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The Psychological Aspects of In-Vitro Fertilization
Publication Date: 10/1989
Author(s): Author: Nancy Hurwitz Kors

Infertility is a life crisis that affects all aspects of a couple's life. When they enter an in-vitro fertilization program the trauma and emotional stress becomes intensified.

The first section of this paper will review the psychological components of infertility. The second section shall focus on the psychological issues which apply specifically to in-vitro patients. In the last section, suggestions for primary care physicians who are directly involved in IVF programs will be made.

Babies Remember Pain
Publication Date: 05/1989
Author(s): Author: David B Chamberlain

Babies have been crying at birth for centuries but we have been reluctant to accept their cries as valid expressions of pain which will register in memory. Despite mounting evidence, the characteristic reaction of psychologists and medical practitioners to infant pain has been one of denial. Key myths about the brain have provided the rationale for painful procedures. Against this background, studies of the infant cry prove that crying is meaningful communication. Examples of prenatal and perinatal cries are examined.

Maternal Stress and Fetal Motor Behavior: A Preliminary Report
Publication Date: 05/1989
Author(s): Author: Nicolino Rossi

Fetal motility was observed by ultrasound scan in 15 pregnant women awaiting amniocentesis, in order to assess the effects of maternal stress on fetal motor behavior. Amniocentesis was considered a stress situation giving rise to maternal anxiety not artificially induced. The control group consisted of 15 pregnant women undergoing routine ultrasound examination. Fetal motor activity was assessed in terms of quantity and quality. Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (S.T.A.I.). Fetuses showed a significantly higher motor activity (p

Foundation Funding and Psychiatric Research
Publication Date: 03/1989
Author(s): Author: Diana Kim

Support for psychiatric research is limited to a relatively small number of funding sources. Foundations-nonprofit entities that support a variety of social, medical, educational, and other activities-are a potentially important source. The authors describe the role and structure of foundations, discuss historical trends in foundation support for research in mental illness, and present the results of a study of the extent to which foundations support mental health research.

Psychotherapy with Infants and Children
Publication Date: 03/1989
Author(s): Author: William R Emerson

This article describes the basic parameters of psychotherapy for infants and children. The essential core of the therapy is described as relational, requiring empathy and compassionate contact. Fundamental techniques to uncover pre- and perinatal trauma are discussed, and research results from 15 years of development and evaluation are summarized. Successful treatment requires cooperative efforts of parents, physicians, nurses, midwives, psychotherapists, chiropractors, cranial osteopaths, and others.

The Inquiry Into Prenatal Musical Experience: A Report of the Eastman Project 1980-1987
Publication Date: 03/1989
Author(s): Author: Donald J Shetler

This paper describes early research and current trends in prenatal brain growth, development of the auditory system, and characteristics of the fetal environment including auditory stimuli. Questions which initiated the investigator's longitudinal study of pre and postnatal response to musical stimuli are discussed.

The protocol for the research, nature of specific musical stimulus sources, pre and postnatal behavioral response, and implications for accelerated musical and speech development are discussed.

The Scientific Basis of Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology-Part 1
Publication Date: 03/1989
Author(s): Author: Thomas R Verny

This paper deals with three significant parameters of Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology from a research perspective. First, the development and function of the CNS is examined with particular emphasis on myelination, audiology, EEG studies and neonatal behaviour. Next, advances in our knowledge of intrauterine learning are reviewed. Lastly, the effect of perinatal trauma on personality development is considered.

Maternal Report of Perinatal Information as a Predictor of Cardiopulmonary Functioning in the Neonate
Publication Date: 12/1988
Author(s): Author: Jeffrey W Gray

This study examined the relationship between neonates cardiopulmonary condition and relevant information from the perinatal period. Multiple regression analyses showed that a linear composite of mother's report of perinatal information accounted for a significant amount of the variability in three of the five APGAR components at one minute (i.e., Heart Rate, Respiratory Effort, and Reflex Irritability) and all five APGAR components at five minutes. The results were interpreted as lending support to the utility of structured maternal report of perinatal information.

Prenatal University; Commitment to Fetal-Family Bonding and the Strengthening of the Family Unit as an Educational Institution
Publication Date: 12/1988
Author(s): Author: F Rene Van de Carr

This paper reviews The Prenatal University stimulation program, which is designed: 1) to create an interactive relationship between parents to be and the developing fetus, and 2) to reinforce a "preconscious awareness of the environment" by the developing fetus. The prenatal stimulation program is designed with working parents in mind. Only two five-minute sessions are required per day for effective implementation. Both mother and father are involved; siblings and other relatives are also encouraged to join in the game-like sessions.

Teaching Mother/Fetus Communication: A Workshop on how to Teach Pregnant Mothers to Communicate with Their Unborn Children
Publication Date: 12/1988
Author(s): Author: Clara M Riley

There has been much in literature about the to-be-born child's ability to receive stimuli such as sounds heard inside and outside the womb (e.g. music, the mother's heartbeat, etc . . .), various emotions felt by the mother, and physical trauma. Little has been said about the ability of the mother to communicate directly with her unborn child and the ability of that child to respond in a way that the mother can understand. In this workshop, we posit that communication, by way of meditation, can be taught, and that many benefits may accrue.

Pain in the Neonate
Publication Date: 10/1988
Author(s): Author: Donald C Tyler

While pain control in children has been poor in the past, pain control in neonates has been virtually neglected. In this review, I examine the rationalizations for not treating pain in neonates, then discuss three areas where pain control needs improvement, specifically, in surgical anesthesia, in analgesia for circumcision, and in analgesia following surgery. Suggestions are made for improving care in all three spheres.

Psychobiosocial Intervention in Threatened Premature Labor
Publication Date: 10/1988
Author(s): Author: Lewis E Mehl

A pilot study was conducted to investigate whether psychobiosocial intervention could be a useful adjunct to medical management of premature labor. 44 women threatening premature delivery (range of 20 to 34 weeks gestation) were referred by hospital clinicians. Nineteen of these patients were hospitalized, 28 were on tocolytic medication, and 42 on total bedrest. Hypnosis was used with all subjects; 77% also received body awareness techniques designed to decrease autonomic reactivity and muscle tension. Average treatment was seven two-hour sessions over three weeks.

Perinatal Origin of Eventual Self-Destructive Behavior
Publication Date: 05/1988
Author(s): Author: Bertil Jacobson

This paper summarizes results of three investigations: an ecological study dealing with the epidemiology of self-destructive behavior in the United States (unpublished), a case-control study of forensic victims in Stockholm,1 and preliminary results from an ongoing study of amphetamine addicts in Stockholm.2 The results seem alarming. The revealed data suggest that obstetric methods should be modified to prevent damages to future generations.

Pre- and Peri-Natal Stress-the Psychotic Individual
Publication Date: 05/1988
Author(s): Author: Moira Pyle Fitzpatrick

The psychotic individual often presents imagery, hallucinations, and behavior that reflect pre- and peri-natal stress. This paper is a phenomenological study of psychotic adults with a known history of pre- and peri-natal distress. An overall view of psychosis is described as well as the context of a therapeutic community system. The method of body therapy found to be effective with the psychotic individual is delineated and excerpts from actual interviews are included.

The Influence of Mother-Daughter Communications on Anxiety During Labor
Publication Date: 05/1988
Author(s): Author: Leah Bonovich

Clinical observations of the behavior of labor patients and their families along with the recognition of the unique aspects of the mother-daughter relationship directed attention to mother-daughter communication as an influence on the level of anxiety that a woman may experience at the onset of her first labor. Studies on the physiology of labor have provided substantial evidence that as epinephrine levels increase, as a result of anxiety, uterine contractions are less effective and labor is prolonged.

The Significance of Birth Memories
Publication Date: 05/1988
Author(s): Author: David B Chamberlain

Increasing numbers of people, from age two and upward, are remembering their own birth. They are doing this with a variety of methods and sometimes no method at all. Although controversial for a century, these memories can now be set in a broad empirical framework for the first time. Narrative memories of birth are minidocumentaries of potentially great significance. Four dimensions are cited: 1) Clinical. A growing literature indicates the importance of birth in the creation of many psychological problems.

An Anthropological Perspective on the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: The Neurological and Structural Bases of Speech Breathing and Why SIDS Appears to Be a Species-Specific Malady, Part II
Publication Date: 03/1988
Author(s): Author: James J McKenna

This paper extends the evolutionary-based arguments proposed in a previous paper (see McKenna 1987, Part I) but concentrates on why the sudden infant death syndrome is not found among other animal species, and cannot be experimentally replicated, and thus why it appears to be a species-specific, unique human infant malady.

The Power of Joy: Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology as Applied by a Mountain Midwife
Publication Date: 03/1988
Author(s): Author: Candace Fields Whitridge

Knowledge of the consciousness of the unborn child provides the unprecedented opportunity and responsibility to change the practice of obstetrics. Pregnancy and birth are primal experiences, but caregivers often forget this as they are caught up in the technological current of our contemporary obstetrical world. Fear has often replaced joyful expectation for mother, baby, and provider. Instinctual maternal behavior of comfort and care for the unborn child can be fostered. Maternal appreciation of and communication with the intelligent fetus can be encouraged from the first prenatal visit.

An Anthropological Perspective on the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Testable Hypothesis on the Possible Role of Parental Breathing Cues in Promoting Infant Breathing Stability, Part I
Publication Date: 12/1987
Author(s): Author: James J McKenna

This research model moves from a comprehensive review of SIDS research to a consideration of the evolution of human infant development and why we should expect to find that especially in the first year of life, parent-infant sleep contact asserts a significant physiological regulatory effect on the infant's breathing. Prenatal studies of fetal hearing and breathing are reviewed and used to argue that the central nervous system is at birth already sensitized to parental breathing rhythms to which the infant in its "expected" postnatal environment will have access.

The Primal Wound: A Preliminary Investigation into the Effects of Separation from the Birth Mother on Adopted Children
Publication Date: 12/1987
Author(s): Author: Nancy Verrier

Although adoption is considered by many people to be the optimal solution to the problem of relinquished children, the growing number of adoptees searching for birth parents and the advent of pre- and peri-natal psychology suggest that it is not so simple a solution as had once been thought.