Birth

Interview: Mary Jackson, Certified Professional Midwife Bridging Midwifery Practice and Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Insights

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
January 2013

Interview with Mary Jackson, CPM,Midwife integrating pre and perinatal psychology principles into midwifery practice. Mary Jackson RN, CPM, LM, RCST, has been a home birth Midwife since 1975. She has attended over 2,000 births in the Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Ojai, California areas and is now attending home births with her second generation of babies. She has incorporated a two-year craniosacral training with Michael Shea and the two-year Castellino Prenatal and Birth Training into her midwifery practice.

The Effects of Prenatal Yoga on Birth Outcomes: A Systematic Review of the Literature

$10.00
Price: $10.00

Importance There are limited data to demonstrate the potential impact of prenatal yoga on birth outcomes such as maternal comfort, labor duration, and infant gestational age and weight.
Objective To examine the published evidence on prenatal yoga, identify the gaps in this field of study, and to explore avenues for further research.

References: 

References

Beddoe, A. E., Lee, K. A., Weiss, S. J., Kennedy, H. P., & Yang, C. P. (2010). Effects of mindful yoga on sleep in pregnant women: A pilot study. Biological Research for Nursing, 11(4), 363-370.
Beddoe, A. E., Yang, C. P., Kennedy, H. P., Weiss, S. J., & Lee, K. A. (2009). The effects of mindfulness-based yoga during pregnancy on maternal psychological and physical distress. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecological, & Neonatal Nursing, 38, 310-319.
Bijlani, R. L., Vempati, R. P., Yadav, R. K., Ray, R. B., Gupta, V., Sharma, R., . . . Mahapatra, S. C. (2005). A brief but comprehensive lifestyle education program based on yoga reduces risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 11, 267-274.
Chung, S. C., Brooks, M. M., Rai, M., Balk, J. L., & Rai, S. (2012). Effects of sahaja yoga meditation on quality of life, anxiety, and blood pressure control. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 18(6), 589-596.
Chuntharapat, S., Petpichetchian, W., & Hatthakit, U. (2008). Yoga during pregnancy: Effects on maternal comfort, labor pain, and birth outcomes. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 14, 105-115.
Collins, C. (1998). Yoga: Intuition, preventative medicine, and treatment. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecological, & Neonatal Nursing, 27, 563-568.
Curtis, K., Weinrib, A., & Katz, J. (2012). Systematic review of yoga for pregnant women: Current status and future directions. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012 doi:10.1155/2012/715942
Doran, F., & Hornibrook, J. (2013). Women's experiences of participation in a pregnancy and postnatal group incorporating yoga and facilitated group discussion: A qualitative evaluation. Women and Birth, 26, 82-86.
Field, T., Diego, M., Hernandez-Reif, M., Medina, L., Delgado, J., & Hernandez, A. (2012). Yoga and massage therapy reduce prenatal depression and prematurity. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 16, 204-209.
Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Diego, M., Figueiredo, B., Schanberg, S., & Kuhn, C. (2006). Prenatal cortisol, prematurity, and low birth weight. Infant Behavior and Development, 29, 268-275.
Guarracino, J. L., Savino, S., & Edelstein, S. (2006). Yoga participation is beneficial to obesity prevention, hypertension control, and positive quality of life. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 21(2), 108-113.
Javnbakht, M., Kenari, R. H., & Ghasemi, M. (2009). Effects of yoga on depression and anxiety of women. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 15, 102-104.
Kochanek, K. D., Kirmeyer, S. E., Martin, J. A., Strobino, D. M., & Guyer, B. (2012). Annual summary of vital statistics: 2009. Pediatrics, 129, 338-348.
Kristal, A. R., Littman, A. J., Benitez, D., & White, E. (2005). Yoga practice is associated with attenuated weight gain in healthy, middle-aged men and women. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 11(4), 28-33.
Kurki, T., Hiilesmaa, V., Raitasalo, R., Mattila, H., & Ylikorkala, O. (2000). Depression and anxiety in early pregnancy and risk for preeclampsia. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 95(4), 487-490.
Lee, K. A., & Gay, C. L. (2004). Sleep in late pregnancy predicts length of labor and type of delivery. American Journal of Obstetric and Gynecology, 191, 2041-2046.
Mancuso, R. A., Schetter, C. D., Rini, C. M., Roesch, S. C., & Hobel, C. J. (2004). Maternal prenatal anxiety and corticotropin-releasing hormone associated with timing of delivery. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 762-769.
Mulder, E. J. H., Robles de Medina, P. G., Huizink, A. C., Van den Bergh, B. R. H., Buitelaar, J. K., & Visser, G. H. A. (2002). Prenatal maternal stress: Effects on pregnancy and the (unborn) child. Early Human Development, 70, 3-14.
Muzik, M., Hamilton, S. E., Rosenblum, K. L., Waxler, E., & Hadi, Z. (2012). Mindfulness yoga during pregnancy for psychiatrically at-risk women: Preliminary results from a pilot feasibility study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, , 1-6. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2012.06.006
Narendran, S., Nagarathna, R., Narendran, V., Gunasheela, S., & Nagendra, H. R. R. (2005). Efficacy of yoga on pregnancy outcome. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 11(2), 237-244.
Rakhshani, A., Maharana, S., Raghuram, N., Nagendra, H. R., & Venkatram, P. (2010). Effects of integrated yoga on quality of life and interpersonal relationship of pregnant women. Quality of Life Research, 19, 1447-1445.
Rakhshani, A., Nagarathna, R., Mhaskar, R., Mhaskar, A., Thomas, A., Gunasheela, S. (2012).
The effects of yoga in prevention of pregnancy complications in high-risk pregnancies: A randomized controlled trial. Preventative Medicine. 55(4), 333-340.
Satyapriya, M., Nagendra, H. R., Nagarathna, R., & Padmalatha, V. (2009). Effect of integrated yoga on stress and heart rate variability in pregnant women. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 104, 218-222.
Saunders, T. A., Lobel, M., Veloso, C., & Meyer, B. A. (2006). Prenatal maternal stress is associated with delivery analgesia and unplanned cesareans. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 27(3), 141-146.
Smith, C., Hancock, H., Blake-Mortimer, J., & Eckert, K. (2007). A randomised comparative trial of yoga and relaxation to reduce stress and anxiety. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 15, 77-83.
Smith, J. A., Greer, T., Sheets, T., & Watson, S. (2011). Is there more to yoga than exercise? Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 17(3), 22-29.
Sun, Y., Hung, Y., Chang, Y., & Kuo, S. (2010). Effects of a prenatal yoga programme on the discomforts of pregnancy and maternal childbirth self-efficacy in Taiwan. Midwifery, 26, 31-36.
Vempati, R. P., & Telles, S. (2002). Yoga-based guided relaxation reduces sympathetic activity judged from baseline levels. Psychological Reports, 90, 487-494.
Vieten, C., & Astin, J. (2008). Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention during pregnancy on prenatal stress and mood; results of a pilot study. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 11, 67-74.
Weinstock, M. (2005). The potential influence of maternal stress hormones on development and mental health of the offspring. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 19, 296-308.
Yang, C. C. H., Chao, T. C., Kuo, T. B. J., Yin, C. S., & Chen, H. I. (2000). Preeclamptic pregnancy is associated with increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic control of HR. American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 278, 1269-1273.

How Birthing Professionals Can Include Early Consciousness in Pregnancy and Birthing

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
July 2013
The subject of prenatal consciousness should be considered outside of the very limiting arena of the American abortion debate. The recognition of prenatal consciousness as well as the reclamation of one’s own early consciousness is important for us all, and in particular for birthing professionals.

Antecedents to Somatoform Disorders: A Pre-and Perinatal Psychology Hypothesis

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Related Content:: 
Publication Date: 
January 2011

The somatoforn cluster of behavioral disorders is the single most frequent class of unexplainable problems found in primary care medical settings today. What is known about these disorders is that there are physiological, social, and psychological variables that need to be considered. What is not known is how a person develops a propensity toward having physical symptoms as their primary complaint. The author suggests that human beings are classically conditioned when faced with intolerable emotional experiences in the womb or during birth.

References: 

APA (American Psychiatric Association). (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.

Bauer, P. J. (1996). What do infants recall of their lives? Memory for specific events by one- and two-year-olds. American Psychologist, 51(1), 29-41.

Behavioral Science Task Force of the National Advisory Mental Health Council (1995). Basic Behavioral Science Research for Mental Health: A National Investment: Emotion and Motivation. American Psychologist, 50(10), 838-845.

Benoliel, J. (1995). Multiple meanings of pain and complexities of pain management. Nursing Clinics of North America, 30(4), 583.

Bower, G. H. (1981). Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 31, 129-148.

Carlson, N R. (1994). Physiology of behavior. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Chaplin, S. L. (1997). Somatization. In W. Tseng & J. Streltzer (Eds.), Culture & psychopathology: A guide to clinical assessment (67-86). New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Domínguez, B., Valderrama, P, de los Angeles Meza, M., Perez, S. L., Silva, ?., Martinez, G., Méndez, V. M. & Olvera, Y. (1995). The roles of disclosure and emotional reversal in clinical practice. In J.W. Pennebaker (ed.), Emotion, disclosure, & health. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Emerson, W R. (1996). The vulnerable prenate. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 10(3), 125-142.

Fauman, M. A. (1994). Study Guide to DSM-PV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.

Gatchel, R. J., Baum, A., & Rrantz, D. S. (1988). An introduction to health psychology (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

Kessler, R. C, Nelson, C. B., McGonagle, K A., Lieu, J., Swartz, M., & Blazer, D. G (1996). Comorbidity of DSM-I H-R major depressive disorder in the general population: results from the U. S. National Comorbidity Survey. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 17-30.

Kirkwood, C. R., Clure, H. R., Brodsky, R., Gould, G H., Knaak, R., Metcalf, M., & Romeo, S. (1982). The diagnostic content of family practice: 50 most common diagnoses recorded in the WAMI community practices. Journal of Family Practice, 15(3), 485492.

Kirmayer, L. J. & Taillefer, S. (1997). Somatoform disorders. In S. M. Turner, & M. Hersen (Eds.), Adult psychopathology and diagnosis (3d Ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Lake, F. (1981). Tight Corners in Pastoral Counselling. London: Darton, Longman and Todd

Lake, F. (1987). Clinical Theology. New York: Crossroad.

Lang, P. J. (1984). The cognitive psychophysiology of emotion: Fear and anxiety. InA. J. Turna & J. D. Maser (Ed.), Anxiety and anxiety disorders (pp. 130-170). Hilldale, NJ: Erlbaum.

LeDoux, J. (1993). Emotional memory systems in the brain. Behavioral and Brain Research, 58, 24-39.

Leventhal, H. (1984). A perceptual-motor theory of emotion. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental socialpsychology (pp. 117-182). New York: Academic.

Leventhal, H., & Tomarken, R. (1986). Emotion: Today's problems. Annual Review of Psychology, 37, 565-610.

Levi, L. (1974). Psychosocial stress and disease: A conceptual model. In E. K Gunderson & R. H. Rahe (Eds.), Life stress and illness. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Mayou, R., Bass, C, & Sharpe, M. (1995). Overview of epidemiology, classification, and etiology. In R. Mayou, C. Bass & M. Sharpe (Eds.), Treatment of functional somatic symptoms (pp. 42-65). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Miranda, J., Perez-Stable, E., Munoz, R., Hargreaves, W., & Henke, C. (1991). Somatization, psychiatric disorder, and stress in utilization of ambulatory medical services. Health Psychology, 10, 46-51.

Nesse, R. M., & Williams, G. C. (1994). Why we get sick. - The new science of Darwinian Medicine. New York: Vintage Books.

Reid, W. H., BaHs, G. U. & Sutton, B. J. (1997). The treatment of psychiatric disorders (3rd ed.). Bristol, PA: Brunner/Mazel, Inc.

Riedlinger, T, & Riedlinger, J. ( 1986). Taking birth trauma seriously. Medical Hypotheses, 19, 15-25.

Schore, A. N (1994). Affect regulation and the origin of the self. The neurobiology of emotional development. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Terr, L. C. (1988). What happens to early memories of trauma? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1, 96-104.

Thayer, R. E. (1989). The biopsychology of mood and arousal. New York: Oxford University Press,

van der Kolk, B. A. (1989). The compulsion to repeat the trauma: Re-enactment, revictimization and masochism. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 12, 389-411.

van der Kolk, B. A. (1994). The body keeps the score: Memory and the evolving psychobiology of posttraumatic stress. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 2(5), 253-265.

Childbirth in the Land of Utopia

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Related Content:: 
Publication Date: 
May 2010

In this creative look into the future, the author offers a scenario in which giving birth without medical intervention is deemed to be ideal. The scene starts in the year 2010 with an interdisciplinary conference to discuss the need to control the rate of caesarean birth. The effects of the Utopian attitude are evaluated in 2031. Interestingly, outsiders had been at the root of the miraculous solutions unanimously adopted in this country. This essay presents a thought-provoking approach that will have you creating your own version of Utopia.

Book Reviews 23,3

Publication Date: 
03/2009

ABSTRACT: This article offers a historical account of the changes in birth that the author reflects on after decades as a practicing obstetrician. In preliterate and pre-agricultural societies, women used to isolate themselves to give birth. It seems that at that phase of the history of humanity the only person who could be around was the mother of the parturient, an ant, or another experienced mother. Then, for thousands of years, childbirth has been more and more socialized and culturally controlled. During this long period the birth environment remained mostly feminine.

The Masculinisation of the Birth Environment

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
March 2009

This article offers a historical account of the changes in birth that the author reflects on after decades as a practicing obstetrician. In preliterate and pre-agricultural societies, women used to isolate themselves to give birth. It seems that at that phase of the history of humanity the only person who could be around was the mother of the parturient, an ant, or another experienced mother. Then, for thousands of years, childbirth has been more and more socialized and culturally controlled. During this long period the birth environment remained mostly feminine.

References: 

Donnison, J. (1977). Midwives and medical men. London: Heinemann.

Odent, M. (2009). The functions of the orgasms: the highways to transcendence. London: Pinter & Martin.

Odent, M. (2004). Knitting midwives for drugless childbirth? Midwifery Today, 71, 21-22.

Von Siebold, E. C. J. (1839). Versuch einer Geschichte der Gerburtshulfe, Berlin.

Life: How Experience in the Womb Can Affect Our Lives Forever

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
March 2009

ABSTRACT:?Until we re-direct our focus earlier, we shall never solve these human problems.? Dr. Arthur Janov explains this position in his article and describes how the psychophysiological effects of events that occur during the first nine months influence the lifespan. Clearly focusing on the womb is a shift in his Primal theory. This change proposes the importance of healing prenatal imprints to more clearly see their widespread cumulative and enduring effects. ?It means that how the birth trauma is played out, and reacted to, depends on earlier life circumstances?womb-life.?

References: 

Addis, D. R., & Schacter, D. L. (2008). Constructive episodic simulation: Temporal distance and detail of past and future events modulate hippocampal engagement. Hippocampus, 18, 227-237.

Anand, K J. S. & Scalzo, F. M. (2000). Can adverse neonatal experiences alter brain development and subsequent behavior? Biology of the Neonate, 77(2), 69-82.

Barr, C. S., Newman, T. K., Becker, M. L., Champoux, M., Lesch, K P, Suomi, S. J., Goldman, D., & Higley, J. D. (2003). Serotonin transporter gene variation is associated with alcohol sensitivity in rhesus macaques exposed to early-life stress. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research, 27(5), 812-7.

Briley, M. S., Raisman, R., & Langer, S. Z. (1979). Human platelets posses high-affinity binding sites for 3H-imipramine. European Journal Pharmacology, 58(3), 347-348.

Bygdeman, M. & Jacobson, B. (1998). Obstetric care and proneness of offspring to suicide as adults: Case control study. British Medical Journal, 327(7169), 1346-9.

Cannon, T. D, Yolken, R, Buka, S., & Torrey, E. F. (2008). Decreased neurotrophic response to birth hypoxia in the etiology of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 64(9), 797-802.

Canoy, D., Pouta, A., Ruokonen, A., Hartikainen, A. L., Saikku, P, & Jarvelin, M. R. (2009). Weight at birth and infancy in relation to adult leukocyte count: a population-based study of 5619 men and women followed from the fetal period to adulthood. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Retrieved March 2009 from: http://jcem.endojournals.org/

Cirulli, F., Bonsignore, L. T., Venerosi, A., Valanzano, A., Chiarotti, R, & Alleva, E. (2003). Long-term effects of acute perinatal asphyxia on rat maternal behavior. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 25(5), 571-578.

Côté, F., Fligny , C, Bayard, E., Launay, J. M., Gershon, M. D., Mallet, J., & Vodjdani, G. (2007). Maternal serotonin is crucial for murine embryonic development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(1), 329-34.

Diego, M., Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Schanberg, S., Kuhn, C, González-Quintero, V. H., (2009). Prenatal depression restricts fetal growth. Early Human Development, 85(1), 65-70.

Fendt, M., Lex, A., Falkai, P, Henn, FA., & Schmitt, A. (2008). Behavioural alterations in rats following neonatal hypoxia and effects of clozapine: implications for schizophrenia. Pharmacopsychiatry, 41(4) 138-45.

Field, T. (2001). Targeting adolescent mothers with depressive symptoms for early intervention. Sage Family Studies Abstracts, 23(3), 275-407.

Field, T., Diego, M., Hernandez-Reif, M. & Fernandez, M. (2007). Depressed mothers' newborns show less dismmination of other newborns' cry sounds. Infant Behavior and Development, 30(3), 431-435.

Field, T., Diego, M., Dietera, J., Hernandez-Reifa, M., Schanbergb, S., Kuhnb, C, Yandoc, R. & Bendelld, D. (2004). Prenatal depression effects on the fetus and the newborn. Infant Behavior and Development, 27(2), 216-229.

Huttunen, M. O. & Niskanen, P (1978). Prenatal loss of father and psychiatric disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35(4), 429-31.

Hoffman, E. & Goldstein, L. (1981). Hemispheric quantitative EEG changes following emotional reactions in neurotic patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 63(2), 153-64.

Huot, R. L., Brennan, P A., Stowe, Z. N, Plotsky, P M., & Walker, E. F (2004). Negative affect in offspring of depressed mothers is predicted by infant Cortisol levels at 6 months and maternal depression during pregnancy, but not postpartum. N.Y. Academy of Science, 1032, 234-236.

Jacobson, B. & Bygdeman, M. (1998). Obstetric care and proneness of offspring to suicide as adults: Case-control study. BMJ, 317, 1346-49.

JAMA and Archives Journals (2008, February 5). Severe stressful events early in pregnancy may be associated with schizophrenia among offspring. ScienceDaily . Retrieved January 22, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2008/02/080204161433.htm

Kaplan, L., Evans, L., & Monk, C. (2008). Effects of mother's prenatal psychiatric status and postnatal caregiving on infant biobehavioral regulation. Early Human Development, 84(4), 249-256.

Lowery, C. L., Hardman, M., Manning, N, Hall, R., & Anand, K. (2007). Neurodevelopmental changes of fetal pain. Seminars in Perinatology, 31(5), 275-282.

Lynch, G., Rex, C. S., Chen, L. Y., & Gall, C. M. (2008). The substrates of memory: Defects, treatments and enhancement. European Journal of Pharmacology, 585, 2-13.

Mill, J., Tang, T, Kaminsky, Z., Khare, T, Yazdanpanah, S., Bouchard, L. et al, (2008). Epigenomic profiling reveals DNA-methylation changes associated with major psychosis. American Journal of Human Genetics, 82(3), 696-711.

Nyberg, K., Buka, S. L., & Lipsitt, L. P. (2000). Perinatal medication as a potential risk factor for adult drug abuse in a North American cohort. Epidemiology, 11(6), 715-716.

Phillips, D. I. W., & Jones, A. (2006). Fetal programming of autonomic and HPA function: do people who were small babies have enhanced stress responses? Journal of Physiology, 572(1), 45-50.

Ponirakis, A., Susman, E.J., & Stifer, CA. (1998). Negative emotionality and Cortisol during adolescent pregnancy and its effects on infant health and autonomic nervous system reactivity. Developmental Psychobiology, 33, 163-174.

Ranalli, P (2000). The emerging reality of fetal pain in late abortion. National Right to Life News, 27(9). www.nrlc.org

Singer, D. (2004). Metabolic adaptation to hypoxia: Cost and benefit of being small. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, 141(3), 215-228.

Singer, D. (1999). Neonatal tolerance to hypoxia: a comparative-physiological approach. Comparative Biochemistry And Physiology. Part A, Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 123(3), 221-34.

Scripps Research Institute (2007, September 6). Specific neurons involved in memory formation identified. ScienceDaily. Retrieved 1/20/2009.

Seckl, J. R & Meaney, M. J. (2006). Glucocorticoid "programming" and PTSD risk. Annals of the NY. Academy of Science, 1071, 351-378.

Thompson, P (2007). "Down will come baby": Prenatal stress, primitive defenses and gestational dysregulation. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 8(3), 99-113.

University of Pennsylvania (2005, December 25). Researchers know what you were about to say; fMRI used to detect memory storage. Science Daily. Retrieved 1/18/2009.

Dispelling the Disempowering Birth Vocabulary

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
October 2008

This article presents a very basic challenge with regard to the way in which human beings enter into this world. This is not just a challenge to the medical model, but to ?natural childbirth? methods as well. It addresses the fundamentals of language that have guided our core concepts of sexuality and birth. It is not limited to the English language, but points out the roots of words from many languages that have contributed to world-wide attitudes and concepts.

References: 

Eaton, S.B., Shostak, M., & Konner, M., 1988. The paleolithic prescription. New York: Harper and Row, New York

Schiefenhovel, W. 1978. Childbirth among the Eipos, New Guinea. Film presented at the Congress of Ethnomedicine. Gottingen. Germany

Recreating Ourselves: Ground-Breaking Research for a New Humanity

$10.00
Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
May 2008

The intention of this paper is to introduce interdisciplinary research challenging the foundations of self-growth fields and leading to the birth of a new humanity. The paper briefly summarizes relevant literature and introduces new adult verbal and nonverbal typologies with origins in four key preverbal developmental stages (conception, prenatal, birth and bonding). Interdisciplinary contributing fields included are embryology, neurobiology, attachment theory, body-centered psychotherapy, somatic psychology, and prenatal and perinatal psychology.

References: 

Caldwell, C. (2001). Bridging prenatal and perinatal psychology with somatic psychology. The Moving Cycle. www.themovingcycle.com/_Articles.htm

English, J. B.(1985). Different doorway: Adventures of a caesarean born. CA: Earth Heart.

Hendricks, G. & Hendricks, K. (1987). Techniques for dealing with prenatal and perinatal issues in therapy: A bodymind perspective. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 1(3), 230-238.

_____ (1991). Radiance: Breathwork, movement & body-centered psychotherapy. Berkeley, CA: Wingbow Press.

_____ (1992). At the speed of life: A new approach to personal change through bodycentered therapy. New York, NY: Bantam Book.

_____ (1999). The conscious heart: A body-centered approach to creating intimacy. In J. Carlson & L. Sperry (Eds.), The intimate couple (pp. 406-420). Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.

Immelmami, K. (1972). Sexual and other long-term aspects of imprinting in birds and other species. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 4, 147-174.

Jacobsen, B., Eklund, G., Hamberger, L. Linnarwsson, D., Sedvall, G. & Valverios, M. (1987). Perinatal origins of adult self-destructive behavior. Acta Psych. Scand.,76(4\ 364-71.

Johncock, P. & Sillito, M. (2006). The power of living genius. Sparks, NV: Fun Unlimited Inc.

Lyman, B. J. (1999). Antecedents to somatoform disorders: A pre-and perinatal psychology hypothesis. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 12(3-4), 247-254.

_____ (2005) Prenatal and Perinatal Psychotherapy with Adults: An Integrative Model for Empirical Testing. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 20(1), 58-76.

Riley, C. D. (1986). Tess: The emotional and physiological effects of prenatal physical trauma. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 1(1), 69-74.

Siegel, D. J. (1999). The developing mind: How relationships and the brain interact to shape who we are. New York: The Gilford Press.

Siegel, D. J. & Hartzell, M. (2003). Parenting from the inside out. New York: Tarcher-Putnam.

Sonne, J. C. (1997). Interpreting the dread of being aborted in therapy. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 11(4), 185-214.

Ward, S. (1999). Birth trauma in infants and children. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 12(3-4), 201-212.

Webster's new collegiate dictionary (8th ed.). (1976). Springfield, MA.

Pages