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SHARING SPACE: Obstetrics and Attachment
Publication Date: 12/2004
Author(s): Author: Robert J Oliver

In the last 30 years there has been an increasing amount of psychological investigation into attachment. At the same time there appears in this literature to be a gap in the discussion of what may be the origins of early detachment of the child from his/her caretakers. This article suggests that the beginning lies in obstetrical care in today's highly interventional and technocratic management of pregnancy and childbirth. Specifically, what drives this situation is the attempt of obstetricians and medical professionals to avoid the highly litigious system.

Suicide and Pre-and Perinatal Psychotherapy
Publication Date: 12/2004
Author(s): Author: Shirley A Ward

The relationship between negative events from conception to birth, and suicide, is explored. From extensive experiential work with clients, based on the work of the British psychiatrist Dr. Frank Lake, the author stresses that something else is going on in every death by suicide, that is not visible. Hidden factors relating to suicide have their roots in the pre- and perinatal period, from as far back as conception to the birth itself. Case studies are included and types of suicide correlated to various pre- and perinatal trauma are discussed.

The Impact of Trauma on the Embryo and Fetus: An Application of the Diathesis-Stress Model and the Neurovulnerability-Neurotoxicity Model
Publication Date: 10/2004
Author(s): Author: Paula Thomson

Today embryology and fetal research offers consistent findings that nature and nurture overlap. The relational and environmental world of the mother powerfully influences the development of her embryo and fetus. Early pre- and post-natal experiences, including early trauma, are encoded in the implicit memory of the fetus, located in the subcortical and deep limbic regions of the maturing brain. These memories will travel with us into our early days of infancy and beyond and more importantly, these early experiences set our ongoing physiological and psychological regulatory baselines.

The Nature of Stress due to Terrorism on Pregnant Women and their Offspring
Publication Date: 10/2004
Author(s): Author: Yaara Benitzhak

Current literature demonstrates that stress during pregnancy can have long-term effects on offspring. The purpose of this paper is to examine the possible stress reactions of pregnant women exposed to terrorism. The main focus is on PTSD as the predominant reaction to terrorism and how it affects pregnancy. Conclusions: Although specific research linking terrorism and stress in pregnancy has not been studied/ published, the literature reviewed shows evidence that stress caused by terrorism is acute.

Adaptation and Resilience in Early Life: Implications of the New Developmental Neurobiology for Clinical Practice
Publication Date: 05/2004
Author(s): Author: Michael D Trout

Growing research interest in the connections between early experience and developmental outcome-in combination with technological innovations that have made possible measurement of mental process in a way never before possible-have wiped out the last vestiges of dichotomous (mind-body) thinking, and have opened the way to new understandings about how we become the people we become. This paper summarizes some aspects of the new research in developmental neurobiology, and suggests implications for understanding the behavior of both children and adults.

Attachment and Self-Understanding: Parenting with the Brain in Mind
Publication Date: 05/2004
Author(s): Author: Daniel J Siegel

This article is an adaptation of a chapter in a text edited by Marci Green and published by Karnac and is based on the ideas explored in The Developing Mind: How relationships and the brain interact to shape who we are (Guilford, 1999) and Parenting from the Inside Out: How a deeper self-understanding can help you raise children who thrive (with Mary Hartzell [2003]). It has been summarized in part in the article, The Mind, the Brain, and Human Relationships (Gynaelcology Forum International, 2003) and published online under the current title by Enneagram Monthly.

Prenatal and Perinatal Complications as Predispositions to Externalizing Behavior
Publication Date: 05/2004
Author(s): Author: Jianghong Liu

There is an increasing body of evidence indicating that prenatal and perinatal factors predispose to externalizing behavior in the offspring. This paper first reviews recent empirical research on prenatal and perinatal complications and externalizing behavior. Brain dysfunction mechanisms are then discussed. It is suggested that (a) birth complications can cause brain damage and (b) brain damage can predispose to antisocial and violent behavior. Finally, the paper argues that prevention strategies using a multidisciplinary approach may help reduce prenatal and perinatal complications.

The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Pregnancy, Labor and Birth
Publication Date: 05/2004
Author(s): Author: Ann Diamond Weinstein, Author: Thomas R Verny

Current estimates of the incidence of childhood sexual abuse range from 12% to 40%, indicating that a significant number of women enter pregnancy, labor and birth with past experiences of trauma. Recent quantitative research results have revealed little significant difference in rates of obstetrical complications and pregnancy outcomes in women reporting histories of childhood sexual abuse and those reporting no history of childhood sexual abuse.

Toward a New Era of Childbirth Education
Publication Date: 05/2004
Author(s): Author: Robert Newman

Awareness may be suppressed in more than 90% of childbirths today, as a basis for the overuse of other medical interventions in the labor and delivery process. Current childbirth education programs offered by the medical establishment support the prevalent use of risky procedures that may impair biological and psychological health. The quality of awareness in the pregnant woman and the womb child may be the most essential value pivotal to needed decisive change in childbirth medicine and education.

Factors Related to Maternal Violence: Longitudinal Research from Prenatal to Age Four
Publication Date: 03/2004
Author(s): Author: Junko Tsujino

A mother's violent behavior toward her child is related to her psychological well-being. Mothers who were violent with their children had been raised by a mother with an inappropriate parenting attitude. Anxiety related to this attitude was also associated with violent maternal behavior. Mothers who demonstrated low level of attachment to their child from the fetus to 4 years of age engaged in violence toward their 4-year-old children. Maternal violence was also associated with decreased bonding with the baby during pregnancy.

Improving Asthma Symptoms in Children by Repairing the Maternal-Infant Bond
Publication Date: 03/2004
Author(s): Author: Antonio Madrid

The mothers of 15 asthmatic children were treated with a therapy that repaired the bonding between their children and them. Twelve children's asthma symptoms improved; of the 10 who were regularly taking medications, 8 no longer needed them. Improvement seemed dependent upon age, with children under 9 having the greatest benefit. All 7 Mexican-American children improved, using a Bilingual Bicultural counselor to treat the mothers.

The Effects of Antepartum Bed Rest on the Pregnant Woman and her Family
Publication Date: 03/2004
Author(s): Author: Holly Ruhlig

Pregnant women have been prescribed bed rest for a variety of reasons: preterm labor, incompetent cervix, high-blood pressure, multiple gestation, placenta previa, and many other patient-specific complications. However, while the prescription of bed rest has become routine, the effectiveness of this potentially harmful treatment is still controversial. Pregnant women that are confined to bed rest are at an increased risk for physical, emotional and economic hardships.

The Importance of Psychosocial Variables in Predicting Low Birth Weight
Publication Date: 03/2004
Author(s): Author: Lewis E Mehl-Madrona

Objective: An analysis of a pre-existing data set of 606 inner city pregnant women collected by the Fetal Alcohol Research Center of Wayne State University School of Medicine in Detroit, Michigan, was conducted to determine if the inclusion of psychosocial variables would improve the prediction of low birth weight.

Communicating with the Mind of a Prenate: Guidelines for Parents and Birth Professionals
Publication Date: 12/2003
Author(s): Author: David B Chamberlain

After a struggle of many decades, the true dimensions of fetal consciousness are emerging, thanks to a growing literature of firsthand reports from parents and abundant observations of life in the womb. In retrospect, scientific views of the sensory, emotional, and mental nature of prenates and newborns, grounded exclusively in a brain-matter paradigm, were grossly inadequate. A new paradigm is replacing it based on baby awareness and knowing.

Conceptualizing Prenatal Attachment: Toward a Multidimensional View
Publication Date: 12/2003
Author(s): Author: Helen McK Doan

In the present paper, several theoretical issues are outlined as important to the understanding of the process of defining prenatal attachment. Each of the issues is related to the available research literature. In the current article, it is emphasized that to understand prenatal attachment, a dynamic, multidimensional approach should be used. Additionally, this paper points to the implications for future research and clinical intervention programs.

KEY WORDS: prenatal attachment, pregnancy, maternal-fetal attachment, cognitive and emotional factors during pregnancy.

Fetal Attachment and Depression: Measurement Matters
Publication Date: 12/2003
Author(s): Author: Gail F Kunkel

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Fetal Attachment (FA) and depression. Condon and Corkindale (1997) have found a relationship between the quality of FA and depression, in women, using the Antenatal Attachment Inventory (AAI; Condon, 1993) to measure FA and four different instruments to measure depression. Previous studies have failed to find a consistent relationship between FA and depression when employing the Fetal Attachment Scale (FAS; Cranley, 1981) to measure FA.

Prenatal Attachment and Other Feelings and Thoughts During Pregnancy in Three Groups of Pregnant Women
Publication Date: 12/2003
Author(s): Author: Anona Zimerman

It has been established that attachment to one's preborn child is often associated with attachment with the child after the birth (Benoit, Parker, & Zeanah, 1997; Muller, 1996; Fuller, 1990). Also attachment between child and primary care giver has been shown to be paramount to the emotional well being of children (Bowlby, 1969; Ainsworth, 1985a). As well, attachment to one's fetus may contribute to lower risk of child abuse (Pollock & Percy, 1999). There has been considerable interest in the past 20 years in antenatal attachment and its correlates.

The Maternal Fetal Attachment Scale: Some Methodological Ponderings
Publication Date: 12/2003
Author(s): Author: Helen McK Doan

The development of Cranley's (1981) Maternal Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS) has stimulated a great deal of research and discussion about the theories, methods and moderating factors affecting prenatal attachment. However, there has been considerable questioning of the validity of the MFAS.

Gender Differences in Parental Reactions to the Birth of a Premature Low Birth Weight Infant
Publication Date: 10/2003
Author(s): Author: Jessica M Lahner

The present study assessed differences in stress responses of mothers and fathers of premature low birth weight infants. The sample consisted of 45 parents, 32 mothers and 13 fathers whose infants ranged in age from six to forty-eight months. At birth, these children's length of gestation ranged from 23-37 weeks, and they weighed between 351-2817 grams. Results indicated that mothers experience more stress symptoms six months after the birth of their premature children than do fathers.

Transpersonal Dimensions in Healing Pre/Perinatal Trauma with EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing)
Publication Date: 10/2003
Author(s): Author: Catherine Anne MacLean

The transpersonal nature of pre/perinatal life enhances healing of trauma from this early time with the use of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR). EMDR has been acclaimed as being an extremely effective therapeutic method for healing trauma (Shapiro, 1997, 2001, 2002). EMDR has also been recognized as having transpersonal potentials associated with its use (Shapiro, 2002; Parnell, 1996, 1997). This article presents three adult cases in which EMDR has assisted healing of pre/perinatal trauma.