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Prenatal University; Commitment to Fetal-Family Bonding and the Strengthening of the Family Unit as an Educational Institution
Publication Date: 12/1988
Author(s): Author: F Rene Van de Carr

This paper reviews The Prenatal University stimulation program, which is designed: 1) to create an interactive relationship between parents to be and the developing fetus, and 2) to reinforce a "preconscious awareness of the environment" by the developing fetus. The prenatal stimulation program is designed with working parents in mind. Only two five-minute sessions are required per day for effective implementation. Both mother and father are involved; siblings and other relatives are also encouraged to join in the game-like sessions.

Teaching Mother/Fetus Communication: A Workshop on how to Teach Pregnant Mothers to Communicate with Their Unborn Children
Publication Date: 12/1988
Author(s): Author: Clara M Riley

There has been much in literature about the to-be-born child's ability to receive stimuli such as sounds heard inside and outside the womb (e.g. music, the mother's heartbeat, etc . . .), various emotions felt by the mother, and physical trauma. Little has been said about the ability of the mother to communicate directly with her unborn child and the ability of that child to respond in a way that the mother can understand. In this workshop, we posit that communication, by way of meditation, can be taught, and that many benefits may accrue.

Pain in the Neonate
Publication Date: 10/1988
Author(s): Author: Donald C Tyler

While pain control in children has been poor in the past, pain control in neonates has been virtually neglected. In this review, I examine the rationalizations for not treating pain in neonates, then discuss three areas where pain control needs improvement, specifically, in surgical anesthesia, in analgesia for circumcision, and in analgesia following surgery. Suggestions are made for improving care in all three spheres.

Psychobiosocial Intervention in Threatened Premature Labor
Publication Date: 10/1988
Author(s): Author: Lewis E Mehl

A pilot study was conducted to investigate whether psychobiosocial intervention could be a useful adjunct to medical management of premature labor. 44 women threatening premature delivery (range of 20 to 34 weeks gestation) were referred by hospital clinicians. Nineteen of these patients were hospitalized, 28 were on tocolytic medication, and 42 on total bedrest. Hypnosis was used with all subjects; 77% also received body awareness techniques designed to decrease autonomic reactivity and muscle tension. Average treatment was seven two-hour sessions over three weeks.

Perinatal Origin of Eventual Self-Destructive Behavior
Publication Date: 05/1988
Author(s): Author: Bertil Jacobson

This paper summarizes results of three investigations: an ecological study dealing with the epidemiology of self-destructive behavior in the United States (unpublished), a case-control study of forensic victims in Stockholm,1 and preliminary results from an ongoing study of amphetamine addicts in Stockholm.2 The results seem alarming. The revealed data suggest that obstetric methods should be modified to prevent damages to future generations.

Pre- and Peri-Natal Stress-the Psychotic Individual
Publication Date: 05/1988
Author(s): Author: Moira Pyle Fitzpatrick

The psychotic individual often presents imagery, hallucinations, and behavior that reflect pre- and peri-natal stress. This paper is a phenomenological study of psychotic adults with a known history of pre- and peri-natal distress. An overall view of psychosis is described as well as the context of a therapeutic community system. The method of body therapy found to be effective with the psychotic individual is delineated and excerpts from actual interviews are included.

The Influence of Mother-Daughter Communications on Anxiety During Labor
Publication Date: 05/1988
Author(s): Author: Leah Bonovich

Clinical observations of the behavior of labor patients and their families along with the recognition of the unique aspects of the mother-daughter relationship directed attention to mother-daughter communication as an influence on the level of anxiety that a woman may experience at the onset of her first labor. Studies on the physiology of labor have provided substantial evidence that as epinephrine levels increase, as a result of anxiety, uterine contractions are less effective and labor is prolonged.

The Significance of Birth Memories
Publication Date: 05/1988
Author(s): Author: David B Chamberlain

Increasing numbers of people, from age two and upward, are remembering their own birth. They are doing this with a variety of methods and sometimes no method at all. Although controversial for a century, these memories can now be set in a broad empirical framework for the first time. Narrative memories of birth are minidocumentaries of potentially great significance. Four dimensions are cited: 1) Clinical. A growing literature indicates the importance of birth in the creation of many psychological problems.

An Anthropological Perspective on the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: The Neurological and Structural Bases of Speech Breathing and Why SIDS Appears to Be a Species-Specific Malady, Part II
Publication Date: 03/1988
Author(s): Author: James J McKenna

This paper extends the evolutionary-based arguments proposed in a previous paper (see McKenna 1987, Part I) but concentrates on why the sudden infant death syndrome is not found among other animal species, and cannot be experimentally replicated, and thus why it appears to be a species-specific, unique human infant malady.

The Power of Joy: Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology as Applied by a Mountain Midwife
Publication Date: 03/1988
Author(s): Author: Candace Fields Whitridge

Knowledge of the consciousness of the unborn child provides the unprecedented opportunity and responsibility to change the practice of obstetrics. Pregnancy and birth are primal experiences, but caregivers often forget this as they are caught up in the technological current of our contemporary obstetrical world. Fear has often replaced joyful expectation for mother, baby, and provider. Instinctual maternal behavior of comfort and care for the unborn child can be fostered. Maternal appreciation of and communication with the intelligent fetus can be encouraged from the first prenatal visit.

An Anthropological Perspective on the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Testable Hypothesis on the Possible Role of Parental Breathing Cues in Promoting Infant Breathing Stability, Part I
Publication Date: 12/1987
Author(s): Author: James J McKenna

This research model moves from a comprehensive review of SIDS research to a consideration of the evolution of human infant development and why we should expect to find that especially in the first year of life, parent-infant sleep contact asserts a significant physiological regulatory effect on the infant's breathing. Prenatal studies of fetal hearing and breathing are reviewed and used to argue that the central nervous system is at birth already sensitized to parental breathing rhythms to which the infant in its "expected" postnatal environment will have access.

The Primal Wound: A Preliminary Investigation into the Effects of Separation from the Birth Mother on Adopted Children
Publication Date: 12/1987
Author(s): Author: Nancy Verrier

Although adoption is considered by many people to be the optimal solution to the problem of relinquished children, the growing number of adoptees searching for birth parents and the advent of pre- and peri-natal psychology suggest that it is not so simple a solution as had once been thought.

Teaching the Unborn: Precept and Practice
Publication Date: 10/1987
Author(s): Author: Brent Logan

Various prenatal stimulation approaches over recent years have resulted in thousands of children with exceptional abilities that do not prove problematic-unlike enhancement lacking an in utero component. Nonetheless, at the inception of every major historical shift transitional measures are idiosyncratic, unsystematically deriving impetus from early success while not yet identifying a common theme in order to promote consistent achievement. This challenge is met through synthesis leading toward comprehensive application.

The Effect of Infertility on Female Sexuality
Publication Date: 10/1987
Author(s): Author: Karen Reed

Infertility affects one in six couples in America. Only half, or five million of them will be helped by medical means. For the others, the problem is long term. Women who are infertile may not only grieve the childless state, but must also incorporate the inability to have a child into their sexual identity. The emotional turmoil of infertility can have far reaching effects. The woman's self identity is called into question, as are her role expectations. The quest to become pregnant overshadows daily living, which can affect the couples relationship.

Influence of a Bath During Labor on the Experience of Maternity
Publication Date: 05/1987
Author(s): Author: F Gillot-de-Vries

The data collected in this study tends to show that the bath has improved the experience of pregnancy and delivery, particularly for women of the pathological group, and among those mostly for primiparas. Their experience often comes fairly close to that of the normal group. We can suggest that the bath has a relaxing, a reassuring and an analgesic effect which provides favourable conditions for a satisfactory delivery even in pathological cases, where women could otherwise have been overwhelmed with anxiety.

Psychosocial Stress, Anxiety and Pregnancy Complications: Issues for Public Policy
Publication Date: 03/1987
Author(s): Author: Kathleen M Kalil

A review of the literature regarding the relationship between psychosocial stress, anxiety, and occupation on pregnancy complications reveals several interesting patterns. Specifically, emotional reactions during pregnancy (McDonald 1968; Joffe, 1969; Spielberger & Jacobs, 1976) and stress before pregnancy (Gorsuch, 1974) have been associated with a larger number of pregnancy complications such as miscarriages, prolonged labor, breech births, and premature births. With approximately 63% of women over the age of 16 working (U.S.

Techniques for Dealing with Prenatal and Perinatal Issues in Therapy: A Bodymind Perspective
Publication Date: 03/1987
Author(s): Author: Gay Hendricks

Case studies are given which describe how a birth/prenatal paradigm is used to treat adult psychological disturbance. The authors discuss diagnostic cues for discriminating prenatal from perinatal issues. Several treatment techniques are explored: verbal psychotherapy, breathwork, a prenatal therapy procedure done in warm water, and movement therapy.

The Role of Prenatal Trauma in the Development of the Negative Birth Experience
Publication Date: 03/1987
Author(s): Author: E A Barnett

In this paper the author reviews and extends his previous researches into the negative birth experience. He notes that the incidence of the negative birth experience is constant at about 30% even in asymptomatic individuals who on further enquiry admit to restrictive feelings which have effectively limited their access to a full potential. The prominence of the negative birth experience in the production of certain symptom complexes is detailed. The negative birth experience is therefore to be considered a potent inhibiting factor to be dealt with therapeutically wherever it is discovered.

Treating the Trauma of Abortion
Publication Date: 12/1986
Author(s): Author: Helen H Watkins

The author describes a technique to ease the trauma of abortion to the mother by attempting to communicate with the fetus using hypnotic visualization. As a result, women who employed the technique experienced little or no guilt following abortion, with some having spontaneous miscarriages. Each one reported the experience as positive, and appeared to have opened the grieving process prior to the loss of the fetus, leading to an increased sense of continuity and completeness in the experience.Also discussed is a case of attempted but uncompleted abortion.

Frank Lake's Maternal-Fetal Distress Syndrome and Primal Integration Workshops - Part II
Publication Date: 10/1986
Author(s): Author: Roger C S Moss

A brief description is given of the development of Frank Lake's theory of the origin of certain fundamental disorders of personality in the emotional distress transmitted by the mother to the fetus. The theory can be stated as follows: "The behavioral reactions of a pregnant mother affect her fetus in ways which contribute to its perceptions of itself and of its environment in the womb; and these perceptions persist into adult life".Some evidence for the particular importance of what occurs in the first trimester of pregnancy is presented.

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