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Social and Family Pressures on Anxiety and Stress During Pregnancy
Publication Date: 12/1993
Author(s): Author: Kathleen M Kalil

This prospective study focused on the relationships between social support, family, and income pressures on anxiety and stress during pregnancy. Four hundred and thirty-three women elected to participate in a study that included completing a medical/psychosocial questionnaire, the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Jenkins Activity Survey, and stress measures formulated using the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Each participant was assessed once during each trimester of pregnancy.

The Impact of Fetus Visualization on Parents' Psychological Reactions
Publication Date: 12/1993
Author(s): Author: Melita Kovacevic

The intention of this study was to examine the short-term psychological effects on parents, if any, of ultrasound scanning-that is, of fetal visualization. The starting hypothesis was that after visualizing the fetus, parents experience a lower level of stress and anxiety. To test that hypothesis, a quasiexperimental/control type of study was conducted. The subjects, all parents (N = 296), were divided into two groups: an experimental high-feedback group that watched the ultrasound screen, and a low-feedback control group that could not see a screen.

The Relationship of Pre- and Perinatal Psychology to 20th Century Art, Literature and Philosophy
Publication Date: 12/1993
Author(s): Author: Ludwig Janus

Observations in the field of psychotherapy give us every reason to believe that experiences before and during birth remain present in our awareness of our own bodies and in our inner states of experience as a constant background of experience. During external and internal crises and conflict situations, this background experience can be activated in the form of fantasies and emotional states and can then influence images and ideas about ourselves and the world.

Abortion Trauma: Application of a Conflict Model
Publication Date: 10/1993
Author(s): Author: Robert C Erikson

This paper advances the proposition that in carrying out the decision to undergo elective abortion, a woman experiences a potentially traumatizing psychological event. Vignettes from clinical practice illumine the symptoms and development of post-traumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of abortion. A model of psychic trauma is presented to account for the nature of abortion as a traumatic Stressor. It is based on psychoanalytic considerations, with an emphasis on the role of aggressive energy in the reconfiguring of psychic activities following trauma.

Complicated Mourning: Dynamics of Impacted Post Abortion Grief
Publication Date: 10/1993
Author(s): Author: Anne Speckhard

Current estimates are that one in every five women in the United States will have undergone at least one abortion, with 1.4 million abortions occurring annually. Increasingly, long-term stress reactions to abortion have been documented in the research literature. Post Abortion Syndrome (PAS), a variant of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, occurs in women who experience their abortions as traumatic. When the emotional components of the abortion experience are repressed, as in PAS, impacted grief and complicated mourning result.

Relationship Between Induced Abortion and Child Abuse and Neglect: Four Studies
Publication Date: 10/1993
Author(s): Author: Philip G Ney

Four studies designed to investigate any association between induced abortion and child abuse found a number of positive correlations. These findings appear to run counter to popular opinion and some professional declarations that making abortion freely available would terminate unwanted children and thus lower the incidence of child mistreatment. There is no evidence that the incidence of child abuse has declined with more readily available abortion.

Adoptees and Birthparents Connected by Design: Surprising Synchronicities in Histories of Union/Loss/Reunion
Publication Date: 05/1993
Author(s): Author: LaVonne H Stiffler

The recently burgeoning phenomenon of search and reunion by adult adoptees and their birth families has uncovered fascinating information. During the author's doctoral research, reunited parents and children related uncanny coincidences that occurred during the years of their separation (e.g., dreaming of one's child in specific danger, naming a later child by the unknown name of the firstborn, knowing the day of a mother's death, vacationing in the same location, making identical purchases, and beginning to search at the same time).

My First Heartbeat
Publication Date: 05/1993
Author(s): Author: Jaroslav Vlcek

From memories of his prenatal life the author presents a recollection, in the form of a poetic narrative, of how he started his heartbeat. He then gives a personal and transpersonal interpretation of the narrative in the adult-life context and proposes a theory of how an unborn may start its heart and what it learns from the experience. In support of his ideas he draws on examples from mythology, a modern-day ritual and common beliefs about the heart.

Prebirth Memory Therapy, Including Prematurely Delivered Patients
Publication Date: 05/1993
Author(s): Author: John-Richard Turner

This paper focuses on the psychological aspects of prebirth and perinatal memories encoded for full term and premature infants and activated as possible pathology during adult life. It presents a brief recapitulation of the basic hypothesis that not only do human beings inherit the genetic coding of their mother and father, but also the mental and emotional states of their parents in the form of non-conscious emotional reaction patterns from the nine months of gestation including the continuum of the birth itself, as well as adjacent perinatal circumstances.

The Role of Mental Representations in Predicting Mother-Infant Interaction
Publication Date: 05/1993
Author(s): Author: Paul V Trad

Research has revealed that as early as the neonatal period infants possess innate capacities such as categorization and amodal perception that help them formulate representations of the "self and "other." This paper posits that in order to formulate these representations, the infant also requires exposure to a motivational environment that provides insight into the relationships between people.

Being Born Caesarean: Physical, Psychosocial and Metaphysical Aspects
Publication Date: 03/1993
Author(s): Author: Jane English

Only in the past 80 to 100 years have there been appreciable numbers of people walking on the earth without having been through the hitherto universal human experience of labor and delivery, the trip down the birth canal. In 1882 advances in surgical techniques made caesarean delivery a reasonably safe procedure for both the mother and the child. Before that, most of the mothers died.

Man, the Womb and the Sea: The Roots of the Symbolism of Water
Publication Date: 03/1993
Author(s): Author: Michel Odent

Water has always been a powerful symbol for human beings. Water is critical to life. First, the human fetus grows in the amniotic fluid. Second, the scientific context of the 1990s suggests a new vision of Homo sapiens as a primate that, although genetically related to the chimpanzees, has adapted to a particular environment through a land-sea interface. In this paper the origins of the power of water symbolism is explored, particularly in the context of the birth process.

Pre- and Postnatal Repercussions of Handicapping Conditions upon the Narcissistic Line of Development
Publication Date: 03/1993
Author(s): Author: K Mark Sossin

In this paper, I examine narcissistic difficulties experienced by the handicapped youngster, especially to the extent that they are anchored in pre-, peri- and early post-natal experiences that were cast in the molds of parental narcissistic vulnerability and of impediments to the infantile attainment of a core sense of self. Considerations pertain to relatively generalizable consequences of infant handicap, encompassing the potential effects upon narcissism of a broad range of developmental disabilities.

The Effect of Lovemaking on the Progress of Labor
Publication Date: 03/1993
Author(s): Author: Marilyn A Moran

Many commentators have remarked that birth is a sexual experience, namely Niles Newton, Ph.D., Lewis E. Mehl, M.D., Michel Odent, M.D., N. Kalichman, M.D., Thomas Verny, M.D. and others. Thousands of young couples, too, have made the same discovery and have used their innate, sexual endowments during the conjugal act of birth in the dimly-lit seclusion of their bedrooms with delight and distinction.

The Role of the Mother's Own Experience of Being Born in Giving Birth
Publication Date: 03/1993
Author(s): Author: Lewis E Mehl

This paper presents the hypothesis that the woman's own experience of being born has an impact on how she will give birth. This impact is proposed to occur primarily through the birth story as symbol for a socialization process, in which the woman learns how to view her body and Nature and how to react to the sensations of labor. The more anxiously she reacts, the more likely that her body will hold "physiological expectations" of fear that will work against the process of birth.

Obstetrical Procedures: A Critical Examination of Their Effect on Pregnant Women and Their Unborn and Newborn Children
Publication Date: 12/1992
Author(s): Author: Thomas R Verny

Medical and social attitudes and practices as they pertain to pregnant women and their unborn and newborn children are examined applying the scientific, the sociological, the psychosomatic and the pre- and peri-natal psychology perspectives. The case is made that hi-tech tests and obstetrical procedures adversely affect the pregnant woman and her baby. Medical interventions tend to be dehumanizing, disempowering and sometimes harmful.

A Theory of the Psychophysiological Consequences of Umbilical Cord Manipulation by the Fetus
Publication Date: 10/1992
Author(s): Author: Mary F Straub

Imaging techniques have permitted us to observe the prenatal environment, and the human fetus has been caught in the act of grasping its umbilical cord. One aspect of what I had much earlier envisioned was thus confirmed. Yet to be confirmed is that the fetus, by that activity, takes a hand in its own creation. Fetal cord manipulation, or hand-umbilical contact, can be equated to self-stimulation. This act fortuitously initiates a primitive emotional conditioning and complements some phases of physical gestational development.

Physiological Effects of Neonatal Management
Publication Date: 10/1992
Author(s): Author: Kelduyn R Garland

ABSTRACT: The resurgence of interest in the interrelationship and interdependence between the physiological and psychological aspects of being human (i.e. in wholistic health) and concern regarding attachment issues and dynamics also questions and bespeaks both of the quality of care given to newborns and the impact this care has on their ability to develop healthy attachments and personalities.

Pre- and Peri-Natal Anthropology II: The Puerperium in Cross-Cultural Perspective
Publication Date: 10/1992
Author(s): Author: Charles D Laughlin

ABSTRACT: Modern pre- and perinatal psychology recognizes that the period of life immediately after birth is a significant one for the future development of the human being. This paper surveys the many ways that cultures around the world interpret the puerperium, and the ways they treat the mother and infant and structure mother-infant interaction during this vulnerable period.

The Shamanic Dimensions of Childbirth
Publication Date: 10/1992
Author(s): Author: Jeannine Parvati Baker

There is a growing awareness of the value of "irrational" or psychospiritual aspects of childbirth. Western psychotherapists and midwives are learning to take advantage of an openness to these aspects. These aspects are essential to shamanic healing worldwide. Shamanic tradition is explored and its advantages for pregnancy and childbirth are discussed. Healing practices among the Navajo, especially the Monsterway, are described.

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