication Date: 12/2003
Author(s): Author: Anona Zimerman

It has been established that attachment to one's preborn child is often associated with attachment with the child after the birth (Benoit, Parker, & Zeanah, 1997; Muller, 1996; Fuller, 1990). Also attachment between child and primary care giver has been shown to be paramount to the emotional well being of children (Bowlby, 1969; Ainsworth, 1985a). As well, attachment to one's fetus may contribute to lower risk of child abuse (Pollock & Percy, 1999). There has been considerable interest in the past 20 years in antenatal attachment and its correlates.

The Maternal Fetal Attachment Scale: Some Methodological Ponderings
Publication Date: 12/2003
Author(s): Author: Helen McK Doan

The development of Cranley's (1981) Maternal Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS) has stimulated a great deal of research and discussion about the theories, methods and moderating factors affecting prenatal attachment. However, there has been considerable questioning of the validity of the MFAS.

Gender Differences in Parental Reactions to the Birth of a Premature Low Birth Weight Infant
Publication Date: 10/2003
Author(s): Author: Jessica M Lahner

The present study assessed differences in stress responses of mothers and fathers of premature low birth weight infants. The sample consisted of 45 parents, 32 mothers and 13 fathers whose infants ranged in age from six to forty-eight months. At birth, these children's length of gestation ranged from 23-37 weeks, and they weighed between 351-2817 grams. Results indicated that mothers experience more stress symptoms six months after the birth of their premature children than do fathers.

Transpersonal Dimensions in Healing Pre/Perinatal Trauma with EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing)
Publication Date: 10/2003
Author(s): Author: Catherine Anne MacLean

The transpersonal nature of pre/perinatal life enhances healing of trauma from this early time with the use of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR). EMDR has been acclaimed as being an extremely effective therapeutic method for healing trauma (Shapiro, 1997, 2001, 2002). EMDR has also been recognized as having transpersonal potentials associated with its use (Shapiro, 2002; Parnell, 1996, 1997). This article presents three adult cases in which EMDR has assisted healing of pre/perinatal trauma.

Universal Responses to Abortion? Attachment, Trauma, and Grief Responses in Women Following Abortion
Publication Date: 10/2003
Author(s): Author: Anne Speckhard

Twenty-six million legal abortions occur each year worldwide. Of these an unknown percentage of women have adverse psychological sequelae. This article reports on interviews with a nonrandom sample of fifty women regarding reproductive history, abortion experiences and emotional responses in the former Soviet Union country of Belarus, where abortions are often used as a primary form of birth control.

Childbirth Meditation and Advanced Natural Childbirth
Publication Date: 05/2003
Author(s): Author: Robert Newman

Meditation, childbirth meditation, and advanced natural childbirth are defined. The medical paradigm has been expanding, allowing meditation to be seen as an increasing medical and psychological resource in the West. This has resulted in inevitable influence on childbirth. The physiological and psychological benefits of meditation pertaining to pregnant women who meditate are described. Research on the various meditation hormonal benefits and immune enhancement is summarized. The benefits of meditation impacting the labor process are described.

Undisturbed Birth: Nature's Blueprint for Ease and Ecstasy
Publication Date: 05/2003
Author(s): Author: Sarah J Buckley

When a woman labors and gives birth without disturbance, her body produces peak levels of birthing hormones. These include oxytocin, the hormone of love; beta-endorphin, hormone of pleasure and the body's natural analgesic; adrenaline and noradrenaline (epinephrine/norepinephrine) hormones of excitement; and prolactin, the mothering and breastfeeding hormone.

Violence & Pregnancy: A Whole-Self Psychology Perspective
Publication Date: 05/2003
Author(s): Author: Jon R G Turner

This paper focuses on violence as pathology occurring primarily during pregnancy and explains the resulting impact on one's life. It addresses this specific theme, and does not include the violence found in some medical birth procedures, or violence generated by gender. This paper is based upon a presentation by the authors in March 2001, at the OMAEP [World Organization of Prenatal Education] & ANEP [Association of National Prenatal Education] Congress in Puerto la Cruz, Venezuela.

Assisted Reproductive Technology: Psychological Effects on Offspring
Publication Date: 03/2003
Author(s): Author: Tara Maria A Blasco

This paper will briefly describe the Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) techniques used currently, study the psychological impact of ART on the offspring, and consider ways in which more consciousness can be brought to artificial conception.

Parents' Touch of Their Preterm Infants and its Relationship to Their State of Mind Regarding Touch
Publication Date: 03/2003
Author(s): Author: Sandra J Weiss

This study examined differences between mothers and fathers in how they touched their preterm infants and the relationships of parental touch to infant gender and to the parents' state of mind regarding touch. There were no differences in the ways that parents touched boys versus girls or in their use of nurturing and stimulating touch. However, fathers touched their infants more frequently than mothers and in more complex ways.

Psychophysiological Resilience: A Theoretical Construct Based on Threat Perception and Early Programming of Restorative and Arousal Based Adaptive Mechanisms
Publication Date: 03/2003
Author(s): Author: Dorothy Marie Mandel

Why can some people be exposed to toxins, stressors, or traumatic events and be significantly less affected than others? The author conducts a review of research, constructs a theoretical model psychophysiological resilience, and examines the impact of prenatal and early childhood events on the formation of neural regulatory circuits. Psychophysiological resilience involves psychological, physiological, emotional, and spiritual resilience.

Transpersonal Dimensions in Healing Trauma of the Unborn Child
Publication Date: 03/2003
Author(s): Author: Catherine Anne MacLean

This article explores the nature of the unborn child's transpersonal dimensions, including pre-existence, reincarnation, development of the body in utero, prenatal memory, and role at birth. Ancient to modern texts, research and casework are sources of perspectives mentioned. The paper addresses what may be happening in the pre/perinatal experience as well as what can happen in one type of therapy, (i.e., EMDR, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing), to facilitate healing of pre/perinatal trauma.

Childbirth and Narratives: How Do Mothers Deal with Their Child's Birth?
Publication Date: 12/2002
Author(s): Author: Paola Di Blasio

This research focuses on post traumatic stress disorders which arise after childbirth and adds to the literature on psychological post partum diseases. The hypothesis of this study was that psychological expression of negative emotions could reduce the occurrence of stress symptoms after labour and delivery. A group of 64 women with a healthy pregnancy was examined. Half of them were asked to express their emotion experienced during labour and delivery through a written account.

The Origin of Anxiety: A Synopsis
Publication Date: 12/2002
Author(s): Author: Franz Renggli

For thousands of years, in all developed societies throughout the world, mothers have been separated from their babies-as an emotional adaptation to a life of alienation. The first advanced civilizations which can relate this to us are the Sumerians-and their successors the Babylonians. Five thousand years ago they developed the cuneiform writing system and then recorded the oldest stories in the world. I understand their mythology as the 'great dreams' of these peoples.

Tobacco Abuse in Pregnancy
Publication Date: 12/2002
Author(s): Author: Robert J Oliver

Nicotine Tobacum with its 4,000 additives remains the most injurious addiction to the pregnant woman and her baby. At the discovery of being pregnant 60% of women will quit and 40% will continue throughout the pregnancy. For those 40% tobacco's chemicals will be absorbed into mother's blood, and the baby will be bathed in these toxins. There will be 144,000 spontaneous abortions (approximately 14.6% of all pregnancies), a weight deficit of almost one pound, a loss of 50 I.Q. points in the baby, and affective disorders programmed in the innocent fetus.

Father to Son: A Chronicle of Your Life Before Birth
Publication Date: 10/2002
Author(s): Author: George Grider

This chronicle is what one father wrote for his son, offering a world of personal information about himself, his wife, and his culture embracing the courtship, conception, and important events of pregnancy leading to his birth in the late 1960s. The Editor sought this story in the hope it would inspire other fathers and mothers to share similar priceless information with their own offspring about their common life before birth.

Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Abortion in a Former Soviet Union Country
Publication Date: 10/2002
Author(s): Author: Natalia Mufel

One hundred and fifty women who had abortions in Belarus (former Soviet republic) were interviewed regarding reproductive history, decision-making and psychological outcomes. Positive and negative responses (including PTSD, guilt, grief, depression, anxiety/panic and emotional numbness) were assessed during the interview with the Impact of Events-R Scale to objectively measure aspects of PTSD.