Childbirth-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Breastfeeding: Challenges Mothers Face and How Birth Professionals Can Support Them by Kathleen Kendall-Tackett

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Publication Date: 
June 2015

Abstract: Birth is life-altering event. Under the best circumstances, it is a happy one. Labor and delivery can be empowering, with mothers feeling that they have accomplished something great. Unfortunately, birth can also be difficult, overwhelming, and for some, traumatic. Without intervention, childbirth-related trauma and PTSD can last for years, coloring how women feel about themselves as mothers, and potentially marring their relationships with partners and babies. Birth trauma and breastfeeding intersect in some key ways. Birth trauma can negatively impact breastfeeding.

References: 

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Beck, C. T. (2008). Impact of birth trauma on breastfeeding: A tale of two pathways. Nursing Research, 57(4), 229-236.

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Beck, C. T., Gable, R. K., Sakala, C., & Declercq, E. R. (2011). Posttraumatic stress disorder in new mothers: Results from a two-stage U.S. national survey. Birth, 38(3), 216-227.

Beck, C. T., & Watson, S. (2008). Impact of birth trauma on breast-feeding. Nursing Research, 57(4), 228-236.

Colson, S. (2010). Introduction to biological nurturing: New angles on breastfeeding. Amarillo, TX: Hale Publishing.

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Galea, S., Vlahov, D., Resnick, H., Ahern, J., Susser, E., Gold, J., . . . Kilpatrick, D. (2003). Trends of probable post-traumatic stress disorder in New York City after the September 11 terrorist attacks. American Journal of Epidemiology, 158, 514-524.

Grajeda, R., & Perez-Escamilla, R. (2002). Stress during labor and delivery is associated with delayed onset of lactation among urban Guatemalan women. Journal of Nutrition, 132, 3055-3060.

Modarres, M., Afrasiabi, S., Rahnama, P., & Montazeri, A. (2012). Prevalence and risk factors of childbirth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 12(88). doi: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2393/12/88

National Center for PTSD. (2014). DSM-5 criteria for PTSD. From http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/PTSD-overview/dsm5_criteria_ptsd.asp

Rowlands, I. J., & Redshaw, M. (2012). Mode of birth and women’s psychological and physical wellbeing in the postnatal period. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 12(138). doi: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2393/12/138

Soderquist, I., Wijma, B., Thorbert, G., & Wijma, K. (2009). Risk factors in pregnancy for post-traumatic stress and depression after childbirth. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 116, 672-680.

Stramrood, C. A., Paarlberg, K. M., Huis Veld, E. M., Berger, L. W. A. R., Vingerhoets, A. J. J. M., Schultz, W. C. M. W., & Van Pampus, M. G. (2011). Posttraumatic stress following childbirth in homelike- and hospital settings. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 32(2), 88-97

In this article Kathleen Kendall-Tackett shares clinical approaches to working with mother-baby breastfeeding dyads that have experienced trauma or post-traumatic stress from birth.

When Humanity is Born by Cesarean at the Dawn of a Paradigm Shift.

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Publication Date: 
October 2014

Abstract:  In this paper, the question of the long-term impact of cesarean birth on cultures worldwide is investigated. Extensive research is cited to support the concepts put forth.

References: 

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Abstract:  In this paper, the question of the long-term impact of cesarean birth on cultures worldwide is investigated. Extensive research is cited to support the concepts put forth.

Interview: Mary Jackson, Certified Professional Midwife Bridging Midwifery Practice and Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Insights

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Publication Date: 
January 2013

Interview with Mary Jackson, CPM,Midwife integrating pre and perinatal psychology principles into midwifery practice. Mary Jackson RN, CPM, LM, RCST, has been a home birth Midwife since 1975. She has attended over 2,000 births in the Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Ojai, California areas and is now attending home births with her second generation of babies. She has incorporated a two-year craniosacral training with Michael Shea and the two-year Castellino Prenatal and Birth Training into her midwifery practice.

The Effects of Prenatal Yoga on Birth Outcomes: A Systematic Review of the Literature

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Importance There are limited data to demonstrate the potential impact of prenatal yoga on birth outcomes such as maternal comfort, labor duration, and infant gestational age and weight.
Objective To examine the published evidence on prenatal yoga, identify the gaps in this field of study, and to explore avenues for further research.

References: 

References

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The effects of yoga in prevention of pregnancy complications in high-risk pregnancies: A randomized controlled trial. Preventative Medicine. 55(4), 333-340.
Satyapriya, M., Nagendra, H. R., Nagarathna, R., & Padmalatha, V. (2009). Effect of integrated yoga on stress and heart rate variability in pregnant women. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 104, 218-222.
Saunders, T. A., Lobel, M., Veloso, C., & Meyer, B. A. (2006). Prenatal maternal stress is associated with delivery analgesia and unplanned cesareans. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 27(3), 141-146.
Smith, C., Hancock, H., Blake-Mortimer, J., & Eckert, K. (2007). A randomised comparative trial of yoga and relaxation to reduce stress and anxiety. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 15, 77-83.
Smith, J. A., Greer, T., Sheets, T., & Watson, S. (2011). Is there more to yoga than exercise? Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 17(3), 22-29.
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How Birthing Professionals Can Include Early Consciousness in Pregnancy and Birthing

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Publication Date: 
July 2013
The subject of prenatal consciousness should be considered outside of the very limiting arena of the American abortion debate. The recognition of prenatal consciousness as well as the reclamation of one’s own early consciousness is important for us all, and in particular for birthing professionals.

Antecedents to Somatoform Disorders: A Pre-and Perinatal Psychology Hypothesis

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Related Content:: 
Publication Date: 
January 2011

The somatoforn cluster of behavioral disorders is the single most frequent class of unexplainable problems found in primary care medical settings today. What is known about these disorders is that there are physiological, social, and psychological variables that need to be considered. What is not known is how a person develops a propensity toward having physical symptoms as their primary complaint. The author suggests that human beings are classically conditioned when faced with intolerable emotional experiences in the womb or during birth.

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Leventhal, H. (1984). A perceptual-motor theory of emotion. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental socialpsychology (pp. 117-182). New York: Academic.

Leventhal, H., & Tomarken, R. (1986). Emotion: Today's problems. Annual Review of Psychology, 37, 565-610.

Levi, L. (1974). Psychosocial stress and disease: A conceptual model. In E. K Gunderson & R. H. Rahe (Eds.), Life stress and illness. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

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Childbirth in the Land of Utopia

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Publication Date: 
May 2010

In this creative look into the future, the author offers a scenario in which giving birth without medical intervention is deemed to be ideal. The scene starts in the year 2010 with an interdisciplinary conference to discuss the need to control the rate of caesarean birth. The effects of the Utopian attitude are evaluated in 2031. Interestingly, outsiders had been at the root of the miraculous solutions unanimously adopted in this country. This essay presents a thought-provoking approach that will have you creating your own version of Utopia.

Book Reviews 23,3

Publication Date: 
03/2009

ABSTRACT: This article offers a historical account of the changes in birth that the author reflects on after decades as a practicing obstetrician. In preliterate and pre-agricultural societies, women used to isolate themselves to give birth. It seems that at that phase of the history of humanity the only person who could be around was the mother of the parturient, an ant, or another experienced mother. Then, for thousands of years, childbirth has been more and more socialized and culturally controlled. During this long period the birth environment remained mostly feminine.

The Masculinisation of the Birth Environment

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Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
March 2009

This article offers a historical account of the changes in birth that the author reflects on after decades as a practicing obstetrician. In preliterate and pre-agricultural societies, women used to isolate themselves to give birth. It seems that at that phase of the history of humanity the only person who could be around was the mother of the parturient, an ant, or another experienced mother. Then, for thousands of years, childbirth has been more and more socialized and culturally controlled. During this long period the birth environment remained mostly feminine.

References: 

Donnison, J. (1977). Midwives and medical men. London: Heinemann.

Odent, M. (2009). The functions of the orgasms: the highways to transcendence. London: Pinter & Martin.

Odent, M. (2004). Knitting midwives for drugless childbirth? Midwifery Today, 71, 21-22.

Von Siebold, E. C. J. (1839). Versuch einer Geschichte der Gerburtshulfe, Berlin.

Life: How Experience in the Womb Can Affect Our Lives Forever

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Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
March 2009

ABSTRACT:?Until we re-direct our focus earlier, we shall never solve these human problems.? Dr. Arthur Janov explains this position in his article and describes how the psychophysiological effects of events that occur during the first nine months influence the lifespan. Clearly focusing on the womb is a shift in his Primal theory. This change proposes the importance of healing prenatal imprints to more clearly see their widespread cumulative and enduring effects. ?It means that how the birth trauma is played out, and reacted to, depends on earlier life circumstances?womb-life.?

References: 

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Canoy, D., Pouta, A., Ruokonen, A., Hartikainen, A. L., Saikku, P, & Jarvelin, M. R. (2009). Weight at birth and infancy in relation to adult leukocyte count: a population-based study of 5619 men and women followed from the fetal period to adulthood. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Retrieved March 2009 from: http://jcem.endojournals.org/

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Côté, F., Fligny , C, Bayard, E., Launay, J. M., Gershon, M. D., Mallet, J., & Vodjdani, G. (2007). Maternal serotonin is crucial for murine embryonic development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(1), 329-34.

Diego, M., Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Schanberg, S., Kuhn, C, González-Quintero, V. H., (2009). Prenatal depression restricts fetal growth. Early Human Development, 85(1), 65-70.

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Field, T. (2001). Targeting adolescent mothers with depressive symptoms for early intervention. Sage Family Studies Abstracts, 23(3), 275-407.

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JAMA and Archives Journals (2008, February 5). Severe stressful events early in pregnancy may be associated with schizophrenia among offspring. ScienceDaily . Retrieved January 22, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2008/02/080204161433.htm

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Lynch, G., Rex, C. S., Chen, L. Y., & Gall, C. M. (2008). The substrates of memory: Defects, treatments and enhancement. European Journal of Pharmacology, 585, 2-13.

Mill, J., Tang, T, Kaminsky, Z., Khare, T, Yazdanpanah, S., Bouchard, L. et al, (2008). Epigenomic profiling reveals DNA-methylation changes associated with major psychosis. American Journal of Human Genetics, 82(3), 696-711.

Nyberg, K., Buka, S. L., & Lipsitt, L. P. (2000). Perinatal medication as a potential risk factor for adult drug abuse in a North American cohort. Epidemiology, 11(6), 715-716.

Phillips, D. I. W., & Jones, A. (2006). Fetal programming of autonomic and HPA function: do people who were small babies have enhanced stress responses? Journal of Physiology, 572(1), 45-50.

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Singer, D. (2004). Metabolic adaptation to hypoxia: Cost and benefit of being small. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, 141(3), 215-228.

Singer, D. (1999). Neonatal tolerance to hypoxia: a comparative-physiological approach. Comparative Biochemistry And Physiology. Part A, Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 123(3), 221-34.

Scripps Research Institute (2007, September 6). Specific neurons involved in memory formation identified. ScienceDaily. Retrieved 1/20/2009.

Seckl, J. R & Meaney, M. J. (2006). Glucocorticoid "programming" and PTSD risk. Annals of the NY. Academy of Science, 1071, 351-378.

Thompson, P (2007). "Down will come baby": Prenatal stress, primitive defenses and gestational dysregulation. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 8(3), 99-113.

University of Pennsylvania (2005, December 25). Researchers know what you were about to say; fMRI used to detect memory storage. Science Daily. Retrieved 1/18/2009.

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