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Obstetrics and the Prenatal Psyche
Publication Date: 10/1999
Author(s): Author: David B Chamberlain

The routine collision of babies with medical technology betrays ignorance that the baby is sentient and is an active partner in pregnancy and birth. Nineteenth century ideas about the baby and the baby's brain keep obstetric "management" of birth from being baby-friendly. This paper illuminates the prenatal psyche, its sensory foundations, its social and cognitive orientation, and its vulnerability to obstetrical interventions.

Prenatal Body Language: A New Perspective on Ourselves
Publication Date: 10/1999
Author(s): Author: David B Chamberlain

Body language is a direct form of communication which begins long before formal language, occurs continually, and has universal meanings throughout the life span. Current technologies permit us to observe human movement and expression during the entire period of human gestation, and reveal the early origins of sensory perception, emotional expression, and personality. There appear to be three types of prenatal body language: 1) self-initiated, spontaneous movements, 2) behaviors reactive to the environment, and 3) interactive, social behaviors.

Reliability Of Birth Memory: Observations from Mother and Child Pairs in Hypnosis
Publication Date: 10/1999
Author(s): Author: David B Chamberlain

For almost a century clinicians have encountered birth memories and wondered if they were real memories or creative fantasies. Empirical studies have revealed both the fallibility and validity of human memory. In this study a side-by-side comparison was made of birth memories obtained in hypnosis from ten children (ages 9 to 23) who had no conscious memories of birth, and their mothers who claimed they had never shared details of the birth with them.

The Significance of Birth Memories
Publication Date: 10/1999
Author(s): Author: David B Chamberlain

Increasing numbers of people, from age two and upward, are remembering their own birth. They are doing this with a variety of methods and sometimes no method at all. Although controversial for a century, these memories can now be set hi a broad empirical framework for the first time. Narrative memories of birth are documentaries of potentially great significance. Four dimensions are cited: 1) Clinical. A growing literature indicates the importance of birth in the creation of many psychological problems.

Antecedents to Somatoform Disorders: A Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Hypothesis
Publication Date: 03/1999
Author(s): Author: Bobbi Jo Lyman

The somatofonn cluster of behavioral disorders is the single most frequent class of unexplainable problems found in primary care medical settings today. What is known about these disorders is that there are physiological, social, and psychological variables that need to be considered. What is not known is how a person develops a propensity toward having physical symptoms as their primary complaint. The author suggests that human beings are classically conditioned when faced with intolerable emotional experiences in the womb or during birth.

Prenatal and Perinatal Foundations of Moral Development
Publication Date: 03/1999
Author(s): Author: Millicent Adams Dosh

Drawing upon an impressive body of writing and published research in the area of prenatal and perinatal psychology, the author here presents her own thoughts about the critical importance of the prenatal and perinatal period as foundational for the later moral development and behavior of the person. She argues that any design for moral education must take this early period into account.

The Biopsychosocial Transactional Model of Development: The Beginning of The Formation of An Emergent Sense of Self in the Newborn
Publication Date: 03/1999
Author(s): Author: Donis Eichhorn

The rationale for providing an emotionally positive experience for both the infant's beginning "emergent sense of self (Stern, 1985) and for his return to the "Secure Base" (Bowlby, 1988) of his mother vis-a-vis his innate ability for "self attachment" within the first hour after birth (Righard & Alade, 1990) is explored.Giving birth and being born are both physiological and psychological processes.

The Effects of Domestic Abuse on the Unborn Child
Publication Date: 03/1999
Author(s): Author: Amy L Gilliland

This paper explores the relationship of domestic violence toward a pregnant mother on the subsequent behavior of her child. Through examination of the literature on physical abuse during pregnancy a picture emerges of the fetal environment. Exposure to this environment was consistently shown to have detrimental effects in infancy and childhood and in later adult life particularly evidenced by emotional and behavioral disorders, and increased evidence of criminal and violent behavior and suicide.

The Role of Childhood Memory Scores in Parenting in Pregnancy and Early Postpartum
Publication Date: 03/1999
Author(s): Author: Joann M O'Leary, Author: Cecilie Gaziano

As expectant parents begin the developmental tasks of pregnancy, their own histories hegin to resurface, consciously or subconsciously. Ways to explore childhood memories during pregnancy in a non-threatening and nurturing way may enhance the medical care and the parenting experience in this transition. Since pregnancy is a time when people are open to new information and change, this can be an opportunity for exploring relationships with partners, their health care providers, and the unborn child.

Perinatal Death: How Fathers Grieve
Publication Date: 12/1998
Author(s): Author: Timothy Wagner

The purpose of this study was to explore with fathers their perinatal death experiences. Data were collected from 11 fathers who experienced a perinatal death. Fathers who experienced perinatal death in the second trimester or later reported having a more intense and more prolonged grieving experience. Grief intensity diminished over time and remained mild to moderate for as long as 5 years following the death. Fathers felt their experience was misunderstood by family, friends, and co-workers and they were not adequately supported by their family or the community.

Prenatal Language Learning
Publication Date: 12/1998
Author(s): Author: Marshall R Childs

Although it is often ignored or denied by investigators of language learning, prenatal language learning is an important aspect of human development. During the third trimester of gestation, a baby in the womb can hear the mother's voice clearly, and makes use of this ability by learning the rhythms, tones, and sequences of whatever languages the mother speaks. These phonological patterns do not stand apart from context, but instead are experienced as integral parts of the mother's moods and activities.

Two Voices from the Womb: Evidence for Physically Transcendent and a Cellular Source of Fetal Consciousness
Publication Date: 12/1998
Author(s): Author: Jenny Wade

In recent years, prenatal research has demonstrated that fetuses are far more sophisticated than previously thought, findings generally ignored by the medical and psychological establishment in part because the neurological structures traditionally associated with mentation were not believed to be functional. Recent research on memory suggests that consciousness may not be dependent on the central nervous system, or even on the body.

Insidious Trauma Caused by Prenatal Gender Prejudice
Publication Date: 10/1998
Author(s): Author: Diane Zimberoff

When the inherent value of females is marginalized by society, the resulting trauma may result in depression, anxiety, dissociation, decreased self-esteem, victimization, displaced anger, somatic ailments, and despair. Ultimately, trauma from gender bias (or racial bias) is insidious trauma, an assault on every level of security a person has: physical, psychological, interpersonal, and spiritual. The damage is devastating when the trauma occurs during the pre- and perinatal period.

Nature, Nurture and the Power of Love
Publication Date: 10/1998
Author(s): Author: Bruce H Lipton

Leading edge research in cell biology reveals that "environmental signals" are primarily responsible for selecting the genes expressed by an organism. This new perspective is in direct contrast with the established view that our fate is controlled by our genes. The new emphasis on nurture (environment) controlling nature (genes) focuses special attention on the importance of the maternal environment in fetal development.

A Controlled Experiment in Prenatal Enrichment with 684 Families in Caracas, Venezuela: Results to Age Six
Publication Date: 03/1998
Author(s): Author: Beatriz Manrique

Based on systematic measurement of experimental and control group participants from birth to age six, the authors conclude that a program of prenatal intervention beginning in the fifth prenatal month produces significant improvement in newborns, their mothers, and in family solidarity. All the parents in this study lived in poor ghettos of Caracas. Annual measurements reveal that the infants receiving the extra care and attention maintained a consistent lead in development throughout the six-year testing period.

Claira: A Case Study in Prenatal Learning
Publication Date: 03/1998
Author(s): Author: William B Sallenbach

Historically, most studies of prenatal learning have centered upon contingency reinforcements, habituation responses, and developmental outcomes. Very little research has examined the learning process during the prenatal period. This case study examines the behavioral responses of one prenate to an experimental curriculum. Significant movement responses are noted. The responses appear as an organized pattern which would imply that the prenate is capable of progressing from generality and abstraction, to specificity and discernment in the learning process.

Effects of the Firstart Method of Prenatal Stimulation on Psychomotor Development: The First Six Months
Publication Date: 03/1998
Author(s): Author: M J Lafuente

This paper explores the effectiveness of the Firstart prenatal stimulation method applied to a sample of maternity patients at University Hospital "La Fe" in Valencia, with 71 women in the control group and 101 in the experimental group. Both groups were enrolled in the birth preparation course offered at the hospital. In addition, future mothers in the experimental group wore a waistband equipped with small speakers connected to a tape recorder which played a series of eight tapes of violin sounds.

Environmental Influences on Human Brain Growth and Development
Publication Date: 03/1998
Author(s): Author: Chairat Panthuraamphorn

In a study designed to create an enriched environment for prenates by minimizing environmental stressors and substituting a positive, stimulating milieu, we designed a program that would reduce maternal stress with visualization and relaxation exercises, encourage mother-child bonding through prenatal communication and interaction exercises, and pleasantly stimulate prenatal auditory, tactile, visual and vestibular processes.

Prenatal Receptivity and Intelligence
Publication Date: 03/1998
Author(s): Author: David B Chamberlain

This article sets the beginnings of research in prenatal stimulation in historical context with the larger movement of infant research surrounding it. Of particular interest is the evidence for prenatal intelligence, which is here organized around new definitions provided by Richard Sternberg and Howard Gardner. This evidence provides parents with additional reasons to begin communication with prenates as soon as possible and provides psychologists with additional reasons to formulate a larger paradigm to describe the true nature of prenates.

Prenatal University: Commitment to Fetal-Family Bonding and the Strengthening of the Family Unit as an Educational Institution
Publication Date: 03/1998
Author(s): Author: F Rene Van de Carr

This paper reviews The Prenatal University stimulation program, which is designed: 1) to create an interactive relationship between parents-to-be and the developing fetus, and 2) to reinforce a "preconscious awareness of the environment" by the developing fetus. The prenatal stimulation program is designed with working parents in mind. Only two five-minute sessions are required per day for effective implementation. Both mother and father are involved; siblings and other relatives are also encouraged to join in the game-like sessions.

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