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Is Colic a By-product of Exterogestation?
Publication Date: 05/1994
Author(s): Author: Elizabeth H Peters

Colic is a disorder of early infancy marked by excessive amounts of loud, persistent crying. Lesser amounts of crying are considered normal in infants. Neither the crying of colicky infants nor the baseline crying of normal human infants have any homologue in the vocal behavior of other mammalian infants. This human-specific cry continuum may reflect a human-specific discomfort continuum which is function of the general immaturity of human neonates. Such immaturity may be the result of selection for altricial birth forced by cephalo-pelvic incompatibility during birth.

Primate Infants as Skilled Information Gatherers
Publication Date: 05/1994
Author(s): Author: Barbara J King

An evolutionary perspective on human infancy suggests that the active infant, skilled at information-gathering and -prompting from adults, and at coordinating its behavior with that of adults, has been shaped by millions of years of natural selection. Infant monkeys and apes are skilled in these ways because they have to be; adults rarely donate information to them, although the contexts in which they do are likely to have evolutionary significance.

The Effect of Infant Rearing Practices on the Personalities of Children in Egypt
Publication Date: 05/1994
Author(s): Author: Judy H Brink

In a village in Egypt two patterns of infant and child rearing were observed. Uneducated mothers living in extended families used a high contact style of infant rearing and child nurses to produce children who were cooperative, family oriented and highly attached to their mother. Educated women living in nuclear families used a low contact style of infant rearing and adult caretakers to produce children who were ego oriented and able to achieve independently of their family.

How Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Can Transform the World
Publication Date: 03/1994
Author(s): Author: David B Chamberlain

In the 20th century, probably more people have had the experience of birth than in all previous centuries combined. The current rate is almost 10,000 births per hour. In any given nine-month period, there are about 180 million expectant parents going through a unique life-changing experience. Research and therapy focused on the prenatal and perinatal period confirms that pregnancy and birth are formative experiences for both babies and parents. Yet, in the century of maximum birthing, psychological principles and interactions have been radically altered.

Mind Over Body: The Pregnant Professional
Publication Date: 03/1994
Author(s): Author: Robbie Davis-Floyd

This article, based on interviews about pregnancy, birth, childraising, and career with 31 middle-class Anglo women, examines self- and body image as microcosmic mirrors of social relationships and worldview. All interviewees are professionals in positions of power and authority. They tend to see the body as an imperfect tool that the more perfect self should control. They tend to experience pregnancy and birth as unpleasant because they are so out-of-control, and to emphasize the separation of the self from the body and from the fetus growing inside that body.

Working with Pre- and Perinatal Material in Psychotherapy
Publication Date: 03/1994
Author(s): Author: Thomas R Verny

This paper is an attempt at an historical survey of psychotherapies that have successfully accessed pre- and perinatal memories. A variety of ways in which psychotherapists work with material that is felt by the therapist or the client to be linked to pre- or perinatal life are discussed, and certain desirable criteria for the practice of humanistic and rational pre- and perinatal psychotherapy are suggested.

Child Neglect: The Precursor to Child Abuse
Publication Date: 12/1993
Author(s): Author: Philip G Ney

Using questionnaire and interview techniques, 167 children aged 11 to 18, and 213 adults were asked for information on their experiences of physical abuse, physical neglect, verbal abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse. When neglect preceded abuse in children who experienced both, the negative impact on the child's outlook was magnified. Neglect increases a child's susceptibility and vulnerability to abuse. Our data indicates neglect has a greater impact than abuse on a child's selfperception and future outlook.

Clinical Psychology in Terms of Ecumenical Medicine
Publication Date: 12/1993
Author(s): Author: Rudolf Klimek

The aim of medical education is to produce doctors who promote healing in all people. This aim can only be reached by cooperation between medicine and psychology. One role of psychology is to educate physicians as to recent developments in pre- and perinatal psychology. A truly ecumenical medicine will consider all of the factors in the environment of the patient, rather than take a narrow view of physical healing.

Social and Family Pressures on Anxiety and Stress During Pregnancy
Publication Date: 12/1993
Author(s): Author: Kathleen M Kalil

This prospective study focused on the relationships between social support, family, and income pressures on anxiety and stress during pregnancy. Four hundred and thirty-three women elected to participate in a study that included completing a medical/psychosocial questionnaire, the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Jenkins Activity Survey, and stress measures formulated using the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Each participant was assessed once during each trimester of pregnancy.

The Impact of Fetus Visualization on Parents' Psychological Reactions
Publication Date: 12/1993
Author(s): Author: Melita Kovacevic

The intention of this study was to examine the short-term psychological effects on parents, if any, of ultrasound scanning-that is, of fetal visualization. The starting hypothesis was that after visualizing the fetus, parents experience a lower level of stress and anxiety. To test that hypothesis, a quasiexperimental/control type of study was conducted. The subjects, all parents (N = 296), were divided into two groups: an experimental high-feedback group that watched the ultrasound screen, and a low-feedback control group that could not see a screen.

The Relationship of Pre- and Perinatal Psychology to 20th Century Art, Literature and Philosophy
Publication Date: 12/1993
Author(s): Author: Ludwig Janus

Observations in the field of psychotherapy give us every reason to believe that experiences before and during birth remain present in our awareness of our own bodies and in our inner states of experience as a constant background of experience. During external and internal crises and conflict situations, this background experience can be activated in the form of fantasies and emotional states and can then influence images and ideas about ourselves and the world.

Abortion Trauma: Application of a Conflict Model
Publication Date: 10/1993
Author(s): Author: Robert C Erikson

This paper advances the proposition that in carrying out the decision to undergo elective abortion, a woman experiences a potentially traumatizing psychological event. Vignettes from clinical practice illumine the symptoms and development of post-traumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of abortion. A model of psychic trauma is presented to account for the nature of abortion as a traumatic Stressor. It is based on psychoanalytic considerations, with an emphasis on the role of aggressive energy in the reconfiguring of psychic activities following trauma.

Complicated Mourning: Dynamics of Impacted Post Abortion Grief
Publication Date: 10/1993
Author(s): Author: Anne Speckhard

Current estimates are that one in every five women in the United States will have undergone at least one abortion, with 1.4 million abortions occurring annually. Increasingly, long-term stress reactions to abortion have been documented in the research literature. Post Abortion Syndrome (PAS), a variant of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, occurs in women who experience their abortions as traumatic. When the emotional components of the abortion experience are repressed, as in PAS, impacted grief and complicated mourning result.

Relationship Between Induced Abortion and Child Abuse and Neglect: Four Studies
Publication Date: 10/1993
Author(s): Author: Philip G Ney

Four studies designed to investigate any association between induced abortion and child abuse found a number of positive correlations. These findings appear to run counter to popular opinion and some professional declarations that making abortion freely available would terminate unwanted children and thus lower the incidence of child mistreatment. There is no evidence that the incidence of child abuse has declined with more readily available abortion.

Adoptees and Birthparents Connected by Design: Surprising Synchronicities in Histories of Union/Loss/Reunion
Publication Date: 05/1993
Author(s): Author: LaVonne H Stiffler

The recently burgeoning phenomenon of search and reunion by adult adoptees and their birth families has uncovered fascinating information. During the author's doctoral research, reunited parents and children related uncanny coincidences that occurred during the years of their separation (e.g., dreaming of one's child in specific danger, naming a later child by the unknown name of the firstborn, knowing the day of a mother's death, vacationing in the same location, making identical purchases, and beginning to search at the same time).

My First Heartbeat
Publication Date: 05/1993
Author(s): Author: Jaroslav Vlcek

From memories of his prenatal life the author presents a recollection, in the form of a poetic narrative, of how he started his heartbeat. He then gives a personal and transpersonal interpretation of the narrative in the adult-life context and proposes a theory of how an unborn may start its heart and what it learns from the experience. In support of his ideas he draws on examples from mythology, a modern-day ritual and common beliefs about the heart.

Prebirth Memory Therapy, Including Prematurely Delivered Patients
Publication Date: 05/1993
Author(s): Author: John-Richard Turner

This paper focuses on the psychological aspects of prebirth and perinatal memories encoded for full term and premature infants and activated as possible pathology during adult life. It presents a brief recapitulation of the basic hypothesis that not only do human beings inherit the genetic coding of their mother and father, but also the mental and emotional states of their parents in the form of non-conscious emotional reaction patterns from the nine months of gestation including the continuum of the birth itself, as well as adjacent perinatal circumstances.

The Role of Mental Representations in Predicting Mother-Infant Interaction
Publication Date: 05/1993
Author(s): Author: Paul V Trad

Research has revealed that as early as the neonatal period infants possess innate capacities such as categorization and amodal perception that help them formulate representations of the "self and "other." This paper posits that in order to formulate these representations, the infant also requires exposure to a motivational environment that provides insight into the relationships between people.

Being Born Caesarean: Physical, Psychosocial and Metaphysical Aspects
Publication Date: 03/1993
Author(s): Author: Jane English

Only in the past 80 to 100 years have there been appreciable numbers of people walking on the earth without having been through the hitherto universal human experience of labor and delivery, the trip down the birth canal. In 1882 advances in surgical techniques made caesarean delivery a reasonably safe procedure for both the mother and the child. Before that, most of the mothers died.

Man, the Womb and the Sea: The Roots of the Symbolism of Water
Publication Date: 03/1993
Author(s): Author: Michel Odent

Water has always been a powerful symbol for human beings. Water is critical to life. First, the human fetus grows in the amniotic fluid. Second, the scientific context of the 1990s suggests a new vision of Homo sapiens as a primate that, although genetically related to the chimpanzees, has adapted to a particular environment through a land-sea interface. In this paper the origins of the power of water symbolism is explored, particularly in the context of the birth process.

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